9780131487253

The Essential Guide to Telecommunications

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780131487253

  • ISBN10:

    0131487256

  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 6/29/2005
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
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Summary

Praise for The Essential Guide to Telecommunications "From starting entrepreneurs to industry veterans, employees from all kinds of network communications companies have found this primer to be an excellent reference book and interesting reading...the best way to keep current on evolving technology." -Carol J. Meier, Executive Director, Massachusetts Network Communications Council "With jargon-free definitions, clear schematic drawings, and its steady narrative drive, The Essential Guide to Telecommunications is a reassuring testament to the human ability to comprehEND and communicate at some fundamental level even the most bewildering technology." -David Warsh, Editor, Economic Principals.com "I find this book very useful for my graduate students in business and economics to become familiar with an up-to-date explanation of modern telecommunications." -Jerry Hausman, McDonald Professor of Economics, MIT "Annabel Dodd has distilled down the essential elements of digital communications and cogently translated the technobabble of the telecommunications revolution. This fine new EDITION of her book explains how Internet ProTOCol-based broadband networks will affect consumers, companies, and communities as the inexorable march of digital technologies continues...." -Congressman Edward J. Markey, Ranking Member Subcommittee on Telecommunications, Trade and Consumer Protection "Annabel Dodd's Guide is an excellent source of technical information that's understandable to people who never studied engineering. I use it regularly." -Jon Van, technology reporter, The Chicago Tribune "The Essential Guide to Telecommunications is probably one of the most useful and well-written books on our telecom bookshelf. Annabel Z. Dodd does a great job in capturing a snapshot of the current telecom industry. Even those with little or no technical training should be able to understand the text. This is the perfect book for salespeople who want to learn more about the products and services they are selling, or for those who just want to keep up to date on the latest in telecom technology." -William Van Hefner, President, Vantek Communications, Inc. "As a technology management consultant, I am often required to have hands-on knowledge on a wide range of technology topics. Whenever I need quick and accurate information on telecommunications technology, I turn to The Essential Guide to Telecommunications. I find it to be a very valuable reference." -Lumas KENDrick, Jr., KENDrick Technology Associates "The Essential Guide to Telecommunications is a fine guide to the field, readable by anyone, useful to everyone. As a first guide to the field, as a reference, and as a commentary on the history and strategy of telecommunications, it is simply superb." -Andrew Allentuck, Review Editor, Globetechnology, THE GLOBE AND MAIL, Toronto "People who enjoy a straightforward view of the ever-changing world of high technology will like this book. I did." -William Sherry, Product Specialist, Messaging & Mobility Applications, Avaya "Ms. Dodd continues to provide an excellent and thorough text on the telecommunications industry. As in her previous EDITIONs, she presents a good balance of technical- and business-related information that is readily understandable by anyone with an interest in thi

Author Biography

Annabel Z. Dodd teaches courses on Wireless Mobile Services and Data Communications in the graduate program of Northeastern University's School of Professional and Continuing Studies.

