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Essential Cell Biology

by ; ; ; ; ; ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780815334804

ISBN10:
081533480X
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
9/25/2003
Publisher(s):
Garland Science
List Price: $145.00
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Summary

Essential Cell Biology, Second Edition contains basic, core knowledge about how cells work. It has a proven track record in providing students with a conceptual and accessible grounding in cell biology. The text and figures have been prepared to be easy-to-follow, accurate, clear and engaging for the introductory student. Each section follows logically from the previous one, telling a story, rather than being a collection of facts. Questions integrated throughout each chapter encourage the reader to pause, think about what they have read, and attempt to apply the new knowledge in ways that test their understanding. Based on user feedback, the Second Edition now offers increased coverage of genetics and more experimental background. It is completely up-to-date.

Author Biography

Bruce Alberts received his Ph.D. from Harvard University and is President of the National Academy of Sciences and Professor of Biochemistry and Biophysics at the University of California, San Francisco Dennis Bray received his Ph.D. from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and is currently a Medical Research Council Fellow in the Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge Karen Hopkin received her Ph.D. in biochemistry from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in the Bronx and is a science writer in Cambridge, Massachusetts Alexander Johnson received his Ph.D. from Harvard University and is a Professor of Microbiology and Immunology and Co-Director of the Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Program at the University of California, San Francisco. Julian Lewis received his D.Phil. from the University of Oxford and is a Principal Scientist at the London Research Institute of Cancer Research UK Martin Raff received his M.D. from McGill University and is at the Medical Research Council Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology and Cell Biology Unit and in the Biology Department at University College London Keith Roberts received his Ph.D. from the University of Cambridge and is Associate Research Director at the John Innes Centre, Norwich Peter Walter received his Ph.D. from The Rockefeller University in New York and is Professor and Chairman of the Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics at the University of California, San Francisco, and an Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute

Table of Contents

Introduction to Cells
1(39)
Unity and Diversity of Cells
1(4)
Cells Vary Enormously in Appearance and Function
2(1)
Living Cells All Have a Similar Basic Chemistry
3(1)
All Present-Day Cells Have Apparently Evolved from the Same Ancestor
4(1)
Genes Provide the Instructions for Cellular Form, Function, and Complex Behavior
5(1)
Cells Under the Microscope
5(6)
The Invention of the Light Microscope Led to the Discovery of Cells
6(1)
Cells, Organelles, and Even Molecules Can Be Seen Under the Microscope
7(4)
The Procaryotic Cell
11(5)
Procaryotes Are the Most Diverse of Cells
14(1)
The World of Procaryotes Is Divided into Two Domains: Eubacteria and Archaea
15(1)
The Eucaryotic Cell
16(11)
The Nucleus Is the Information Store of the Cell
16(1)
Mitochondria Generate Energy from Food to Power the Cell
17(1)
Chloroplasts Capture Energy from Sunlight
18(1)
Internal Membranes Create Intracellular Compartments with Different Functions
19(3)
The Cytosol Is a Concentrated Aqueous Gel of Large and Small Molecules
22(1)
The Cytoskeleton Is Responsible for Directed Cell Movements
22(1)
The Cytoplasm Is Far from Static
23(1)
Eucaryotic Cells May Have Originated as Predators
24(3)
Model Organisms
27(12)
Molecular Biologists Have Focused on E. coli
28(1)
Brewer's Yeast Is a Simple Eucaryotic Cell
28(1)
Arabidopsis Has Been Chosen Out of 300,000 Species as a Model Plant
28(1)
The World of Animals Is Represented by a Fly, a Worm, a Mouse, and Homo sapiens
29(4)
Comparing Genome Sequences Reveals Life's Common Heritage
33(6)
