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Essential Research Methods For Social Work

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780495006589

ISBN10:
0495006580
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
2/8/2006
Publisher(s):
Brooks Cole
List Price: $113.95
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Summary

Master research methods with ESSENTIAL RESEARCH METHODS FOR SOCIAL WORK! Student-friendly and clear, this social work text provides you with the tools you need to understand essential research methods content. Illustrations and examples throughout show you how you can apply research to practice. Studying is made easy with a book-specific website that provides you with tutorial quizzes and links to additional related concepts. Outlines, introductions, boxes, chapter endings with main points, review questions and exercises, and internet exercises provide you with the information and practice you need to succeed in this course.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
PART 1 An Introduction to Scientific Inquiry in Social Work
1(70)
The Utility of Research in Social Work
2(8)
Introduction
3(1)
Research in Evidence-Based Practice
4(1)
Additional Reasons Why Social Workers Should Learn About Research
5(2)
Main Points
7(1)
Practice-Related Exercises
8(1)
Internet Exercises
9(1)
Additional Readings
9(1)
How Do Social Workers Know Things?
10(12)
Introduction
11(1)
The Scientific Method
11(2)
Other Ways of Knowing
13(2)
Tradition
13(1)
Authority
13(1)
Common Sense
14(1)
Popular Media
14(1)
Recognizing Flaws in Unscientific Sources of Social Work Practice Knowledge
15(4)
Inaccurate Observation
15(1)
Overgeneralization
15(1)
Selective Observation
16(1)
Ex Post Facto Hypothesizing
16(1)
Ego Involvement in Understanding
17(1)
Other Forms of Illogical Reasoning
18(1)
The Premature Closure of Inquiry
18(1)
Objectivity and Subjectivity in Scientific Inquiry
19(1)
Paradigms
19(1)
Main Points
20(1)
Practice-Related Exercises
21(1)
Internet Exercises
21(1)
Additional Readings
21(1)
Factors Influencing the Research Process
22(14)
Introduction
23(1)
Quantitative and Qualitative Methods of Inquiry
23(1)
The Influence of Paradigms
24(2)
The Influence of Theories
26(2)
Inductive and Deductive Uses of Theory
27(1)
Social Work Practice Models
28(1)
Research Purposes
29(2)
Exploration
29(1)
Description
29(1)
Explanation
30(1)
Evaluation
30(1)
Constructing Measurement Instruments
30(1)
Multiple Purposes
31(1)
Explaining and Predicting
31(1)
The Time Dimension
31(1)
Cross-Sectional Studies
31(1)
Longitudinal Studies
32(1)
Phases in the Research Process in Quantitative and Qualitative Studies
32(2)
Main Points
34(1)
Practice-Related Exercises
35(1)
Internet Exercises
35(1)
Additional Readings
35(1)
Ethical Issues in Social Work Research
36(20)
Introduction
37(1)
Ethical Guidelines in Social Work Research
37(4)
Voluntary Participation and Informed Consent
37(2)
No Harm to Participants
39(1)
Anonymity and Confidentiality
40(1)
Deceiving Participants
41(1)
Analysis and Reporting
41(1)
Weighing Benefits and Costs
41(3)
An Illustration: Living with the Dying---Use of Participant Observation
42(1)
Right to Receive Services versus Responsibility to Evaluate Service Effectiveness
43(1)
NASW Code of Ethics
44(1)
Two Ethical Controversies
44(3)
Observing Human Obedience
44(2)
Social Worker Submits Bogus Article to Test Journal Bias
46(1)
Institutional Review Boards
47(1)
Bias and Insensitivity Regarding Gender and Culture
48(2)
Politics and Values
50(3)
Main Points
53(1)
Practice-Related Exercises
53(1)
Internet Exercises
54(1)
Additional Readings
55(1)
Culturally Competent Research
56(15)
Introduction
57(1)
Recruiting and Retaining the Participation of Minority and Oppressed Populations in Research Studies
