Working with Roman and Arabic Numerals | p. 1 |

Roman Numerals | p. 1 |

Rules | p. 1 |

Arabic Numerals | p. 2 |

Practice Problems | p. 4 |

Answers | p. 5 |

Using Fractions and Decimals in Pharmacy Math | p. 7 |

Fractions | p. 7 |

Addition of Fractions | p. 9 |

Subtraction of Fractions | p. 13 |

Multiplication of Fractions | p. 14 |

Division of Fractions | p. 17 |

Decimals | p. 19 |

Addition and Subtraction | p. 19 |

Multiplication | p. 20 |

Division | p. 21 |

Practice Problems | p. 22 |

Answers | p. 25 |

Using Ratios, Proportions, and Percentages in Dosage Calculations | p. 27 |

Ratios | p. 27 |

Definitions at a Glance | p. 27 |

Proportions | p. 27 |

Practice Problems | p. 33 |

Ratios and Proportions | p. 33 |

Percentage | p. 36 |

Converting a Fraction to a Percent | p. 37 |

Converting a Percent to a Fraction | p. 37 |

Converting a Decimal to a Percent | p. 37 |

Converting a Percent to a Decimal | p. 37 |

Determining Percentage | p. 38 |

Fractions and Equivalent Decimals | p. 38 |

Converting a Fraction to a Decimal | p. 38 |

Percent Concentration Expressions | p. 39 |

Percent Weight-in-Volume (% w/v) | p. 39 |

Percent Weight-in-Weight (Percent by Weight), (% w/w) | p. 39 |

Percent Volume-in-Volume (Percent by Volume), (% v/v) | p. 39 |

Milligram Percent, (mg%) | p. 39 |

Practice Problems | p. 41 |

Percentage and Strength | p. 41 |

Answers | p. 43 |

Ratios and Proportions | p. 43 |

Percentage Strength | p. 43 |

Applying Systems of Measurements | p. 45 |

Metric System | p. 45 |

Practice Problems | p. 48 |

Metric System | p. 48 |

Apothecaries' System | p. 50 |

Practice Problems | p. 51 |

Apothecaries' System | p. 51 |

Household Conversions | p. 53 |

Calibration of the Medicinal Dropper | p. 54 |

Interconversions | p. 54 |

Practice Problems | p. 57 |

Household Conversions | p. 57 |

Answers | p. 58 |

Metric System | p. 58 |

Apothecaries' System | p. 59 |

Household Conversions | p. 59 |

Interpreting Medication Orders | p. 61 |

Types of Prescriptions | p. 61 |

Parts of a Prescription | p. 62 |

Sample Prescription | p. 63 |

Label Requirements | p. 63 |

Medication Order | p. 63 |

Common Latin Terms and Abbreviations | p. 64 |

Examples | p. 68 |

Practice Problems | p. 69 |

Answers | p. 71 |

Identifying Prescription Errors and Omissions | p. 73 |

Verification of the DEA Number | p. 73 |

| p. 74 |

Errors in Example 1 | p. 74 |

| p. 75 |

Errors in Example 2 | p. 75 |

| p. 75 |

Errors in Example 3 | p. 76 |

Practice Prescriptions for Errors and Omissions | p. 76 |

Answers | p. 91 |

Working with Liquid Dosage Forms | p. 95 |

Liquid Calculations Involving Proportions | p. 95 |

Practice Problems | p. 96 |

Liquid Calculations Involving Dilutions and Concentrations | p. 103 |

Practice Problems | p. 104 |

Methods of Alligation | p. 106 |

Alligation Medial | p. 106 |

Alligation Alternate | p. 107 |

Practice Problems | p. 110 |

Answers | p. 112 |

Liquid Calculations Involving Proportions | p. 112 |

Calculations Involving Dilutions and Concentration | p. 113 |

Alligation | p. 113 |

Working with Solid Dosage Forms | p. 115 |

Practice Problems | p. 116 |

Answers | p. 118 |

Adjusting Isotonicity | p. 121 |

Dissociation (i) Factor Calculations | p. 121 |

Sodium Chloride Equivalents of Drug Substances | p. 123 |

Isotonicity Adjustments by Sodium Chloride Equivalent Method | p. 125 |

Practice Problems | p. 130 |

Isotonicity Adjustments by Cryoscopic Method | p. 133 |

Practice Problems | p. 136 |

Answers | p. 139 |

Working with pH and Buffers | p. 141 |

pH Calculations | p. 141 |

Conversion of Hydrogen Ion Concentration to pH | p. 141 |

Conversion of pH to Hydrogen Ion Concentration | p. 142 |

Practice Problems | p. 143 |

Buffer Calculations | p. 144 |

pH Value of a Buffer | p. 145 |

Molar Ratio of Buffer Components | p. 146 |

Practice Problems | p. 148 |

Answers | p. 150 |

Dealing with Reconstitutions | p. 151 |

Practice Problems | p. 153 |

Answers | p. 159 |

Determining Milliequivalent Strengths | p. 161 |

Dosage Calculations Involving Milliequivalents | p. 161 |

Practice Problems | p. 165 |

Answers | p. 167 |

Dealing with Calories | p. 169 |

Practice Problems | p. 171 |

Calculations Involving Nitrogen, Calorie:Nitrogen Ratio, and Protein-Calorie Percentage of TPN Products | p. 172 |

Nitrogen | p. 172 |

Calorie:Nitrogen Ratio | p. 173 |

Protein-Calorie Percentage | p. 173 |

Practice Problems | p. 174 |

Answers | p. 176 |

Determining Intravenous Flow Rates | p. 179 |

Practice Problems | p. 182 |

Answers | p. 184 |

Working with Insulin and Heparin Products | p. 187 |

Insulin | p. 187 |

Working with Insulin Strength | p. 187 |

Practice Problems | p. 189 |

Heparin Dosage | p. 193 |

Practice Problems | p. 195 |

Answers | p. 200 |

Insulin | p. 200 |

Heparin | p. 201 |

Working with Temperature Conversions | p. 203 |

Conversion from [degree]F to [degree]C | p. 203 |

Conversion from [degree]C to [degree]F | p. 204 |

Practice Problems | p. 205 |

Conversion from [degree]F to [degree]C | p. 205 |

Conversion from [degree]C to [degree]F | p. 205 |

Answers | p. 206 |

Working with Capsule Dosage Forms | p. 207 |

Compounding Tips and Calculations for Filling Capsules | p. 207 |

Practice Problems | p. 210 |

Dealing with Pediatric Dosages | p. 217 |

Based on Body Weight | p. 217 |

Based on Height | p. 217 |

Based on Body Surface Area (BSA) | p. 217 |

Based on Age | p. 218 |

Other Formulas Used | p. 218 |

Practice Problems | p. 218 |

Answers | p. 219 |

Pharmacy Business Math | p. 221 |

Practice Problems | p. 223 |

Answers | p. 223 |

Index | p. 225 |

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