Chemical Components of Cells
39(44)
Chemical Bonds
39(11)
Cells Are Made of Relatively Few Types of Atoms
40(1)
The Outermost Electrons Determine How Atoms Interact
41(2)
Ionic Bonds Form by the Gain and Loss of Electrons
43(2)
Covalent Bonds Form by the Sharing of Electrons
45(1)
Covalent Bonds Vary in Strength
46(1)
There Are Different Types of Covalent Bonds
47(1)
Water Is Held Together by Hydrogen Bonds
48(1)
Some Polar Molecules Form Acids and Bases in Water
49(1)
Molecules in Cells
50(8)
A Cell Is Formed from Carbon Compounds
50(1)
Cells Contain Four Major Families of Small Organic Molecules
51(1)
Sugars Are Energy Sources for Cells and Subunits of Polysaccharides
52(1)
Fatty Acids Are Components of Cell Membranes
53(2)
Amino Acids Are the Subunits of Proteins
55(1)
Nucleotides Are the Subunits of DNA and RNA
56(2)
Macromolecules in Cells
58(25)
Macromolecules Contain a Specific Sequence of Subunits
59(3)
Noncovalent Bonds Specify the Precise Shape of a Macromolecule
62(1)
Noncovalent Bonds Allow a Macromolecule to Bind Other Selected Molecules
63(20)
Energy, Catalysis, and Biosynthesis
83(36)
Catalysis and the Use of Energy by Cells
84(22)
Biological Order Is Made Possible by the Release of Heat Energy from Cells
85(3)
Photosynthetic Organisms Use Sunlight to Synthesize Organic Molecules
88(1)
Cells Obtain Energy by the Oxidation of Organic Molecules
89(1)
Oxidation and Reduction Involve Electron Transfers
90(1)
Enzymes Lower the Barriers That Block Chemical Reactions
91(2)
The Free-Energy Change for a Reaction Determines Whether It Can Occur
93(1)
The Concentration of Reactants Influences the Free-Energy Change and a Reaction's Direction
94(1)
The Equilibrium Constant Indicates the Strength of Molecular Interactions
95(3)
For Sequential Reactions, the Changes in Free Energy Are Additive
98(2)
Rapid Diffusion Allows Enzymes to Find Their Substrates
100(1)
Vmax and KM Measure Enzyme Performance
101(5)
Activated Carrier Molecules and Biosynthesis
106(13)
The Formation of an Activated Carrier Is Coupled to an Energetically Favorable Reaction
106(1)
ATP Is the Most Widely Used Activated Carrier Molecule
107(1)
Energy Stored in ATP Is Often Harnessed to Join Two Molecules Together
108(1)
NADH and NADPH Are Important Electron Carriers
109(2)
There Are Many Other Activated Carrier Molecules in Cells
111(1)
The Synthesis of Biological Polymers Requires an Energy Input
112(7)
Protein Structure and Function
119(50)
The Shape and Structure of Proteins
119(24)
The Shape of a Protein Is Specified by Its Amino Acid Sequence
121(3)
Proteins Fold into a Conformation of Lowest Energy
124(1)
Proteins Come in a Wide Variety of Complicated Shapes
125(1)
The α Helix and the β Sheet Are Common Folding Patterns
126(8)
Helices Form Readily in Biological Structures
134(1)
β Sheets Form Rigid Structures at the Core of Many Proteins
135(1)
Proteins Have Several Levels of Organization
136(1)
Few of the Many Possible Polypeptide Chains Will Be Useful
137(1)
Proteins Can Be Classified into Families
138(1)
Large Protein Molecules Often Contain More Than One Polypeptide Chain
139(1)
Proteins Can Assemble into Filaments, Sheets, or Spheres
140(1)
Some Types of Proteins Have Elongated Fibrous Shapes
141(1)
Extracellular Proteins Are Often Stabilized by Covalent Cross-Linkages
142(1)
How Proteins Work
143(7)
All Proteins Bind to Other Molecules
143(1)
The Binding Sites of Antibodies Are Especially Versatile
144(1)
Enzymes Are Powerful and Highly Specific Catalysts
145(1)
Lysozyme Illustrates How an Enzyme Works
146(3)
Tightly Bound Small Molecules Add Extra Functions to Proteins
149(1)
How Proteins Are Controlled
150(19)
The Catalytic Activities of Enzymes Are Often Regulated by Other Molecules
151(1)
Allosteric Enzymes Have Two Binding Sites That Influence One Another
151(2)
Phosphorylation Can Control Protein Activity by Triggering a Conformational Change
153(1)
GTP-Binding Proteins Are Also Regulated by the Cyclic Gain and Loss of a Phosphate Group
154(1)
Nucleotide Hydrolysis Allows Motor Proteins to Produce Large Movements in Cells
155(1)
Proteins Often Form Large Complexes That Function as Protein Machines
156(1)
Large-Scale Studies of Protein Structure and Function Are Increasing the Pace of Discovery
157(12)
DNA and Chromosomes
169(26)
