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Essentials of Abnormal Psychology (with CD-ROM)



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Wadsworth Publishing
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This is the 4th edition with a publication date of 7/20/2005.

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This brief version of Durand and Barlow's best-selling text was created specifically for those professors who were drawn to the authors' standard-setting integrative approach but who wanted a shorter, easier book for their students. In this briefer version, the authors explain abnormal psychology in the most modern, scientifically valid method for studying abnormal psychology. Through this integrative approach, students learn that psychological disorders are rooted in multiple factors: biological, psychological, cultural, social, familial, and even political. Conversational writing style, consistent pedagogy, video clips of real clients (located on the accompanying free Abnormal Psychology Live 2.5 CD-ROM), and real case profiles - 95 percent from the authors' own case files - provide a realistic context for the scientific findings of the book, and ensure that readers never lose sight of the fact that beyond the DSM-IV-TR criteria, the theories, and the research are real people. With this text, students can take advantage of Abnormal PsychologyNow, our web-based, intelligent study system that, by using online diagnostic pre- and post-tests, helps students prioritize their study time by creating personalized study plans that focus only the sections in which they experienced difficulty.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xix
Culture Indexp. xxvii
Gender Indexp. xxviii
Abnormal Behavior in Historical Contextp. 1
Understanding Psychopathologyp. 2
Judy: The Girl Who Fainted at the Sight of Bloodp. 2
What Is a Psychological Disorder?p. 2
The Science of Psychopathologyp. 5
Historical Conceptions of Abnormal Behaviorp. 8
The Supernatural Traditionp. 8
Demons and Witchesp. 8
Stress and Melancholyp. 9
Charles VI: The Mad Kingp. 9
Treatments for Possessionp. 10
The Moon and the Starsp. 11
Commentsp. 11
The Biological Traditionp. 11
Hippocrates and Galenp. 11
The 19th Centuryp. 13
The Development of Biological Treatmentsp. 14
Consequences of the Biological Traditionp. 14
The Psychological Traditionp. 15
Moral Therapyp. 15
Asylum Reform and the Decline of Moral Therapyp. 16
Psychoanalytic Theoryp. 17
Humanistic Theoryp. 24
The Behavioral Modelp. 24
The Present: The Scientific Method and an Integrative Approachp. 28
Summaryp. 29
Key Termsp. 30
Answers to Concept Checksp. 30
Chapter Quizp. 32
An Integrative Approach to Psychopathologyp. 33
One-Dimensional or Multidimensional Modelsp. 34
What Caused Judy's Phobia?p. 34
Outcome and Commentsp. 36
Genetic Contributions to Psychopathologyp. 37
The Nature of Genesp. 38
New Developments in the Study of Genes and Behaviorp. 38
The Interaction of Genetic and Environmental Effectsp. 39
Nongenomic "Inheritance" of Behaviorp. 42
Neuroscience and Its Contributions to Psychopathologyp. 43
The Central Nervous Systemp. 44
The Structure of the Brainp. 45
The Peripheral Nervous Systemp. 48
Neurotransmittersp. 50
Implications for Psychopathologyp. 54
Psychosocial Influences on Brain Structure and Functionp. 54
Interactions of Psychosocial Factors with Brain Structure and Functionp. 56
Commentsp. 56
Behavioral and Cognitive Sciencep. 57
Conditioning and Cognitive Processesp. 57
Learned Helplessness and Learned Optimismp. 58
Social Learningp. 59
Prepared Learningp. 59
Cognitive Science and the Unconsciousp. 60
Emotionsp. 61
The Physiology and Purpose of Fearp. 61
Emotional Phenomenap. 62
The Components of Emotionp. 62
Anger and Your Heartp. 63
Emotions and Psychopathologyp. 64
Cultural, Social, and Interpersonal Factorsp. 64
Voodoo, the Evil Eye, and Other Fearsp. 65
Genderp. 65
Social Effects on Health and Behaviorp. 66
Global Incidence of Psychological Disordersp. 67
Life-Span Developmentp. 67
The Principle of Equifinalityp. 68
Conclusionsp. 69
Summaryp. 70
Key Termsp. 71
Answers to Concept Checksp. 71
Chapter Quizp. 72
Clinical Assessment, Diagnosis, and Research Methodsp. 73
Assessing Psychological Disordersp. 74
Frank: Young, Serious, and Anxiousp. 74
Key Concepts in Assessmentp. 75
The Clinical Interviewp. 76
Physical Examinationp. 79
Behavioral Assessmentp. 79
Psychological Testingp. 81
Neuropsychological Testingp. 85
Neuroimaging: Pictures of the Brainp. 86
Psychophysiological Assessmentp. 88
Diagnosing Psychological Disordersp. 89
Classification Issuesp. 90
DSM-IVp. 92
Current Trendsp. 95
Conducting Research in Psychopathologyp. 97
Basic Components of a Research Studyp. 97
Statistical versus Clinical Significancep. 99
The "Average" Clientp. 100
Types of Research Methodsp. 101
Studying Individual Casesp. 101
Research by Correlationp. 102
Research by Experimentp. 104
Single-Case Experimental Designsp. 106