Table of Contents

Preface xix
Acknowledgments xxi
About the Author xxiii
Part I Fundamentals and Voice Over IP
1 Basic Concepts
3(42)
The Transition to Digital
5(4)
Analog Signals-Slower, More Prone to Errors
5(2)
Digital Signals
7(2)
Adding Meaning to Signals-Codes and Bits
9(2)
A Byte = A Character
10(1)
Baud Rate Versus Bits per Second-Electrical Signal Rates Versus Amount of Information Sent
10(1)
Codes-Adding Meaning to Bits
10(1)
Measuring Speed and Capacity
11(3)
Broadband Service-Multiple Data Streams
12(2)
Improving Utilization-Compression and Multiplexing
14(5)
Compression-Shrinking Data to Send More Information
14(2)
Multiplexing-Let's Share
16(3)
Interoperability-Protocols and Architectures
19(2)
Protocols-A Common Set of Rules
19(1)
Architectures-How Devices Fit Together in a Network
20(1)
Types of Networks-LANs, MANs, and WANs
21(17)
LANs-Local Area Networks
21(2)
LAN and WAN Devices-Higher Speeds, Lower Prices
23(7)
Home LANs-Sharing High-Speed Internet Access
30(2)
MANs-Metropolitan Area Networks...Links Within Cities
32(1)
WANs-Wide Area Networks...Links Between Cities
32(1)
Higher Speed Services for LAN Traffic
33(1)
Carrier and Internet Service Provider Networks
34(4)
Appendix
38(7)
2 VoIP Systems, Circuit Switched PBXs and Cabling
45(66)
Telephone Systems-Voice over IP, PBXs, and Centrex Systems
48(1)
What Is a Private Branch Exchange (PBX)?
49(1)
IP PBXs for the Enterprise
49(25)
Impetus for Change
50(1)
Architecture of IP-Based Systems...How the Pieces Fit Together
50(8)
Voice Quality and Security
58(2)
Barriers to Acceptance of Voice over IP
60(1)
Endpoints-IP Telephones Connected to Layer 2 Switches
61(4)
PBX Trunks-Switch-to-Switch Connectivity
65(1)
Demarcation-The Location at Which Telcos Wire Trunks
65(1)
Circuit Switched PBXs-Proprietary Platforms
66(1)
Centrex-Telephone Company Supplied Service
67(1)
IP Centrex-Phone Companies Hosting Voice Over IP
68(1)
Direct Inward Dialing-Bypassing the Operator for Incoming Calls
69(1)
Key Systems-Multi-featured for Smaller Organizations
70(1)
Hybrid PBX/Key Systems
71(1)
Wireless Options for PBXs
71(3)
Advanced Applications for Telephone Systems
74(11)
Call Accounting-Billing Internal Departments
75(1)
Call Detail Recording for Carriers-Generating Data for Billing
75(1)
Voice Mail-Storing and Retrieving Messages
76(1)
Voice Mail Components
77(2)
Unified Messaging Integration of Voice Mail, Fax Mail, and E-mail
79(1)
Unified Messaging Systems on the LAN
79(1)
Multi-application Platforms in Carrier Networks
80(1)
Speech Recognition
81(4)
ACDs-Increasing Call Center Efficiency
85(9)
ACDs Linked to IP Telephone Systems
86(1)
ACD Functions Located in Carriers' Networks
86(3)
Integrated Voice Response Units-Self Service in Contact Centers
89(2)
Computer Telephony Integration (CTI)-Routing Callers More Intelligently
91(3)
Media: Fiber and Unshielded Twisted Pair Copper
94(11)
Impairments on Copper Cabling-Electrical Properties
95(3)
Fiber-Optic Cabling-High Capacity, Decreasing Costs
98(5)
Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing in Cable TV Networks-Maximizing Dark Fiber
103(2)
Appendix
105(6)
Part II Industry Overview and Public Networks
3 Industry Overview
111(54)
The Bell System after the 1984 Divestiture
114(5)
Divestiture of the Bell System from AT&T in 1984
114(2)
The Decline of AT&T
116(2)
Independent Telephone Companies- Mostly in Rural Areas
118(1)
The Emergence of Local Competition Prior to 1996
119(6)
Competitive Access Providers (CAPS) to Bypass Access Fees
119(2)
Uneven Competition for Local Telephone Service Throughout the U.S.
121(2)
The Critical Nature of Facilities
123(1)
Factors Leading to Passage of the Telecommunications Act of 1996
124(1)
Wireless Services for Local Exchange Service-Spectrum Auctions
124(1)
The Telecommunications Act of 1996
125(1)
Universal Service Fund Affordability and Availability
125(1)
Post Telecommunications Act of 1996 Developments