The Structure and Function of DNA
170(7)
A DNA Molecule Consists of Two Complementary Chains of Nucleotides
171(5)
The Structure of DNA Provides a Mechanism for Heredity
176(1)
The Structure of Eucaryotic Chromosomes
177(18)
Eucaryotic DNA Is Packaged into Chromosomes
178(1)
Chromosomes Contain Long Strings of Genes
179(2)
Chromosomes Exist in Different States Throughout the Life of a Cell
181(2)
Interphase Chromosomes Are Organized Within the Nucleus
183(1)
The DNA in Chromosomes Is Highly Condensed
183(1)
Nucleosomes Are the Basic Units of Chromatin Structure
184(2)
Chromosomes Have Several Levels of DNA Packing
186(1)
Interphase Chromosomes Contain Both Condensed and More Extended Forms of Chromatin
187(2)
Changes in Nucleosome Structure Allow Access to DNA
189(6)
DNA Replication, Repair, and Recombination
195(34)
DNA Replication
196(13)
Base-Pairing Enables DNA Replication
196(1)
DNA Replication
196(1)
Base-Pairing Enables DNA Replication
196(1)
DNA Synthesis Begins at Replication Origins
197(4)
New DNA Synthesis Occurs at Replication Forks
201(1)
The Replication Fork Is Asymmetrical
202(1)
DNA Polymerase Is Self-correcting
203(1)
Short Lengths of RNA Act as Primers for DNA Synthesis
204(2)
Proteins at a Replication Fork Cooperate to Form a Replication Machine
206(1)
Telomerase Replicates the Ends of Eucaryotic Chromosomes
207(1)
DNA Replication Is Relatively Well Understood
208(1)
DNA Repair
209(6)
Mutations Can Have Severe Consequences for an Organism
209(1)
A DNA Mismatch Repair System Removes Replication Errors That Escape the Replication Machine
210(2)
DNA Is Continually Suffering Damage in Cells
212(1)
The Stability of Genes Depends on DNA Repair
213(1)
The High Fidelity of DNA Maintenance Allows Closely Related Species to Have Proteins with Very Similar Sequences
214(1)
DNA Recombination
215(14)
Homologous Recombination Results in an Exact Exchange of Genetic Information
215(1)
Recombination Can Also Occur Between Nonhomologous DNA Sequences
216(1)
Mobile Genetic Elements Encode the Components They Need for Movement
217(1)
A Large Fraction of the Human Genome Is Composed of Two Families of Transposable Sequences
218(1)
Viruses Are Fully Mobile Genetic Elements That Can Escape from Cells
219(2)
Retroviruses Reverse the Normal Flow of Genetic Information
221(8)
From DNA to Protein: How Cells Read the Genome
229(38)
From DNA to RNA
230(13)
Portions of DNA Sequence Are Transcribed into RNA
230(1)
Transcription Produces RNA Complementary to One Strand of DNA
231(2)
Several Types of RNA Are Produced in Cells
233(1)
Signals in DNA Tell RNA Polymerase Where to Start and Finish
234(2)
Eucaryotic RNAs Are Transcribed and Processed Simultaneously in the Nucleus
236(1)
Eucaryotic Genes Are Interrupted by Noncoding Sequences
237(1)
Introns Are Removed by RNA Splicing
238(3)
Mature Eucaryotic mRNAs Are Selectively Exported from the Nucleus
241(1)
mRNA Molecules Are Eventually Degraded by the Cell
242(1)
The Earliest Cells May Have Had Introns in Their Genes
242(1)
From RNA to Protein
243(15)
An mRNA Sequence Is Decoded in Sets of Three Nucleotides
244(1)
tRNA Molecules Match Amino Acids to Codons in mRNA
245(3)
Specific Enzymes Couple tRNAs to the Correct Amino Acid
248(1)
The RNA Message Is Decoded on Ribosomes
248(3)
The Ribosome Is a Ribozyme
251(2)
Codons in mRNA Signal Where to Start and to Stop Protein Synthesis
253(1)
Proteins Are Made on Polyribosomes
254(1)
Inhibitors of Procaryotic Protein Synthesis Are Used as Antibiotics
255(1)
Carefully Controlled Protein Breakdown Helps Regulate the Amount of Each Protein in a Cell
256(1)
There Are Many Steps Between DNA and Protein
257(1)
RNA and the Origins of Life
258(9)
Life Requires Autocatalysis
259(1)
RNA Can Both Store Information and Catalyze Chemical Reactions
259(2)
RNA Is Thought to Predate DNA in Evolution
261(6)
Control of Gene Expression
267(26)
An Overview of Gene Expression
268(3)
The Different Cell Types of a Multicellular Organism Contain the Same DNA
268(1)
Different Cell Types Produce Different Sets of Proteins
268(2)
A Cell Can Change the Expression of Its Genes in Response to External Signals
270(1)
Gene Expression Can Be Regulated at Many of the Steps in the Pathway from DNA to RNA to Protein
270(1)
How Transcriptional Switches Work
271(9)
