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The second edition of the Ethnographer's Toolkit is designed with the novice field researcher in mind. In this revised and updated version, the authors of the Toolkit take the reader through a series of seven books that spell out the steps involved in doing ethnographic research in community and institutional settings. Using simple, reader-friendly language, the Toolkit includes case studies, examples, illustrations, checklists, key points, and additional resources. The Toolkit is the perfect starting point for students and faculty in the social sciences, public health, education, environmental studies, allied health, and nursing, who may be new to ethnographic research. It also introduces professionals from diverse fields to the use of observation, assessment, and evaluation for practical ways to improve programs and achieve better service outcomes.
Jean J. Schensul is founding director and senior scientist at the Institute for Community Research, Hartford, Connecticut. Margaret D. LeCompte is professor emerita of education and sociology at the University, of Colorado. Boulder.
Table of Contents
|List of Tables and Figures||p. ix|
|List of Examples||p. xi|
|Introduction to the Ethnographer's Toolkit||p. xvi|
|Essential Data Collection||p. 1|
|What Is Essential Data Collection?||p. 1|
|Why Are Research Questions Required to Guide Essential Data Collection?||p. 2|
|The Value of Research Modeling Based on Research Questions and Prior Knowledge||p. 5|
|Basic Skills Required in Essential Data Collection||p. 8|
|Establishing Professional Boundaries: Intimacy and Relationships in Face-to-Face Data Collection||p. 17|
|Summary: Challenges in Collecting Observational and Interview Data in Person||p. 20|
|Defining and Entering the Field||p. 22|
|Fieldwork and the Field||p. 23|
|The Ethnographer as Self-Reflective Tool for Inquiry||p. 26|
|Establishing Relationships to Facilitate Entry||p. 32|
|Steps in Entering a Research Setting||p. 32|
|Recording and Organizing Ethnographic Field Data: Field Notes, Interviews, Drawings, Visual Documentation, and Survey Data||p. 47|
|What Are Field Notes, and Why Are They Important?||p. 47|
|Recording Field Notes||p. 54|
|Writing Up Field Notes||p. 56|
|Making Decisions about What to Write||p. 60|
|Organizing and Managing Ethnographic Data While in the Field||p. 78|
|Storing Quantitative Data for Subsequent Analysis||p. 81|
|Participant Observation and Informal Interviewing in the Field||p. 83|
|Differences between Participant Observation and Nonparticipant Observation||p. 84|
|Observation from a Distance||p. 88|
|Deciding Where and What to Observe||p. 91|
|Deciding When to Observe||p. 101|
|Informal Interviewing in the Field||p. 103|
|Tips on Recording Observations and Informal Interviews||p. 107|
|Dynamics and Challenges in Field Observation||p. 110|
|Additional Methods for Collecting Exploratory Data||p. 112|
|Social and Other Forms of Mapping||p. 112|
|Eliciting Information through Objects, Drawings, Materials, and Photographs||p. 124|
|Organizational Charts||p. 131|
|In-depth, Open-ended Exploratory Interviewing||p. 134|
|Introduction and Definitions||p. 134|
|Purposes of In-depth, Exploratory, Open-ended Interviewing||p. 135|
|Selecting and Sampling: When and Whom to Interview||p. 137|
|Preparing for the Interview||p. 140|
|Starting an Unstructured Exploratory Interview||p. 151|
|Structuring Open-ended Interviews||p. 152|
|Self-management during Interviewing||p. 163|
|Recording Research Interviews||p. 166|
|Semistructured Interviews and Observations||p. 171|
|What Are Semistructured Forms of Data Collection?||p. 171|
|Conducting Semistructured Interviews||p. 174|
|Constructing a Semistructured Interview Schedule||p. 179|
|Analysis of Semistructured Interview Data||p. 183|
|Conducting Semistructured Observations||p. 188|
|Sampling in Semistructured Data Collection||p. 191|
|Identifying and Resolving Challenges in Semistructured Data Collection||p. 193|
|Focus Group Interviews||p. 195|
|What Is a Group Interview?||p. 195|
|Formal Focus Group Interviews||p. 196|
|Organizing and Preparing for Formal Focus Group Interviews||p. 198|
|Creating a Representative Sample for a Focus Group||p. 202|
|Identifying and Training Focus Group Facilitators||p. 211|
|Conducting a Focus Group Interview||p. 216|
|Asking Questions in Focus Group Interviews||p. 220|
|Characteristics of Good Focus Group Questions||p. 222|
|Recording Data from Focus Group Interviews||p. 226|
|Validity and Reliability in Research with Focus Groups||p. 233|
|Management and Analysis of Focus Group Interviews||p. 237|
|Advantages, Uses, and Limitations of Focus Group Interviews||p. 239|
|Structured Approaches to Ethnographic Data Collection: Surveys||p. 241|
|The Role of Structured Data Collection||p. 241|
|Defining Ethnographic Surveys||p. 243|
|Steps in the Construction of the Ethnographic Survey||p. 247|
|Administration of Ethnographic Interviews||p. 271|
|Analysis of Quantitative Data||p. 275|
|Integrating Qualitative and Quantitative Data: Triangulation||p. 276|
|Sampling in Ethnographic Research||p. 280|
|Approaches to Selection in Ethnographic Research||p. 283|
|Approaches to Sampling to Approximate or Achieve Representativeness of a Population in Ethnographic Research||p. 294|
|Requirements for and Cautions about the Use of Samples||p. 309|
|Defining and Evaluating Quality in Ethnographic Research||p. 319|
|Introduction: What Is Research Quality?||p. 319|
|Reliability, Validity, Objectivity, and Subjectivity||p. 320|
|The Positivist Critique of Ethnography||p. 323|
|Why Ethnographic Characteristics Fit Poorly with Positivistic Canons for Research Quality||p. 325|
|About the Authors and Artists||p. 363|
|Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.|