57(7)
Obtain Endorsement from Community Leaders
58(1)
Use Culturally Sensitive Approaches Regarding Confidentiality
58(1)
Employ Local Community Members as Research Staff
58(1)
Provide Adequate Compensation
59(1)
Alleviate Transportation and Child Care Barriers
59(1)
Choose a Sensitive and Accessible Setting
59(1)
Use and Train Culturally Competent Interviewers
60(1)
Use Bilingual Staff
60(1)
Understand Cultural Factors Influencing Participation
60(1)
Use Anonymous Enrollment with Stigmatized Populations
61(1)
Use Special Sampling Techniques
61(1)
Learn Where to Look
62(1)
Connect With and Nurture Referral Sources
62(1)
Use Frequent and Individualized Contacts and Personal Touches
62(1)
Use Anchor Points
63(1)
Use Tracking Methods
63(1)
Culturally Competent Problem Formulation
64(1)
Culturally Competent Data Analysis and Reporting
65(1)
Acculturation
66(1)
Culturally Competent Measurement
66(2)
Language Problems
66(1)
Cultural Bias
67(1)
Measurement Equivalence
67(1)
Assessing Measurement Equivalence
68(1)
Main Points
68(1)
Practice-Related Exercises
69(1)
Internet Exercises
69(1)
Additional Readings
70(1)
PART 2 Problem Formulation and Measurement
71(60)
Reviewing Literature and Developing Research Questions
72(12)
Introduction
73(1)
Literature Review
73(7)
Using the Library
74(1)
Electronically Accessing Library Materials
75(1)
Professional Journals
76(3)
Writing the Literature Review
79(1)
Attributes of Good Research Questions
80(2)
Feasibility
80(1)
Involving Others in Formulating Research Questions
81(1)
Main Points
82(1)
Practice-Related Exercises
82(1)
Internet Exercises
83(1)
Conceptualization in Quantitative and Qualitative Inquiry
84(14)
Introduction
85(1)
Conceptualization in Quantitative Inquiry
85(9)
Developing a Proper Hypothesis
86(1)
Mediating and Moderating Variables
86(2)
Types of Relationships Between Variables
88(1)
Operational Definitions
89(1)
The Influence of Operational Definitions
89(1)
Categories of Operational Definitions in Social Work
90(1)
Existing Scales
91(3)
Conceptualization in Qualitative Inquiry
94(2)
Main Points
96(1)
Practice-Related Exercises
96(1)
Internet Exercises
97(1)
Additional Readings
97(1)
Measurement in Quantitative and Qualitative Inquiry
98(12)
Introduction
99(1)
Sources of Measurement Error
99(2)
Errors in Alternate Forms of Measurement
100(1)
Reliability
101(2)
Types of Reliability
101(2)
Validity
103(1)
Types of Validity
103(1)
Relationship Between Reliability and Validity
104(1)
Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research
105(3)
Main Points
108(1)
Practice-Related Exercises
108(1)
Internet Exercises
109(1)
Quantitative and Qualitative Measurement Instruments
110(21)
Introduction
111(1)
Generic Guidelines for Asking Questions
111(3)
Questions and Statements
111(1)
Open-Ended and Closed-Ended Questions
111(1)
Make Items Clear
112(1)
Avoid Double-Barreled Questions
112(1)
Respondents Must Be Competent to Answer
112(1)
Respondents Must Be Willing to Answer
113(1)
Questions Should Be Relevant
113(1)
Short Items Are Best
113(1)
Avoid Negative Items
113(1)
Avoid Biased Items and Terms
113(1)
Critically Appraising Quantitative Instruments
114(6)
Questionnaires
114(4)
Scales
118(2)
Critically Appraising Qualitative Measures
120(1)
Qualitative Interviewing
121(3)
Informal Conversational Interviews
121(1)
Interview Guide Approach
122(2)
Standardized Open-Ended Interviews
124(1)
Illustration of a Standardized Open-Ended Interview Schedule
124(1)
A Comparison of Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches to Asking People Questions
124(4)
Main Points
128(1)
Practice-Related Exercises
129(1)
Internet Exercises
129(2)
PART 3 Sampling and Surveys
131(42)
Surveys
132(17)
Introduction
133(1)
Self-Administered Questionnaires
133(3)