Transcription Is Controlled by Proteins Binding to Regulatory DNA Sequences
271(2)
Repressors Turn Genes Off, Activators Turn Them On
273(2)
An Activator and a Repressor Control the Iac Operon
275(1)
Initiation of Eucaryotic Gene Transcription Is a Complex Process
275(1)
Eucaryotic RNA Polymerase Requires General Transcription Factors
276(2)
Eucaryotic Gene Regulatory Proteins Control Gene Expression from a Distance
278(1)
Packing of Promoter DNA into Nucleosomes Can Affect Initiation of Transcription
279(1)
The Molecular Mechanisms that Create Specialized Cell Types
280(13)
Eucaryotic Genes Are Regulated by Combinations of Proteins
281(1)
The Expression of Different Genes Can Be Coordinated by a Single Protein
281(4)
Combinatorial Control Can Create Different Cell Types
285(1)
Stable Patterns of Gene Expression Can Be Transmitted to Daughter Cells
286(2)
The Formation of an Entire Organ Can Be Triggered by a Single Gene Regulatory Protein
288(5)
How Genes and Genomes Evolve
293(30)
Generating Genetic Variation
293(11)
Five Main Types of Genetic Change Contribute to Evolution
295(1)
Genome Alterations Are Caused by Failures of the Normal Mechanisms for Copying and Maintaining DNA
296(1)
DNA Duplications Give Rise to Families of Related Genes Within a Single Cell
297(1)
The Evolution of the Globin Gene Family Shows How DNA Duplications Contribute to the Evolution of Organisms
298(1)
Gene Duplication and Divergence Provide a Critical Source of Genetic Novelty for Evolving Organisms
299(1)
New Genes Can Be Generated by Repeating the Same Exon
300(1)
Novel Genes Can Also Be Created by Exon Shuffling
300(1)
The Evolution of Genomes Has Been Accelerated by the Movement of Transposable Elements
301(1)
Genes Can Be Exchanged Between Organisms by Horizontal Gene Transfer
302(2)
Reconstructing Life's Family Tree
304(7)
Genetic Changes That Offer an Organism a Selective Advantage Are the Most Likely to Be Preserved
304(1)
The Genome Sequences of Two Species Differ in Proportion to the Length of Time That They Have Evolved Separately
305(1)
Humans and Chimpanzee Genomes Are Similar in Organization as Well as Detailed Sequence
306(1)
Functionally Important Sequences Show Up as Islands of DNA Sequence Conservation
307(1)
Genome Comparisons Suggest That ``Junk DNA'' is Dispensable
308(1)
Sequence Conservation Allows Us to Trace Even the Most Distant Evolutionary Relationships
309(2)
Examining the Human Genome
311(12)
The Nucleotide Sequence of the Human Genome Shows How Our Genes Are Arranged
311(2)
Genetic Variation Within the Human Genome Contributes to Our Individuality
313(3)
Comparing Our DNA with That of Related Organisms Helps Us to Interpret the Human Genome
316(1)
The Human Genome Contains Copious Information Yet to Be Deciphered
317(6)
Manipulating Genes and Cells
323(42)
Isolating Cells and Growing Them in Culture
324(3)
A Uniform Population of Cells Can Be Obtained from a Tissue
325(1)
Cells Can Be Grown in a Culture Dish
325(1)
Maintaining Eucaryotic Cells in Culture Poses Special Challenges
326(1)
How DNA Molecules Are Analyzed
327(9)
Restriction Nucleases Cut DNA Molecules at Specific Sites
328(1)
Gel Electrophoresis Separates DNA Fragments of Different Sizes
329(2)
The Nucleotide Sequence of DNA Fragments Can Be Determined
331(2)
Genome Sequences Are Searched to Identify Genes
333(3)
Nucleic Acid Hybridization
336(5)
DNA Hybridization Facilitates the Diagnosis of Genetic Diseases
336(2)
Hybridization on DNA Microarrays Monitors the Expression of Thousands of Genes at Once
338(2)
In Situ Hybridization Locates Nucleic Acid Sequences in Cells or on Chromosomes
340(1)
DNA Cloning
341(11)
DNA Ligase Joins DNA Fragments Together to Produce a Recombinant DNA Molecule
341(1)
Recombinant DNA Can Be Copied Inside Bacterial Cells
341(1)
Specialized Plasmid Vectors Are Used to Clone DNA
342(1)
Human Genes Are Isolated by DNA Cloning
343(3)
cDNA Libraries Represent the mRNA Produced by a Particular Tissue
346(1)
The Polymerase Chain Reaction Amplifies Selected DNA Sequences
347(5)
DNA Engineering
352(13)
Completely Novel DNA Molecules Can Be Constructed
352(1)
Rare Cellular Proteins Can Be Made in Large Amounts Using Cloned DNA
352(1)
Engineered Genes Can Reveal When and Where a Gene Is Expressed
353(2)
Mutant Organisms Best Reveal the Function of a Gene
355(1)
