Essential Guide Research Writing

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  • Edition: 6th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 8/30/2012
  • Publisher: Pearson
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The Essential Guide: Writing Research Papers Across the Disciplines, based on Lester's best-selling Writing Research Papers,is the ultimate brief research reference. Pocket-sized and inexpensive, this research guide is priced to work as a supplement in any research-oriented course. Designed to be a guide for writing research papers both in first-year composition courses and in upper-level courses in all disciplines, the text features advice on the judicious handling of research materials as well as extensive coverage of electronic research. It remains rooted in the fundamentals of thorough library research but encourages and equips students to use the Internet as well as field research where appropriate. Numerous student samples and excerpts model different types of research papers from across the disciplines. Comprehensive coverage of the four most common documentation systems, reflecting the most current guidelines from both MLA and APA, increases the text's usability beyond the composition classroom.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1 Writing from Research

1a Generating Ideas and Focusing the Subject

Relate Your Personal Ideas to a Scholarly Problem

Developing a Research Journal

Asking Questions

Using Key Terminology

Talking with Others to Find and Refine the Topic

Using Online Searches to Refine a Topic

Using Textbooks and Reference Books

1b Developing a Thesis, an Enthymeme, or a Hypothesis

Thesis Statement



1c Using Your Thesis to Chart the Direction of Your


Arrangement by Issues

Arrangement by Cause/Effect

Arrangement by Interpretation and Evaluation

Arrangement by Comparison

1d Drafting a Research Proposal

Writing a Short Research Proposal

Writing a Detailed Research Proposal

1e Establishing a Schedule


Chapter 2 Gathering Sources in the Library

2a Launching the Library Search

2b Using the Library’s Electronic Resources Catalog



Internet Sites

Reference Books



2c Searching the Library’s Electronic Databases

General Databases

Databases by Discipline

2d Searching the Printed Bibliographies

Searching in General Bibliographies

Searching in the Specialized Bibliographies and

Reference Works

2e Searching the Printed Indexes

Starting with a General Index to Periodicals

Searching Indexes to Topics in the Humanities

Searching Indexes to Topics in the Social Sciences

Searching Indexes to Topics in the Physical Sciences

Searching Indexes to Discipline-Specific Information

2f Searching Biographies

2g Searching Newspaper Indexes

2h Searching the Indexes to Pamphlet Files

2i Searching Government Documents

2j Searching for Essays Within Books

2k Building Your Research Journal

Chapter 3 Gathering Sources Online

3a Beginning an Online Search

Using General Search Engines

3b Conduction Keyword and Boolean Searches

3c Using Search Engines Devoted to Academic



Social Sciences


3d Accessing Online Sources

Internet Home Pages

Internet Articles on the Web

Journal Articles on the Web

Magazine Articles on the Web

News Sources

Books on the Web

Browsing Wikis, Blogs, Listserv, Usenent, and Chat Groups

E-mail Discussion Groups


Chapter 4 Conducting Field Research

4a Conducting Research Within a Discipline

The Social Scientists

The Physical Scientists

The Applied Scientists

The Humanists

4b Investigating Local Sources

Interviewing Knowledgeable People

Writing Letters and Corresponding by E-mail

Reading Personal Papers

Attending Lectures and Public Addresses

Investigating Government Documents

4c Examining Audiovisual Materials, the Internet, and


4d Conducting a Survey with a Questionnaire

4e Conducting Experiments, Tests, and Observation


Chapter 5 Understanding and Avoiding


5a Using Sources to Enhance Your Credibility

5b Identifying Bias in a Source

5c Honoring Property Rights

5d Avoiding Plagiarism

Common Knowledge Exceptions

5e Sharing Credit in Collaborative Projects

5f Honoring and Crediting Sources in Online


5g Seeking Permission to Publish Material on Your



Chapter 6 Reading and Evaluating Sources

6a Selecting a Mix of Primary and Secondary Sources

Guide to Academic Sources

6b Identifying Reliable Sources

Scholarly Book


Scholarly Article

Sponsored Website


Experiment, Test, or Observation

Trade Book


Popular Magazine


E-mail Forum Posting

Individual Website

Social Media, Blogs, and Wikis

Internet Chat Conversations

6c Evaluating Sources






Chapter 7 Organizing Ideas and Setting Goals

7a Creating Outlines Using Academic Models


A General, All-Purpose Model

Model for the Interpretation of Literature and Other

Creative Works

Model for the Analysis of History

Model for Advancing Philosophical and Religious Ideas

Model for the Review of a Performance

Model for Advancing Your Ideas and Theories

Model for Argument and Persuasion Papers

Model for a Comparative Study

Model for a Laboratory Investigation or Field Report

Model for Scientific Analysis

Model for a Report of Empirical Research

7b Using Your Thesis to Control the Outline


Cause and Effect



7c Writing an Outline

Topic Outline

Sentence Outline