126(1)
FCC Rulings, Legal Challenges, and Progress Toward Deregulation
126(1)
FCC Enforcement of Access to Local Networks after Bells Gain In-Region Long Distance
127(1)
Impact of the Telecommunications Act of 1996
127(1)
State of the Industry...Key Segments
128(7)
Regional Bell Operating Companies (RBOCs) Post-1996 Mergers
128(1)
Incumbent Local Exchange Carriers (ILECs)
129(2)
Agents
131(1)
Resellers
132(2)
Wholesale Carriers-Carrier-to-Carrier Sales
134(1)
CLECs-A Dwindling Industry Segment
135(5)
CLECs-Local, Data, and Long Distance Services
135(1)
Pending Purchase of AT&T and MCI-The Impact of Consolidation
136(3)
Shrinking Numbers of Competitors-Financial Turmoil
139(1)
What Went Wrong?
139(1)
Intermodal Competition-Cable TV, Wireless, and Utilities
140(10)
Cable TV Multiple Service Operators (MSOs)-Wired to the Max
140(1)
Mobile Wireless Services
141(1)
Utilities-The Third Pipe
142(8)
Regulatory Issues
150(9)
Unbundled Network Elements (UNEs)-Competitors Leasing Parts of RBOCs' Networks
151(1)
The Impact of Higher Leasing Rates
152(2)
Regulating Cable Modems-Cable, Information, or Telecommunications Services?
154(1)
Voice Over IP-Regulatory Issues
155(1)
Access Fees-A Shift in Balance Between Local and Long Distance Costs
156(3)
Appendix
159(6)
4 VoIP, the Public Switched Telephone Network, and Signaling
165(56)
Convergence in Public Networks
168(21)
Circuit Switching-Network Inefficiencies and Convergence
168(1)
Impediments to Adoption-Training, Embedded Assets, User Adoption, and Fear of the Unknown
169(1)
VoIP Networks-Putting the Pieces Together
169(1)
Softswitches-Standards-Based Platforms for Call Control
170(6)
Media Gateways (Border Elements)-Switching and Interoperability Between Networks
176(1)
Peer-to-Peer Music, Instant Messaging, Online Games, and VoIP
177(11)
Outsourcing-The Role of IP
188(1)
Voice Over Broadband for Residential Consumers
189(4)
Voice Over IP Service in Homes
189(3)
Customer Acquisition Agents, Retail Outlets, and Amazon.com
192(1)
Document Sharing and Online Webconferencing
193(1)
Webconferencing to Share Documents
193(1)
The Public Switched Telephone Network
194(2)
Switched Services-Local and Long Distance Calling
196(3)
Attributes of Real-Time Switching Services
196(2)
Store-and-Forward Switching-Nonsimultaneous Sending and Receiving
198(1)
'The Last Mile" or Access Networks
199(14)
End and Tandem Central Offices
200(4)
Wireless Local Loop-Low Customer Acceptance
204(1)
Broadband Over Power Lines-Telephone Signals Over the Same Fiber that Carries Electricity
204(4)
Carrier Hotels-Interconnecting Carriers and Providing Secure Space for Equipment
208(2)
Interconnections Between Carriers-Transport
210(3)
Signaling-The Glue that Holds the PSTN Together
213(8)
Overview of Signaling-Uniform Signaling Developed by AT&T
213(5)
Signaling System 7-Links Between Carriers
218(1)
SS7 Components
219(2)
5 VPNs and Specialized Network Services
221(68)
Virtual Private Networks-Remote Access and Interoffice Connections
226(10)
Rationale for Virtual Private Networks Between Offices
226(2)
Productivity Away from the Office-VPNs for Remote Access
228(1)
Virtual Private Network Technology
228(7)
Security-Firewalls, Protection Against Viruses, and Other Attacks
235(1)
Frame Relay-A Shared Wide Area Network Service
236(4)
Access to Frame Relay-56 Kilobits to T-3
238(1)
Frame Relay to Access Other Networks
238(1)
Frame Relay Service-Permanent Virtual Circuits and Committed Information Rate
239(1)
Voice on Frame Relay-Instead of Private Lines
239(1)
Dedicated, Private Lines
240(8)
Dedicated Services-Wide and Metropolitan Area Networks
241(2)
Network Topologies-How Sites Are Connected
243(5)
T-1-24 Paths and T-3-672 Paths Over One Telephone Circuit
248(5)
T-1: 1,544,000bps; E-1: 2,048,000bps Speeds
248(1)
T-3, J-3, and E-3-North America, Japan, and the Rest of the World
248(2)
A Fat Pipe for Data-Unchannelized T-1
250(2)