Animals Can Be Genetically Altered
356(3)
Transgenic Plants Are Important for Both Cell Biology and Agriculture
359(6)
Membrane Structure
365(24)
The Lipid Bilayer
366(8)
Membrane Lipids Form Bilayers in Water
367(3)
The Lipid Bilayer Is a Two-dimensional Fluid
370(1)
The Fluidity of a Lipid Bilayer Depends on Its Composition
371(2)
The Lipid Bilayer Is Asymmetrical
373(1)
Lipid Asymmetry Is Generated Inside the Cell
373(1)
Membrane Proteins
374(15)
Membrane Proteins Associate with the Lipid Bilayer in Various Ways
375(1)
A Polypeptide Chain Usually Crosses the Bilayer as an α Helix
376(1)
Membrane Proteins Can Be Solubilized in Detergents and Purified
377(1)
The Complete Structure Is Known for a Few Membrane Proteins
378(2)
The Plasma Membrane Is Reinforced by the Cell Cortex
380(1)
The Cell Surface Is Coated with Carbohydrate
381(2)
Cells Can Restrict the Movement of Membrane Proteins
383(6)
Membrane Transport
389(38)
Principles of Membrane Transport
389(4)
The Ion Concentrations Inside a Cell Are Very Different from Those Outside
390(1)
Lipid Bilayers Are Impermeable to Solutes and Ions
391(1)
Membrane Transport Proteins Fall into Two Classes: Carriers and Channels
391(1)
Solutes Cross Membranes by Passive or Active Transport
392(1)
Carrier Proteins and Their Functions
393(10)
Concentration Gradients and Electrical Forces Drive Passive Transport
393(2)
Active Transport Moves Solutes Against Their Electrochemical Gradients
395(1)
Animal Cells Use the Energy of ATP Hydrolysis to Pump Out Na+
396(1)
The Na+-K+ Pump Is Driven by the Transient Addition of a Phosphate Group
397(1)
Animal Cells Use the Na+ Gradient to Take Up Nutrients Actively
397(2)
The Na+-K+ Pump Helps Maintain the Osmotic Balance of Animal Cells
399(2)
Intracellular Ca2+ Concentrations Are Kept Low by Ca2+ Pumps
401(1)
H+ Gradients Are Used to Drive Membrane Transport in Plants, Fungi, and Bacteria
402(1)
Ion Channels and the Membrane Potential
403(8)
Ion Channels Are Ion-Selective and Gated
403(2)
Ion Channels Randomly Snap Between Open and Closed States
405(2)
Different Types of Stimuli Influence the Opening and Closing of Ion Channels
407(1)
Voltage-gated Ion Channels Respond to the Membrane Potential
407(1)
Membrane Potential Is Governed by Membrane Permeability to Specific Ions
408(3)
Ion Channels and Signaling in Nerve Cells
411(16)
Action Potentials Provide for Rapid Long-Distance Communication
411(1)
Action Potentials Are Usually Mediated by Voltage-gated Na+ Channels
412(5)
Voltage-gated Ca2+ Channels Convert Electrical Signals into Chemical Signals at Nerve Terminals
417(1)
Transmitter-gated Channels in Target Cells Convert Chemical Signals Back into Electrical Signals
417(2)
Neurons Receive Both Excitatory and Inhibitory Inputs
419(1)
Transmitter-gated Ion Channels Are Major Targets for Psychoactive Drugs
419(1)
Synaptic Connections Enable You to Think, Act, and Remember
420(7)
How Cells Obtain Energy from Food
427(26)
The Breakdown of Sugars and Fats
428(16)
Food Molecules Are Broken Down in Three Stages
428(2)
Glycolysis Is a Central ATP-producing Pathway
430(1)
Fermentations Allow ATP to Be Produced in the Absence of Oxygen
431(3)
Glycolysis Illustrates How Enzymes Couple Oxidation to Energy Storage
434(1)
Sugars and Fats Are Both Degraded to Acetyl CoA in Mitochondria
435(4)
The Citric Acid Cycle Generates NADH by Oxidizing Acetyl Groups to CO2
439(2)
Electron Transport Drives the Synthesis of the Majority of the ATP in Most Cells
441(3)
Storing and Utilizing Food
444(9)
Organisms Store Food Molecules in Special Reservoirs
444(2)
Chloroplasts and Mitochondria Collaborate in Plant Cells
446(1)
Many Biosynthetic Pathways Begin with Glycolysis or the Citric Acid Cycle
447(1)
Metabolism Is Organized and Regulated
448(5)
Energy Generation in Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
453(44)
Cells Obtain Most of Their Energy by a Membrane-based Mechanism
453(2)
Mitochondria and Oxidative Phosphorylation
455(13)
A Mitochondrion Contains an Outer Membrane, an Inner Membrane, and Two Internal Compartments
455(2)
High-Energy Electrons Are Generated via the Citric Acid Cycle
457(1)
A Chemiosmotic Process Converts Oxidation Energy into ATP
458(1)
Electrons Are Transferred Along a Chain of Proteins in the Inner Mitochondrial Membrane
459(3)
