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Working with Roman and Arabic Numerals | p. 1 |
Roman Numerals | p. 1 |
Rules | p. 1 |
Arabic Numerals | p. 2 |
Practice Problems | p. 4 |
Answers | p. 5 |
Using Fractions and Decimals in Pharmacy Math | p. 7 |
Fractions | p. 7 |
Addition of Fractions | p. 9 |
Subtraction of Fractions | p. 13 |
Multiplication of Fractions | p. 14 |
Division of Fractions | p. 17 |
Decimals | p. 19 |
Addition and Subtraction | p. 19 |
Multiplication | p. 20 |
Division | p. 21 |
Practice Problems | p. 22 |
Answers | p. 25 |
Using Ratios, Proportions, and Percentages in Dosage Calculations | p. 27 |
Ratios | p. 27 |
Definitions at a Glance | p. 27 |
Proportions | p. 27 |
Practice Problems | p. 33 |
Ratios and Proportions | p. 33 |
Percentage | p. 36 |
Converting a Fraction to a Percent | p. 37 |
Converting a Percent to a Fraction | p. 37 |
Converting a Decimal to a Percent | p. 37 |
Converting a Percent to a Decimal | p. 37 |
Determining Percentage | p. 38 |
Fractions and Equivalent Decimals | p. 38 |
Converting a Fraction to a Decimal | p. 38 |
Percent Concentration Expressions | p. 39 |
Percent Weight-in-Volume (% w/v) | p. 39 |
Percent Weight-in-Weight (Percent by Weight), (% w/w) | p. 39 |
Percent Volume-in-Volume (Percent by Volume), (% v/v) | p. 39 |
Milligram Percent, (mg%) | p. 39 |
Practice Problems | p. 41 |
Percentage and Strength | p. 41 |
Answers | p. 43 |
Ratios and Proportions | p. 43 |
Percentage Strength | p. 43 |
Applying Systems of Measurements | p. 45 |
Metric System | p. 45 |
Practice Problems | p. 48 |
Metric System | p. 48 |
Apothecaries' System | p. 50 |
Practice Problems | p. 51 |
Apothecaries' System | p. 51 |
Household Conversions | p. 53 |
Calibration of the Medicinal Dropper | p. 54 |
Interconversions | p. 54 |
Practice Problems | p. 57 |
Household Conversions | p. 57 |
Answers | p. 58 |
Metric System | p. 58 |
Apothecaries' System | p. 59 |
Household Conversions | p. 59 |
Interpreting Medication Orders | p. 61 |
Types of Prescriptions | p. 61 |
Parts of a Prescription | p. 62 |
Sample Prescription | p. 63 |
Label Requirements | p. 63 |
Medication Order | p. 63 |
Common Latin Terms and Abbreviations | p. 64 |
Examples | p. 68 |
Practice Problems | p. 69 |
Answers | p. 71 |
Identifying Prescription Errors and Omissions | p. 73 |
Verification of the DEA Number | p. 73 |
p. 74 | |
Errors in Example 1 | p. 74 |
p. 75 | |
Errors in Example 2 | p. 75 |
p. 75 | |
Errors in Example 3 | p. 76 |
Practice Prescriptions for Errors and Omissions | p. 76 |
Answers | p. 91 |
Working with Liquid Dosage Forms | p. 95 |
Liquid Calculations Involving Proportions | p. 95 |
Practice Problems | p. 96 |
Liquid Calculations Involving Dilutions and Concentrations | p. 103 |
Practice Problems | p. 104 |
Methods of Alligation | p. 106 |
Alligation Medial | p. 106 |
Alligation Alternate | p. 107 |
Practice Problems | p. 110 |
Answers | p. 112 |
Liquid Calculations Involving Proportions | p. 112 |
Calculations Involving Dilutions and Concentration | p. 113 |
Alligation | p. 113 |
Working with Solid Dosage Forms | p. 115 |
Practice Problems | p. 116 |
Answers | p. 118 |
Adjusting Isotonicity | p. 121 |
Dissociation (i) Factor Calculations | p. 121 |
Sodium Chloride Equivalents of Drug Substances | p. 123 |
Isotonicity Adjustments by Sodium Chloride Equivalent Method | p. 125 |
Practice Problems | p. 130 |
Isotonicity Adjustments by Cryoscopic Method | p. 133 |
Practice Problems | p. 136 |
Answers | p. 139 |
Working with pH and Buffers | p. 141 |
pH Calculations | p. 141 |
Conversion of Hydrogen Ion Concentration to pH | p. 141 |
Conversion of pH to Hydrogen Ion Concentration | p. 142 |
Practice Problems | p. 143 |
Buffer Calculations | p. 144 |
pH Value of a Buffer | p. 145 |
Molar Ratio of Buffer Components | p. 146 |
Practice Problems | p. 148 |
Answers | p. 150 |
Dealing with Reconstitutions | p. 151 |
Practice Problems | p. 153 |
Answers | p. 159 |
Determining Milliequivalent Strengths | p. 161 |
Dosage Calculations Involving Milliequivalents | p. 161 |
Practice Problems | p. 165 |
Answers | p. 167 |
Dealing with Calories | p. 169 |
Practice Problems | p. 171 |
Calculations Involving Nitrogen, Calorie:Nitrogen Ratio, and Protein-Calorie Percentage of TPN Products | p. 172 |
Nitrogen | p. 172 |
Calorie:Nitrogen Ratio | p. 173 |
Protein-Calorie Percentage | p. 173 |
Practice Problems | p. 174 |
Answers | p. 176 |
Determining Intravenous Flow Rates | p. 179 |
Practice Problems | p. 182 |
Answers | p. 184 |
Working with Insulin and Heparin Products | p. 187 |
Insulin | p. 187 |
Working with Insulin Strength | p. 187 |
Practice Problems | p. 189 |
Heparin Dosage | p. 193 |
Practice Problems | p. 195 |
Answers | p. 200 |
Insulin | p. 200 |
Heparin | p. 201 |
Working with Temperature Conversions | p. 203 |
Conversion from [degree]F to [degree]C | p. 203 |
Conversion from [degree]C to [degree]F | p. 204 |
Practice Problems | p. 205 |
Conversion from [degree]F to [degree]C | p. 205 |
Conversion from [degree]C to [degree]F | p. 205 |
Answers | p. 206 |
Working with Capsule Dosage Forms | p. 207 |
Compounding Tips and Calculations for Filling Capsules | p. 207 |
Practice Problems | p. 210 |
Dealing with Pediatric Dosages | p. 217 |
Based on Body Weight | p. 217 |
Based on Height | p. 217 |
Based on Body Surface Area (BSA) | p. 217 |
Based on Age | p. 218 |
Other Formulas Used | p. 218 |
Practice Problems | p. 218 |
Answers | p. 219 |
Pharmacy Business Math | p. 221 |
Practice Problems | p. 223 |
Answers | p. 223 |
Index | p. 225 |
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