T-1 Inefficiencies-Time Slots Running on Empty
252(1)
CSU/DSUs-Digital Modems: Testing and Clocking
253(1)
ISDN-Integrated Services Digital Network
253(6)
Basic Rate Interface ISDN-Higher Usage in Europe and Japan Than the United States
254(2)
Primary Rate Interface ISDN-23 Bearer and One Signaling Channel
256(2)
NT1s and TAs: Modem-Like Devices for ISDN
258(1)
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) An Interim Technology or a Vehicle for Video and IP?
259(10)
The DSL Marketplace
262(1)
Business Class DSL-Static IP Addresses
263(1)
DSLAMs-Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexers
263(5)
Television Over DSL Service-ADSL2+ and VDSL2
268(1)
DSL-No Truck Roll; Self Service
269(1)
Gigabit Ethernet
269(5)
Ethernet Sales Channels
270(1)
Challenges to Wider Deployment
270(1)
Multiplexers Equipped with Reconfigurable Optical Add and Drop Multiplexers (ROADMs)
271(2)
Ethernet Enterprise Service-Internet, VPN Access, and Private Lines
273(1)
ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode
274(4)
ATM's Speed Is Due to Three Characteristics
274(1)
DSLAMs and ATM-Oversubscription
275(1)
Mapping IP and Ethernet Traffic onto ATM
275(1)
Elements of an ATM Network
276(2)
SONET-Synchronous Optical Network
278(6)
Optical Carrier (OC): North American; Synchronous Transport Mode (STM): International
280(1)
SONET Rings-For Greater Reliability
281(1)
Second Generation-Next Generation SONET
281(2)
SONET with Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing Capability
283(1)
Third Generation SONET-Connectivity to Ethernet
283(1)
SONET Offerings for Enterprises
284(1)
Summary
284(1)
Appendix
285(4)
Pert III Advanced Technologies, Cable TV Networks, and the Internet
6 Entertainment, Cable TV, and Last-Mile Fiber Systems
289(44)
Cable Multiple System Operators (MSOs)
291(17)
Cable TV Architecture-Upgrades, Capacity, Speed, and Reliability
293(8)
Cable TV Offerings
301(4)
Set-Top Boxes-Interfaces to Satellite TV and Cable TV
305(3)
Direct Broadcast Satellite TV-Reaching Customers Wirelessly
308(1)
Broadcast, Over-the-Air Television
309(8)
Towers-Terrestrial Wireless Transmissions
310(1)
Affiliates-Transmitting Programming to Consumers
310(1)
Digital Television-Less Spectrum Used, Improved Quality
311(5)
Digital Cable TV-Lower Resolution Than HDTV
316(1)
Digital TV Standards Worldwide
316(1)
Digital Delivery-Entertainment over the Internet
317(2)
U.S. Postal Mail with E-commerce for Movie Delivery
317(2)
Digital Radio-Subscription Versus Advertising Support
319(5)
HD Radio-High Definition Radio
320(4)
Passive Optical Networking
324(9)
PONs-Fiber to the Premises, Curb, Basement, or Neighborhood; FTTx
325(4)
Passive Optical Network Standards
329(4)
7 The Internet
333(54)
The Evolution of the Internet
336(10)
UNIX, Telnet, and File Transfer Protocol
336(1)
World Wide Web-Based on the Client Server Model
337(2)
Internet Advisory Boards
339(1)
Peering-To Exchange Data Between Carriers
340(3)
ISPs: With Software Platforms for Enhanced Offerings
343(2)
Hosting-Outsourcing Web Pages
345(1)
Messaging and the Growth of Spam
346(13)
Multimedia Attachments-Photographs, Movies, and PowerPoint
347(1)
E-mail Formatted in HTML-Another Vehicle for the Spread of Viruses
348(1)
Spam-Clogging Inboxes with Junk Mail
348(4)
Interactivity Tools: Usenet, Chat, Mailing Lists, and Blogging
352(7)
Internet Addresses
359(3)
Registries-Management of Entire Top-Level Domains
360(1)
Registrars-Assigning Domain Names to Organizations
360(1)
Thirteen Root Servers Worldwide-The Basis for Internet Routing
360(1)
Assignments of Numeric IP Addresses to ISPs and Carriers
361(1)
Public and Private IP Addresses
362(1)
Portals, Search Engines, and E-commerce
362(6)
Portals-The Door to the Internet
362(3)
Search Engines-Vehicles for Advertising Revenue
365(3)
Electronic Commerce
368(10)
Advertising on the Web-Instant Access to Offers
368(2)
Popular E-commerce Sites
370(3)