Electron Transport Generates a Proton Gradient Across the Membrane
462(2)
The Proton Gradient Drives ATP Synthesis
464(2)
Coupled Transport Across the Inner Mitochondrial Membrane Is Driven by the Electrochemical Proton Gradient
466(1)
Proton Gradients Produce Most of the Cell's ATP
466(2)
The Rapid Conversion of ADP to ATP in Mitochondria Maintains a High ATP/ADP Ratio in Cells
468(1)
Electron-Transport Chains and Proton Pumping
468(10)
Protons Are Readily Moved by the Transfer of Electrons
468(1)
The Redox Potential Is a Measure of Electron Affinities
469(1)
Electron Transfers Release Large Amounts of Energy
470(2)
Metals Tightly Bound to Proteins Form Versatile Electron Carriers
472(2)
Cytochrome Oxidase Catalyzes Oxygen Reduction
474(1)
The Mechanism of H+ Pumping Will Soon Be Understood in Atomic Detail
475(1)
Respiration Is Amazingly Efficient
476(2)
Chloroplasts and Photosynthesis
478(9)
Chloroplasts Resemble Mitochondria but Have an Extra Compartment
478(2)
Chloroplasts Capture Energy from Sunlight and Use It to Fix Carbon
480(1)
Excited Chlorophyll Molecules Funnel Energy into a Reaction Center
481(1)
Light Energy Drives the Synthesis of ATP and NADPH
482(3)
Carbon Fixation Is Catalyzed by Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase
485(1)
Carbon Fixation in Chloroplasts Generates Sucrose and Starch
486(1)
The Origins of Chloroplasts and Mitochondria
487(10)
Oxidative Phosphorylation Gave Ancient Bacteria an Evolutionary Advantage
488(1)
Photosynthetic Bacteria Made Even Fewer Demands on Their Environment
489(1)
The Lifestyle of Methanococcus Suggests That Chemiosmotic Coupling Is an Ancient Process
490(7)
Intracellular Compartments and Transport
497(36)
Membrane-enclosed Organelles
498(4)
Eucaryotic Cells Contain a Basic Set of Membrane-enclosed Organelles
498(2)
Membrane-enclosed Organelles Evolved in Different Ways
500(2)
Protein Sorting
502(10)
Proteins Are Imported into Organelles by Three Mechanisms
502(1)
Signal Sequences Direct Proteins to the Correct Compartment
503(1)
Proteins Enter the Nucleus Through Nuclear Pores
504(2)
Proteins Unfold to Enter Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
506(1)
Proteins Enter the Endoplasmic Reticulum While Being Synthesized
507(2)
Soluble Proteins Are Released into the ER Lumen
509(1)
Start and Stop Signals Determine the Arrangement of a Transmembrane Protein in the Lipid Bilayer
510(2)
Vesicular Transport
512(4)
Transport Vesicles Carry Soluble Proteins and Membrane Between Compartments
512(1)
Vesicle Budding Is Driven by the Assembly of a Protein Coat
513(2)
The Specificity of Vesicle Docking Depends on SNAREs
515(1)
Secretory Pathways
516(7)
Most Proteins Are Covalently Modified in the ER
516(1)
Exit from the ER Is Controlled to Ensure Protein Quality
517(1)
Proteins Are Further Modified and Sorted in the Golgi Apparatus
518(1)
Secretory Proteins Are Released from the Cell by Exocytosis
519(4)
Endocytic Pathways
523(10)
Specialized Phagocytic Cells Ingest Large Particles
523(2)
Fluid and Macromolecules Are Taken Up by Pinocytosis
525(1)
Receptor-mediated Endocytosis Provides a Specific Route into Animal Cells
525(1)
Endocytosed Macromolecules Are Sorted in Endosomes
526(1)
Lysosomes Are the Principal Sites of Intracellular Digestion
527(6)
Cell Communication
533(40)
General Principles of Cell Signaling
533(13)
Signals Can Act over Long or Short Range
534(2)
Each Cell Responds to a Limited Set of Signals
536(2)
Receptors Relay Signals via Intracellular Signaling Pathways
538(2)
Nitric Oxide Crosses the Plasma Membrane and Activates Intracellular Enzymes Directly
540(1)
Some Hormones Cross the Plasma Membrane and Bind to Intracellular Receptors
541(1)
Cell-Surface Receptors Fall into Three Main Classes
542(2)
Ion-channel--linked Receptors Convert Chemical Signals into Electrical Ones
544(1)
Many Intracellular Signaling Proteins Act as Molecular Switches
545(1)
G-protein--linked Receptors
546(11)
Stimulation of G-protein--linked Receptors Activates G-Protein Subunits
546(2)
Some G Proteins Regulate Ion Channels
548(1)
Some G Proteins Activate Membrane-bound Enzymes
549(1)
The Cyclic AMP Pathway Can Activate Enzymes and Turn On Genes
550(2)
The Inositol Phospholipid Pathway Triggers a Rise in Intracellular Ca2+
552(2)
A Ca2+ Signal Triggers Many Biological Processes
