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Table of Contents
|About the Authors||p. xiii|
|Basic Study Designs in Analytical Epidemiology||p. 3|
|Introduction: Descriptive and Analytical Epidemiology||p. 3|
|Analysis of Age, Birth Cohort, and Period Effects||p. 4|
|Ecologic Studies||p. 14|
|Studies Based on Individuals as Observation Units||p. 19|
|Measures of Disease Occurrence and Association||p. 45|
|Measuring Disease Occurrence||p. 47|
|Measures of Incidence||p. 49|
|Measures of Prevalence||p. 71|
|Measuring Associations Between Exposures and Outcomes||p. 79|
|Measuring Associations in a Cohort Study||p. 79|
|Cross-Sectional Studies: Point Prevalence Rate Ratio||p. 90|
|Measuring Associations in Case-Control Studies||p. 90|
|Assessing the Strength of Associations||p. 101|
|Threats to Validity and Issues of Interpretation||p. 107|
|Understanding Lack of Validity: Bias||p. 109|
|Selection Bias||p. 111|
|Information Bias||p. 116|
|Combined Selection/Information Biases||p. 133|
|Identifying Noncausal Associations: Confounding||p. 153|
|The Nature of the Association Between the Confounder, the Exposure, and the Outcome||p. 156|
|Theoretical and Graphical Aids to Frame Confounding||p. 162|
|Assessing the Presence of Confounding||p. 164|
|Additional Issues Related to Confounding||p. 171|
|Defining and Assessing Heterogeneity of Effects: Interaction||p. 185|
|Defining and Measuring Effect||p. 186|
|Strategies to Evaluate Interaction||p. 186|
|Assessment of Interaction in Case-Control Studies||p. 196|
|More on the Interchangeability of the Definitions of Interaction||p. 203|
|Which is the Relevant Model? Additive Versus Multiplicative Interaction||p. 205|
|The Nature and Reciprocity of Interaction||p. 207|
|Interaction, Confounding Effect, and Adjustment||p. 211|
|Statistical Modeling and Statistical Tests for Interaction||p. 212|
|Interpreting Interaction||p. 214|
|Interaction and Search for New Risk Factors in Low-Risk Groups||p. 219|
|Interaction and "Representativeness" of Associations||p. 221|
|Dealing with Threats to Validity||p. 227|
|Stratification and Adjustment: Multivariate Analysis in Epidemiology||p. 229|
|Stratification and Adjustment Techniques to Disentangle Confounding||p. 230|
|Adjustment Methods Based on Stratification||p. 234|
|Multiple Regression Techniques for Adjustment||p. 248|
|Alternative Approaches for the Control of Confounding||p. 282|
|Incomplete Adjustment: Residual Confounding||p. 293|
|Quality Assurance and Control||p. 313|
|Quality Assurance||p. 313|
|Quality Control||p. 318|
|Indices of Validity and Reliability||p. 328|
|Regression to the Mean||p. 358|
|Final Considerations||p. 359|
|Issues of Reporting and Application of Epidemiologic Results||p. 367|
|Communicating Results of Epidemiologic Studies||p. 369|
|What to Report||p. 369|
|How to Report||p. 373|
|Epidemiologic Issues in the Interface with Public Health Policy||p. 391|
|Causality: Application to Public Health and Health Policy||p. 392|
|Decision Tree and Sensitivity Analysis||p. 408|
|Publication Bias||p. 416|
|Standard Errors, Confidence Intervals, and Hypothesis Testing for Selected Measures of Risk and Measures of Association||p. 431|
|Test for Trend (Dose Response)||p. 455|
|Test of Homogeneity of Stratified Estimates (Test for Interaction)||p. 459|
|Quality Assurance and Quality Control Procedures Manual for Blood Pressure Measurement and Blood/Urine Collection in the ARIC Study||p. 461|
|Calculation of the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient||p. 469|
|Answers to Exercises||p. 473|
|Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.|