Privacy Concerns, Commerce, and National Security
373(3)
Freedom of Speech, Access to Information, and Protection of Children
376(2)
Intranets and Extranets
378(9)
Intranets-Web Technology for Corporate Access
378(1)
Extranets-Web Access for Customers, Partners, and Vendors
379(8)
Part IV Wireless Service
8 Mobile Services
387(82)
The Development of Cellular Networks
391(8)
Cellular, Wireless, Cordless, and Mobile
392(1)
Precellular Mobile Networks
393(1)
First Generation Analog Cellular-Advanced Mobile Phone Services (AMPS)
394(1)
Second Generation Digital Mobile Air Interfaces
395(4)
Spectrum and Rights to Airwaves
399(8)
Frequency
399(1)
Ranges of Frequency-Spectrum Blocks
399(1)
Spectrum Caps-Limiting the Amount of Spectrum Per Carrier
400(1)
Allocation
400(1)
Implication of Spectrum Ranges
401(1)
Spectrum for Higher-Speed 3G Services
401(3)
Unlicensed Spectrum for 802.1 1 and WiMAX
404(1)
Multiband Versus Multimode
405(2)
Mobile Carriers
407(13)
The United States
409(6)
Europe
415(2)
China
417(2)
India
419(1)
The Structure of Second Generation Digital Mobile Networks
420(17)
A Cell Site-Connections Between Customers and Mobile Networks
422(1)
Switching and Signaling
423(1)
Coverage Gaps-Rural Locales, Inside Buildings, and Congested Metropolitan Areas
424(1)
Number Portability-Wireless to Wireless and Wireline to Wireless
425(2)
Roaming Using Mobile Devices in Other Networks
427(1)
Push-to-Talk-Mobile Walkie-Talkie Service
428(4)
Enhanced 911
432(3)
The Criticality of Mobile Networks-Emergency Preparedness
435(2)
Evolving to Third Generation Packet Networks
437(21)
Comparing Third Generation Technologies
438(2)
The Transition to WCDMA-GPRS and Then EDGE
440(2)
WCDMA-Wideband Code Division Multiplexing
442(1)
The Evolution to CDMA2000 IX (Voice and Data) and CDMA2000 1 xEV-DO (Data Optimized-High Data Rate)
443(2)
3G Compatible Handsets-Multimode Capabilities for Roaming
445(1)
The Path to IP Converged 3G Networks
446(8)
802.20: IP Mobile Broadband Wireless Access-MobileFi
454(1)
Mobile Networks for Video-Using Incompatible Technologies
455(3)
Mobile Commerce, Enhanced Services, and Operating Systems
458(5)
The Battle for Operating System Dominance
459(1)
Camera Phones
459(1)
Ring-Back Tones-Mobile Music Instead of Ringing
460(1)
Mobile Commerce-Mobile Devices to Make Purchases
461(1)
The IP Multimedia System and Interoperable Multimedia
461(1)
3G Applications for Enterprises
462(1)
Specialized Mobile Radio-Slow-Speed Packet Data and Push-to-Talk
463(2)
Specialized Mobile Radio-Packetized Data Networks for Two-Way E-mail and Field Services
463(2)
Satellites and Paging
465(4)
Satellite Networks
465(1)
Satellite Telephones-For Emergencies and Remote Areas
465(1)
VSAT Service-Small Satellite Dishes
466(1)
Paging Services
466(3)
9 Wi-Fi, Wireless Broadband, Sensor Networks, and Personal Area Networks
469(58)
802.1 1 Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs)
472(29)
The Terms 802.1 1, WLAN, and Wi-Fi
472(1)
The Criticality of Standards
472(1)
The Main Standards: 802.1 la, 802.1 1b, and 802.1 1g
473(2)
802.1 1n-Improving Range (Area Covered), Capacity, and Data Rates
475(1)
WEAN Infrastructure: Access Points and Switches
476(2)
In Enterprises
478(3)
Hotspots-Wi-Fi Inside Public Places
481(10)
In Homes-To Avoid Running Cables
491(2)
Wi-Fi Networks for Voice Over IP (VoIP)
493(5)
Managing Security on WLANs
498(2)
Compared to 3G: Mobility, Coverage, and Data Rates
500(1)
Broadband Wireless Access
501(9)
WiMAX: Broadband Access, Based on 802.16
501(7)
Adapting 3G for Wireless Broadband Access: UMTS TDD and WCDMA
508(2)
Personal Area Networks (PANS)
510(9)
Bluetooth
510(2)
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
512(5)
Ultra-Wideband-High-Speed, Short Distance Links
517(2)
Sensor Networks-The 802.15.4 Standard
519(4)
ZigBee-A Protocol For Sensor Networks
520(3)
Appendix
523(4)
Glossary 527(24)
Bibliography 551(2)
Index 553