554(1)
Intracellular Signaling Cascades Can Achieve Astonishing Speed, Sensitivity, and Adaptability: A Look at Photoreceptors in the Eye
555(2)
Enzyme-linked Receptors
557(16)
Activated Receptor Tyrosine Kinases Assemble a Complex of Intracellular Signaling Proteins
557(2)
Receptor Tyrosine Kinases Activate the GTP-binding Protein Ras
559(1)
Some Enzyme-linked Receptors Activate a Fast Track to the Nucleus
560(5)
Protein Kinase Networks Integrate Information to Control Complex Cell Behaviors
565(1)
Multicellularity and Cell Communication Evolved Independently in Plants and Animals
566(7)
Cytoskeleton
573(38)
Intermediate Filaments
574(5)
Intermediate Filaments Are Strong and Ropelike
575(1)
Intermediate Filaments Strengthen Cells Against Mechanical Stress
576(2)
The Nuclear Envelope Is Supported by a Meshwork of Intermediate Filaments
578(1)
Microtubules
579(13)
Microtubules Are Hollow Tubes with Structurally Distinct Ends
579(1)
The Centrosome Is the Major Microtubule-organizing Center in Animal Cells
580(1)
Growing Microtubules Show Dynamic Instability
581(1)
Microtubules Are Maintained by a Balance of Assembly and Disassembly
582(1)
Microtubules Organize the Interior of the Cell
583(1)
Motor Proteins Drive Intracellular Transport
584(1)
Organelles Move Along Microtubules
585(5)
Cilia and Flagella Contain Stable Microtubules Moved by Dynein
590(2)
Actin Filaments
592(8)
Actin Filaments Are Thin and Flexible
593(1)
Actin and Tubulin Polymerize by Similar Mechanisms
593(1)
Many Proteins Bind to Actin and Modify Its Properties
594(1)
An Actin-rich Cortex Underlies the Plasma Membrane of Most Eucaryotic Cells
594(1)
Cell Crawling Depends on Actin
595(3)
Actin Associates with Myosin to Form Contractile Structures
598(1)
Extracellular Signals Control the Arrangement of Actin Filaments
599(1)
Muscle Contraction
600(11)
Muscle Contraction Depends on Bundles of Actin and Myosin
600(1)
During Muscle Contraction Actin Filaments Slide Against Myosin Filaments
601(2)
Muscle Contraction Is Triggered by a Sudden Rise in Ca2+
603(2)
Muscle Cells Perform Highly Specialized Functions in the Body
605(6)
Cell-Cycle Control and Cell Death
611(26)
Overview of the Cell Cycle
612(3)
The Eucaryotic Cell Cycle Is Divided into Four Phases
613(1)
A Central Control System Triggers the Major Processes of the Cell Cycle
614(1)
The Cell-Cycle Control System
615(10)
The Cell-Cycle Control System Depends on Cyclically Activated Protein Kinases
616(1)
Cyclin-dependent Protein Kinases Are Regulated by the Accumulation and Destruction of Cyclins
617(1)
The Activity of Cdks Is Also Regulated by Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation
617(3)
Different Cyclin-Cdk Complexes Trigger Different Steps in the Cell Cycle
620(1)
S-Cdk Initiates DNA Replication and Helps Block Rereplication
621(1)
Cdks Are Inactive Through Most of G1
622(1)
The Cell-Cycle Control System Can Arrest the Cycle at Specific Checkpoints
622(2)
Cells Can Dismantle Their Control System and Withdraw from the Cell Cycle
624(1)
Programmed Cell Death (Apoptosis)
625(3)
Apoptosis Is Mediated by an Intracellular Proteolytic Cascade
626(1)
The Death Program Is Regulated by the Bcl-2 Family of Intracellular Proteins
627(1)
Extracellular Control of Cell Numbers and Cell Size
628(9)
Animal Cells Require Extracellular Signals to Divide, Grow, and Survive
629(1)
Mitogens Stimulate Cell Division
629(2)
Extracellular Growth Factors Stimulate Cells to Grow
631(1)
Animal Cells Require Survival Factors to Avoid Apoptosis
631(1)
Some Extracellular Signal Proteins Inhibit Cell Growth, Division, or Survival
632(5)
Cell Division
637(22)
An Overview of M Phase
638(3)
In Preparation for M Phase, DNA-binding Proteins Configure Replicated Chromosomes for Segregation
638(1)
The Cytoskeleton Carries Out Both Mitosis and Cytokinesis
639(1)
Centrosomes Duplicate To Help Form the Two Poles of the Mitotic Spindle
640(1)
M Phase Is Conventionally Divided into Six Stages
640(1)
Mitosis
641(11)
Microtubule Instability Facilitates the Formation of the Mitotic Spindle
641(3)
The Mitotic Spindle Starts to Assemble in Prophase
644(1)
Chromosomes Attach to the Mitotic Spindle at Prometaphase
645(3)
Chromosomes Line Up at the Spindle Equator at Metaphase
648(1)
Daughter Chromosomes Segregate at Anaphase
