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# Environmental Transport Processes

**by**Logan, Bruce E.

2nd

### 9780470619599

0470619597

Hardcover

3/13/2012

Wiley

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## Summary

Developed as a reference for transport phenomena courses, this completely revised second edition of Environmental Transport Processes provides a readable and approachable treatment of environmental systems. The text features a unique combination of material from different fields (mass transport, kinetics, wastewater treatment, unit processes) and includes pertinent literature not available in any other texts. Rich with examples and problems to help reinforce students' learning, the updated edition addresses new and emerging topics, such as non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs), the subject of aggregates, and biofilm kinetic models merged with mass transport concepts.

## Author Biography

Burce E. Logan is the Stan and Flora Kappe Professor of Environmental Engineering, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Penn State. He is Director of the Engineering Energy Environmental Institute and the Hydrogen Energy (H2E) Center. Dr. Logan has won several awards for his research and articles and has authored Microbial Fuel Cells, also from Wiley.

## Table of Contents

Preface | p. xi |

Introdction | p. 1 |

Background | p. l |

Notation for chemical transport | p. 2 |

Simplifications for environmental systems | p. 5 |

Review of mass balances | p. 11 |

Equilibrium Calculations | p. 18 |

Introduction | p. 18 |

Thermodynamic state functions | p. 20 |

Chemical potentials | p. 21 |

Gibbs free energy and equilibrium constants | p. 23 |

Distribution of chemicals based on fugacities | p. 25 |

Diffusive Transport | p. 43 |

Introduction | p. 43 |

Diffusion | p. 43 |

Calculation of molecular diffusion coefficients | p. 45 |

Effective diffusion coefficients in porous media | p. 53 |

Experimental determination of diffusivities and molecular size spectra | p. 59 |

The Constitutive Transport Equation | p. 79 |

Introduction | p. 79 |

Derivation of the general transport equation | p. 80 |

Special forms of the general transport equation | p. 81 |

Similarity of mass, momentum, and heat dispersion laws | p. 84 |

Transport relative to moving coordinate systems | p. 86 |

Simplified forms of the constitutive transport equation | p. 89 |

The constitutive transport equation in cylindrical and spherical coordinates | p. 91 |

Concertration Profiles and Chemical Fluxes | p. 95 |

Introduction | p. 95 |

The three theories of mass transport | p. 95 |

Mass transport in radial and cylindrical coordinates using shell balances | p. 112 |

Mass Transport Correlations: Form Theory to Empiricism | p. 120 |

Definition of a mass transport coefficient | p. 120 |

The three theories | p. 121 |

Multiple resistances during interphase mass transport | p. 125 |

Correlations for mass transport coefficients | p. 132 |

Transport to spheres | p. 135 |

Transport in Sheared Reactors | p. 140 |

Introduction | p. 140 |

Fluid shear and turbulence | p. 141 |

Mass transport in steady sheared fluids | p. 145 |

Mass transport in turbulent sheared fluids | p. 148 |

Shear rates in mixed reactors | p. 149 |

Chemical transport in bubbled reactors | p. 158 |

Suspended Unattached and Aggregated Microorganisms | p. 167 |

Introduction | p. 167 |

Chemical transport to cells at rest | p. 167 |

Effect of fluid motion on microorganisms | p. 170 |

Transport to microbial aggregates | p. 175 |

Effectiveness factors for mass transport | p. 184 |

Relative uptake factors for mass transport | p. 187 |

Biofilms | p. 194 |

Introduction | p. 194 |

Transport in the fluid layer above a biofilm | p. 194 |

Biofilm kinetics | p. 198 |

Modeling completely mixed biofilm reactors: rotating biological contactors | p. 210 |

Modeling plug flow biofilm reactors: packed beds | p. 213 |

Modeling wetted wall biofilm reactors: trickling filters | p. 215 |

Electrogenic biofilms | p. 225 |

Disperspn | p. 232 |

Introduction | p. 232 |

Averaging properties to derive dispersion coefficients in turbulent fluids | p. 235 |

Dispersion in nonbounded turbulent sheared fluids | p. 239 |

Longitudinal dispersion coefficients for defined systems | p. 244 |

Dispersion in porous media | p. 253 |

Rivers, Lakes, and Oceans | p. 264 |

Introduction | p. 264 |

Chemical transport in rivers | p. 265 |

Mixing in lakes | p. 273 |

Mixing in estuaries | p. 277 |

Miiing in the ocean | p. 279 |

Transport of chemicals present as pure phases | p. 280 |

Chemical Transport in Porous Media | p. 292 |

Introduction | p. 292 |

Porous media hydraulics | p. 292 |

Contaminant transport of conservative tracers | p. 295 |

Transport with reaction | p. 298 |

Transport with chemical adsorption | p. 299 |

Formation of ganglia of nonaqueous phase-liquids | p. 306 |

Mass transport calculations of chemical fluxes from NAPL ganglia | p. 315 |

Particles and Fractals | p. 331 |

Introduction | p. 331 |

Particle size spectra | p. 332 |

Solid particles and fractal aggregate geometries | p. 336 |

Measuring particle size distributions | p. 351 |

Calculating fractal dimensions from particle size distributions | p. 353 |

Coagulation in Natural and Engineered Systems | p. 362 |

Introduction | p. 362 |

The general coagulation equations: integral and summation forms | p. 363 |

Factors affecting the stability of aquasols | p. 364 |

Coagulation kinetics: collision kernels for spheres | p. 374 |

Fractal coagulation models | p. 388 |

Coagulation in the ocean | p. 397 |

Praticle Transport in Porous Media | p. 408 |

Introduction | p. 408 |

A macroscopic particle transport equation | p. 409 |

Clean-bed filtration theory | p. 411 |

Discrete particle size distributions prepared by filtration | p. 426 |

The dimensionless collision number | p. 432 |

Pressure drops in clean-bed filters | p. 434 |

Particle accumulation in filters | p. 435 |

Particle transport in aquifers | p. 437 |

Appendicies | p. 445 |

Notation | p. 445 |

Transport equations | p. 452 |

Chemical properties | p. 453 |

Solutions of differential equations | p. 458 |

References | p. 465 |

Index | p. 475 |

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