Mail Distribution and Return
134(1)
Cover Letters
134(2)
Follow-up Mailings
136(1)
Acceptable Response Rates
136(1)
Interview Surveys
136(3)
The Role of the Survey Interviewer
136(1)
General Guidelines for Survey Interviewing
137(2)
Coordination and Control
139(1)
Telephone Surveys
139(2)
Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing
140(1)
New Technologies and Survey Research
141(1)
Online Surveys
141(1)
Comparison of the Different Survey Methods
141(1)
Strengths and Weaknesses of Survey Research
142(2)
Combining Survey Research Methods and Qualitative Research Methods
144(1)
Use of Surveys in Needs Assessment
144(3)
Main Points
147(1)
Practice-Related Exercises
148(1)
Internet Exercises
148(1)
Sampling: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches
149(24)
Introduction
150(1)
Quantitative Sampling Methods
150(9)
President Alf Landon
150(1)
President John Kerry
150(1)
Probability Sampling
151(8)
Types of Probability Sampling Designs
159(5)
Simple Random Sampling
159(1)
Systematic Sampling
159(3)
Stratified Sampling
162(2)
Multistage Cluster Sampling
164(1)
Probability Sampling in Review
164(1)
Nonprobability Sampling in Quantitative and Qualitative Research
164(4)
Reliance on Available Subjects
164(2)
Purposive or Judgmental Sampling
166(1)
Quota Sampling
167(1)
Snowball Sampling
167(1)
Additional Qualitative Sampling Methods
168(1)
Deviant Case Sampling
168(1)
Intensity Sampling
169(1)
Maximum Variation and Homogeneous Sampling
169(1)
Theoretical Sampling
169(1)
Main Points
169(1)
Practice-Related Exercises
170(1)
Internet Exercises
171(2)
PART 4 Designs for Evaluating Programs and Practice
173(62)
Group Designs for Evaluating Programs and Practice
174(23)
Introduction
175(1)
Criteria for Inferring Causality
175(1)
Internal Validity
175(3)
Threats to Internal Validity
176(2)
Pre-Experimental Designs
178(2)
Pilot Studies
179(1)
Experimental Designs
180(3)
Randomization
182(1)
Providing Services to Control Groups
183(1)
Quasi-Experimental Designs
183(4)
Nonequivalent Comparison Groups Design
184(1)
Time-Series Designs
185(2)
Additional Threats to the Validity of Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Findings
187(4)
Measurement Bias
187(1)
Research Reactivity
187(2)
Diffusion or Imitation of Treatments
189(1)
Compensatory Equalization, Compensatory Rivalry, or Resentful Demoralization
190(1)
Attrition
191(1)
External Validity
191(1)
Cross-Sectional Studies
192(1)
Case-Control Design
193(1)
Main Points
194(1)
Practice-Related Exercises
195(1)
Internet Exercises
195(2)
Program Evaluation
197(16)
Introduction
198(1)
Purposes of Program Evaluation
198(1)
Historical Overview
198(1)
The Politics of Program Evaluation
199(2)
In-House versus External Evaluators
200(1)
Practical Pitfalls, in Carrying Out Experiments and Quasi-Experiments in Social Work Agencies
201(3)
Fidelity of the Intervention
201(1)
Contamination of the Control Condition
202(1)
Resistance to the Case Assignment Protocol
202(1)
Client Recruitment and Retention
203(1)
Mechanisms for Avoiding or Alleviating Practical Pitfalls
203(1)
Planning an Evaluation and Fostering Its Utilization
204(3)
Types of Program Evaluation
207(3)
Evaluating Outcome and Efficiency
207(1)
Monitoring Program Implementation
208(1)
Process Evaluation
208(1)
Evaluation for Program Planning: Needs Assessment
209(1)
Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Methods in Program Evaluation
210(1)
Main Points
210(2)
Practice-Related Exercises
212(1)
Internet Exercises
212(1)
Single-Case Evaluation Designs
213(22)
Introduction
214(2)
Single-Case Designs in Social Work
216(1)
Use of Single-Case Designs as Part of Social Work Practice
217(1)
Measurement Issues
217(1)
What to Measure
218(1)
Triangulation
218(1)
Data Gathering
218(6)
Who Should Measure?