649(2)
The Nuclear Envelope Re-forms at Telophase
651(1)
Some Organelles Fragment at Mitosis
651(1)
Cytokinesis
652(7)
The Mitotic Spindle Determines the Plane of Cytoplasmic Cleavage
652(1)
The Contractile Ring of Animal Cells Is Made of Actin and Myosin
653(1)
Cytokinesis in Plant Cells Involves New Cell-Wall Formation
654(1)
Gametes Are Formed by a Specialized Kind of Cell Division
655(4)
Genetics, Meiosis, and the Molecular Basis of Heredity
659(38)
The Benefits of Sex
660(3)
Sexual Reproduction Involves Both Diploid and Haploid Cells
661(1)
Sexual Reproduction Gives Organisms a Competitive Advantage
662(1)
Meiosis
663(9)
Haploid Cells Are Produced From Diploid Cells Through Meiosis
664(1)
Meiosis Involves a Special Process of Chromosome Pairing
664(1)
Extensive Recombination Occurs Between Maternal and Paternal Chromosomes
665(2)
Chromosome Pairing and Recombination Ensure the Proper Segregation of Homologs
667(1)
The Second Meiotic Division Produces Haploid Daughter Cells
667(1)
The Haploid Cells Contain Extensively Reassorted Genetic Information
668(2)
Meiosis Is Not Flawless
670(1)
Fertilization Reconstitutes a Complete Genome
671(1)
Mendel and the Laws of Inheritance
672(14)
Mendel Chose to Study Traits That Are Inherited in a Discrete Fashion
673(1)
Mendel Could Disprove the Alternative Theories of Inheritance
674(1)
Mendel's Experiments Were the First to Reveal the Discrete Nature of Heredity
674(1)
Each Gamete Carries a Single Allele for Each Character
675(1)
Mendel's Law of Segregation Applies to All Sexually Reproducing Organisms
676(1)
Alleles for Different Traits Segregate Independently
677(1)
The Behavior of Chromosomes During Meiosis Underlies Mendel's Laws of Inheritance
678(2)
The Frequency of Recombination Can Be Used to Order Genes on Chromosomes
680(1)
The Phenotype of the Heterozygote Reveals Whether an Allele is Dominant or Recessive
681(3)
Mutant Alleles Sometimes Confer a Selective Advantage
684(2)
Genetics as an Experimental Tool
686(11)
The Classical Approach Begins with Random Mutagenesis
686(1)
Genetic Screens Identify Mutants Deficient in Cellular Processes
687(1)
A Complementation Test Reveals Whether Two Mutations Are in the Same Gene
688(1)
Human Genes Are Inherited in Haplotype Blocks, Which Can Aid in the Search for Mutations That Cause Disease
689(2)
Complex Traits Are Influenced by Multiple Genes
691(1)
Is Our Fate Encoded in Our DNA?
692(5)
Tissues and Cancer
697(1)
Extracellular Matrix and Connective Tissues
698(1)
Plant Cells Have Tough External Walls
698(4)
Cellulose Fibers Give the Plant Cell Wall Its Tensile Strength
702(1)
Animal Connective Tissues Consist Largely of Extracellular Matrix
703(1)
Collagen Provides Tensile Strength in Animal Connective Tissues
704(1)
Cells Organize the Collagen That They Secrete
705(1)
Integrins Couple the Matrix Outside a Cell to the Cytoskeleton Inside It
706(1)
Gels of Polysaccharide and Protein Fill Spaces and Resist Compression
706(3)
Epithelial Sheets and Cell-Cell Junctions
709(1)
Epithelial Sheets Are Polarized and Rest on a Basal Lamina
709(2)
Tight Junctions Make an Epithelium Leak-proof and Separate Its Apical and Basal Surfaces
711(1)
Cytoskeleton-linked Junctions Bind Epithelial Cells Robustly to One Another and to the Basal Lamina
712(3)
Gap Junctions Allow Ions and Small Molecules to Pass from Cell to Cell
715(2)
Tissue Maintenance and Renewal
717(1)
Tissues Are Organized Mixtures of Many Cell Types
718(2)
Different Tissues Are Renewed at Different Rates
720(1)
Stem Cells Generate a Continuous Supply of Terminally Differentiated Cells
721(1)
Stem Cells Can Be Used to Repair Damaged Tissues
722(3)
Nuclear Transplantation Provides a Way to Generate Personalized ES Cells: the Strategy of Therapeutic Cloning
725(1)
Cancer
726(1)
Cancer Cells Proliferate, Invade, and Metastasize
726(1)
Epidemiology Identifies Preventable Causes of Cancer
727(1)
Cancers Develop by an Accumulation of Mutations
728(1)
Cancers Evolve Properties That Give Them a Competitive Advantage
729(2)
Many Diverse Types of Genes Are Critical for Cancer
731(1)
Colorectal Cancer Illustrates How Loss of a Gene Can Lead to Growth of a Tumor
732(4)
An Understanding of Cancer Cell Biology Opens the Way to New Treatments
736


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