Excerpts

Preface Preface The world has changed since the previous edition of this book was published in 2001. People are more mobile, and carriers and customers use more of the technologies such as voice over IP and high-speed networks that were discussed as emerging services in earlier editions. The world has become smaller as a result of the increasing availability of high-speed networks, and changes are occurring in developing countries as well as Europe, North America, and technologically savvy countries in Asia and the Middle East. Increasingly, carriers that build and support these networks are large conglomerates with worldwide scope. Many carriers are expanding internationally and merging to achieve growth and economic clout. However, growth, competition, and expanded Internet access present challenges to customers and carriers. These challenges include security risks and competitors' abilities to differentiate their services without entering into pricing wars with attendant low margins.The Essential Guide to Telecommunications, Fourth Editiontracks technological advances and delineates challenges carriers face. It examines these issues in both wireline and wireless services. The Essential Guide to Telecommunicationsexamines technological and business issues. It provides real-life examples of how consumers, small- and medium-sized organizations, and enterprise customers use technologies. It also discusses critical factors that influence customers' and carriers' adoption of new technology. Technologies covered include voice over IP, personal area wireless networks (PANs) that cover short distances within buildings, Wi-Fi wireless networks, high-speed wireless broadband, and next generation mobile services. The Fourth Edition examines next generation wireless mobile technologies capable of carrying vast amounts of high-speed data and video traffic. It also discusses basic cellular technologies and technological advances enabling one-third of the world's population to afford and own mobile phones. Mobile services provide low-cost, basic voice service in large parts of the world where in many instances a mobile phone is the first phone that customers own. In addition to exploring trends, the book provides a high-level overview of the architecture of next generation and current cellular networks, including mobile switches, softswitches, media gateways, and base stations. It also explains new wireless technologies used in sensor networks to control heating, lights, inventory levels, and manufacturing processes. It compares the differences and similarities between wireless technologies such as Zigbee, Bluetooth, and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) in terms of the technological differences as well as the way these technologies are used. The significance of a strong telecommunications infrastructure on the economy and on international trade is widely recognized and has prompted governments' attention worldwide.The Essential Guide to Telecommunicationsreviews regulatory issues that are of concern to carriers and governments. It explores the role of regulations in promoting innovation and competition and robust networks critical to national security. In addition, regulatory rulings are examined in light of their impact on customer segments and carriers. The Essential Guide to Telecommunicationspresents profiles of industry sectors including cable TV providers, incumbent telephone companies, wireless carriers, Voice over IP carriers, and competitive local exchange carriers. It explores strategies carriers deploy to gain a competitive edge and the network technologies used to further these strategies. In addition to looking at the architecture of wireless networks, the book depicts networks based on Internet protocol (IP) as well as traditional circuit switched and signal

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