219(1)
Sources of Data
219(1)
Reliability and Validity
219(1)
Direct Behavioral Observation
220(1)
Unobtrusive versus Obtrusive Observation
220(1)
Data Quantification Procedures
221(1)
The Baseline Phase
221(3)
Alternative Single-Case Designs
224(6)
AB: The Basic Single-Case Design
224(1)
ABAB: Withdrawal/Reversal Design
224(2)
Multiple-Baseline Designs
226(3)
Multiple-Component Designs
229(1)
Data Analysis
230(1)
The Role of Qualitative Research Methods in Single-Case Evaluation
231(1)
Main Points
231(1)
Practice-Related Exercises
232(1)
Internet Exercises
232(1)
Additional Readings
233(2)
PART 5 Additional Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods
235(38)
Additional Methods in Qualitative Inquiry
236(20)
Introduction
237(1)
Ethnography
237(2)
Two Ethnographic Studies of Homelessness
237(2)
Case Studies
239(1)
Life History
239(1)
Feminist Methods
240(1)
Focus Groups
240(2)
Participatory Action Research
242(2)
An Illustration of a Participatory Action Research Study Using Focus Groups and Feminist Methods: The Voices of Battered Women in Japan
243(1)
Grounded Theory
244(1)
Special Considerations in Qualitative Observation
245(2)
The Various Roles of the Observer
246(1)
Emic and Etic Perspectives
247(1)
Conducting Qualitative Research
247(3)
Recording Observations
248(2)
Comparing the Strengths and Weaknesses of Qualitative and Quantitative Research
250(1)
Depth of Understanding
250(1)
Flexibility
250(1)
Subjectivity
250(1)
Generalizability
250(1)
Standards for Evaluating Qualitative Studies
251(2)
Main Points
253(1)
Practice-Related Exercises
254(1)
Internet Exercises
254(1)
Additional Readings
254(2)
Analyzing Available Records: Quantitative and Qualitative Methods
256(17)
Introduction
257(1)
Secondary Analysis
257(1)
Analyzing Existing Statistics
258(2)
Missing Data
258(1)
Problems of Validity
259(1)
Problems of Reliability
259(1)
Sources of Existing Statistics
260(1)
Content Analysis
260(7)
Sampling in Content Analysis
263(1)
Coding in Content Analysis
264(1)
Manifest and Latent Content
264(1)
Qualitative Content Analysis
265(1)
An Illustration of a Qualitative Content Analysis in Social Work Research
265(1)
Strengths and Weaknesses of Content Analysis
266(1)
Historical Research
267(3)
Sources of Historical Data
267(2)
Analytic Techniques
269(1)
Main Points
270(1)
Practice-Related Exercises
271(1)
Internet Exercises
271(1)
Additional Readings
272(1)
PART 6 Data Analysis
273(27)
Quantitative Data Analysis
274(14)
Introduction
275(1)
Coding
275(1)
Descriptive Univariate Analysis
275(3)
Frequency Distributions
275(1)
Central Tendency
276(1)
Dispersion
276(1)
Levels of Measurement
277(1)
Relationships Among Variables
278(7)
Interpreting Bivariate Tables
278(1)
Interpreting Multivariate Tables
279(1)
Interpreting Measures of Association
280(2)
Effect Size
282(1)
Strong, Medium, and Weak Effect Sizes
283(1)
Substantive Significance
284(1)
Inferential Analysis
285(1)
Refuting Chance
286(1)
Main Points
286(1)
Practice-Related Exercises
287(1)
Internet Exercises
287(1)
Additional Readings
287(1)
Qualitative Data Analysis
288(12)
Introduction
289(1)
Coding
289(4)
Coding as a Physical Act
289(1)
Creating Codes
290(2)
Memoing
292(1)
Discovering Patterns
293(3)
Grounded Theory Method
294(1)
Semiotics
294(1)
Conversation Analysis
295(1)
Concept Mapping
295(1)
Computer Programs for Qualitative Data
296(1)
Main Points
297(1)
Practice-Related Exercises
297(1)
Internet Exercises
298(1)
Additional Readings
299(1)
Appendix A. WRITING RESEARCH PROPOSALS
300(7)
Before You Start Writing the Proposal
300(1)
Research Proposal Components
300(7)
Cover Materials
301(1)
Problem and Objectives
301(1)
Literature Review
301(1)
Conceptual Framework
302(1)
Measurement
302(1)
Study Participants (Sampling)
303(1)
Design and Data Collection Methods
303(1)
Data Analysis
304(1)
Schedule
304(1)
Budget
304(1)
Additional Components
304(3)
Appendix B. WRITING SOCIAL WORK RESEARCH REPORTS
307(7)
Some Basic Considerations
307(2)
Audience
307(1)
Form and Length of the Report
308(1)
Aim of the Report
308(1)
Avoiding Plagiarism
308(1)
Organization of the Report
309(3)
Title
309(1)
Abstract
310(1)
Introduction and Literature Review
310(1)
Methods
310(1)
Results
310(1)
Discussion and Conclusions
311(1)
References and Appendices
312(1)
Additional Considerations When Writing Qualitative Reports
312(1)
Additional Readings
313(1)
Appendix C. RANDOM NUMBERS
314(2)
Glossary 316(12)
Bibliography 328(5)
Index 333


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