Chapter 8 Writing Effective Notes

Honoring the Conventions of Research Style

8a Writing Personal Notes

8b Writing Direct Quotation Notes

Quoting the Primary Sources

Quoting the Secondary Sources

8c Writing Paraphrased Notes

8d Writing Summary Notes

Using the Summary to Review Briefly an Article or Book

Using the Summary to Write an Annotated Bibliography

Using the Summary in a Plot Summary Note

Using the Summary to Create an Abstract

8e Writing Notes from Field Research

8f Using Your Notes to Write an Annotated


8g Using Your Notes to Write a Review of the

Literature 100


Chapter 9 Drafting The Paper in an Academic


9a Writing for Your Field of Study

Academic Style in the Humanities

Academic Style in the Social Sciences

Academic Style in the Physical and Medical Sciences

9b Focusing Your Argument

Persuading, Inquiring, and Negotiating

Maintaining a Focus with Ethical and Logical Appeals

Focusing the Final Thesis Statement or Hypothesis

9c Writing an Academic Title

9d Drafting the Paper

Writing with Unity and Coherence

Writing in the Proper Tense

Using the Language of the Discipline

Using Source Material to Enhance Your Writing

Writing in the Third Person

Writing with the Passive Voice in an Appropriate Manner

Placing Graphics Effectively in a Research Essay

Avoiding Sexist and Biased Language

9e Creating an Introduction, a Body, and a Conclusion

Writing the Introduction

Writing the Body of the Research Paper

Writing the Conclusion of the Paper

9f Revising the Rough Draft

Editing Before Printing the Final Manuscript

Using the Computer to Edit Your Text

Participating in Peer Review



Chapter 10 Using MLA Style

10a Blending Sources into Your Writing

Identifying the Author and Page Number

Citing a Source When No Author Is Listed

Citing Nonprint Sources That Have No Page Numbers

Citing Internet Sources

Citing Indirect Sources

Citing Material from Textbooks and Large Anthologies

Adding Information to In-text Citations

10b Punctuating Citations Properly and Consistently

Indenting Long Quotations

Citing Lines of Poetry

Citing Drama

Changing Initial Capitals

Using Ellipsis Points to Omit Phrases

Using Brackets to Alter Quotations

10c Writing the Works Cited References

in MLA Style 136

Works Cited Form—Books

Works Cited Form—Periodicals

Works Cited Form—Newspapers

Works Cited Form—Government Documents

Works Cited Form—Internet Sources

Works Cited Form—Databases

Works Cited Form—Other Sources

10d Formatting the Paper in MLA Style

Title Page or Opening Page


The Text of the Paper

Content Endnotes Page


Works Cited

10e Writing a Literary Paper in MLA Style

Sample Research Paper


Chapter 11 Writing in Apa Style

11a Meeting the Demands of the Assignment

Writing Theoretical Articles

Reporting on Empirical Research

Reviewing Articles and Books

11b Establishing a Critical Approach

11c Writing in the Proper Tense for an APA-Styled


11d Blending Sources into Your Writing

Citing a Block of Material

Citing a Work with More Than One Author

Citing More Than One Work by an Author

Citing Indirect Sources

Abbreviating Corporate Authors in the Text

Citing an Anonymous Author

Citing Electronic Sources

11e Preparing the List of References

References Form—Books

References Form—Periodicals

References Form—Nonprint Material

References Form—Internet Sources

11f Formatting a Paper in the APA Style

Title Page


Text of the Paper



11g Sample Paper in APA Style


Chapter 12 The Footnote System: CMS Style

12a Blending Sources into Your Writing

Introducing the Sources

Inserting a Superscript Numeral in Your Text

Writing Full or Abbreviated Notes

12b Formatting and Writing the Footnotes


Journal Article

Magazine Article

Newspaper Article

Nonprint Source: Lecture, Sermon, Speech, Oral Report


Government Documents


Film on DVD

Biblical Reference

12c Writing Footnotes for Electronic Sources

Article Online

Magazine Article Reproduced Online

Journal Article Reproduced Online

Article from a Database

Article Accessed from a Database Through the Library


Book Online

CD-ROM Source

Article from an Online Service


12d Writing Subsequent Footnote References

12e Writing Endnotes Rather than Footnotes

12f Writing Content Footnotes or Content Endnotes

Related Matters Not Germane to the Text

Literature on a Related Topic

12g Writing a Bibliography Page for a Paper That Uses



Journal Article


Internet Article

12h Sample Research Paper in the CMS Style


Chapter 13 CSE Style for the Natural and Applied


13a Writing In-text Citations Using the CSE Citation-

Sequence System

13b Writing a Cited References Page


Article in a Journal

Internet Articles and Other Electronic Publications

Magazine and Newspaper Articles

Proceedings and Conference Presentations

13c Sample Paper Using the CSE Citation-Sequence



Chapter 14 Creating Electronic Research


14a Beginning the Electronic Project

14b Building Electronic Presentations

14c Research Paper Web Pages and Sites

Creating a Web Page

Citing Your Sources in a Web Research Paper

14d Using Graphics in Your Electronic Research Paper

Creating Your Own Digital Graphics

14e Delivering Your Electronic Research Paper to


14f Preparing a Writing Portfolio

Appendix Glossary of Manuscript Style



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