Genetics and Research Across Time and Culturesp. 110
Studying Geneticsp. 110
Studying Behavior over Timep. 112
Studying Behavior Across Culturesp. 115
The Power of a Program of Researchp. 116
Replicationp. 117
Research Ethicsp. 117
Summaryp. 119
Key Termsp. 120
Answers to Concept Checksp. 121
Chapter Quizp. 122
Anxiety Disordersp. 123
The Complexity of Anxiety Disordersp. 124
Anxiety, Fear, and Panic: Some Definitionsp. 124
Gretchen: Attacked by Panicp. 125
Causes of Anxiety Disordersp. 126
Comorbidity of Anxiety Disordersp. 129
Generalized Anxiety Disorderp. 130
Clinical Descriptionp. 130
Irene: Ruled by Worryp. 130
Statisticsp. 131
Causesp. 132
Treatmentp. 133
Panic Disorder with and without Agoraphobiap. 135
Mrs. M.: Self-Imprisonedp. 135
Clinical Descriptionp. 136
Statisticsp. 137
Causesp. 140
Treatmentp. 141
Specific Phobiap. 144
Clinical Descriptionp. 144
Statisticsp. 147
Causesp. 148
Treatmentp. 150
Social Phobiap. 151
Billy: Too Shyp. 151
Clinical Descriptionp. 151
Star Player?p. 151
Statisticsp. 152
Causesp. 152
Treatmentp. 154
Posttraumatic Stress Disorderp. 155
Clinical Descriptionp. 155
The Joneses: One Victim, Many Traumasp. 155
Statisticsp. 157
Causesp. 158
Treatmentp. 160
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorderp. 162
Clinical Descriptionp. 162
Richard: Enslaved by Ritualp. 162
Statisticsp. 163
Causesp. 164
Treatmentp. 165
Summaryp. 166
Key Termsp. 167
Answers to Concept Checksp. 167
Chapter Quizp. 169
Somatoform and Dissociative Disordersp. 172
Somatoform Disordersp. 173
Hypochondriasisp. 173
Gail: Invisibly Illp. 174
Somatization Disorderp. 177
Linda: Full-Time Patientp. 177
Conversion Disorderp. 180
Eloise: Unlearning Walkingp. 181
Celia: Seeing Through Blindnessp. 183
Pain Disorderp. 185
The Medical Student: Temporary Painp. 186
The Woman with Cancer: Managing Painp. 186
Body Dysmorphic Disorderp. 186
Jim: Ashamed to Be Seenp. 186
Dissociative Disordersp. 191
Depersonalization Disorderp. 192
Bonnie: Dancing Away from Herselfp. 192
Dissociative Amnesiap. 193
The Woman Who Lost Her Memoryp. 193
Dissociative Fuguep. 194
The Misbehaving Sheriffp. 194
Dissociative Trance Disorderp. 195
Dissociative Identity Disorderp. 195
Jonah: Bewildering Blackoutsp. 195
The Hillside Stranglerp. 197
Sybil: A Childhood Dramap. 198
Summaryp. 203
Key Termsp. 204
Answers to Concept Checksp. 204
Chapter Quizp. 205
Mood Disorders and Suicidep. 208
Understanding and Defining Mood Disordersp. 209
Katie: Weathering Depressionp. 209
An Overview of Depression and Maniap. 210
The Structure of Mood Disordersp. 211
Depressive Disordersp. 212
Jack: A Life Kept Downp. 213
Bipolar Disordersp. 216
Jane: Funny, Smart, and Desperatep. 216
Billy: The World's Best at Everythingp. 217
Prevalence of Mood Disordersp. 221
In Children and Adolescentsp. 222
In the Elderlyp. 224
Across Culturesp. 225
Among the Creativep. 226
The Overlap of Anxiety and Depressionp. 226
Causes of Mood Disordersp. 228
Biological Dimensionsp. 228
Brain Wave Activityp. 231
Psychological Dimensionsp. 231
Katie: No Easy Transitionsp. 233
Social and Cultural Dimensionsp. 236
An Integrative Theoryp. 238
Treatment of Mood Disordersp. 240
Medicationsp. 240
Electroconvulsive Therapy and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulationp. 243
Psychological Treatmentsp. 244
Beck and Irene: A Dialoguep. 244
Combined Treatmentsp. 247
Preventing Relapsep. 247
Psychological Treatments for Bipolar Disorderp. 248
Katie: The Triumph of the Selfp. 249
Suicidep. 250
Statisticsp. 250
Causesp. 252
Risk Factorsp. 253
Is Suicide Contagious?p. 254
Treatmentp. 255
Summaryp. 256
Key Termsp. 257
Answers to Concept Checksp. 258
Chapter Quizp. 259
Physical Disorders and Health Psychologyp. 262
Psychological and Social Factors That Influence Healthp. 263
Health and Health-Related Behaviorp. 264
The Nature of Stressp. 265
The Physiology of Stressp. 265
Contributions to the Stress Responsep. 266
Stress, Anxiety, Depression, and Excitementp. 267
Stress and the Immune Responsep. 268
Psychosocial Effects on Physical Disordersp. 271
AIDSp. 271
Cancerp. 272
Cardiovascular Problemsp. 274
John: The Human Volcanop. 274
Hypertensionp. 275
Coronary Heart Diseasep. 276
Chronic Painp. 279
Chronic Fatigue Syndromep. 282
Psychosocial Treatment of Physical Disordersp. 284
Biofeedbackp. 285
Relaxation and Meditationp. 286
A Comprehensive Stress- and Pain-Reduction Programp. 286
Sally: Improving Her Perceptionp. 287
Drugs and Stress-Reduction Programsp. 288
Denial as a Means of Copingp. 288
Modifying Behaviors to Promote Healthp. 289
Summaryp. 293
Key Termsp. 294
Answers to Concept Checksp. 294
Chapter Quizp. 295
Eating and Sleep Disordersp. 298
Major Types of Eating Disordersp. 299
Bulimia Nervosap. 300
Phoebe: Apparently Perfectp. 300
Anorexia Nervosap. 303
Julie: The Thinner the Betterp. 303
Binge-Eating Disorderp. 305
Statisticsp. 306
Causes of Eating Disordersp. 309
Social Dimensionsp. 309
Phoebe: Dancing to Destructionp. 312
Biological Dimensionsp. 313
Psychological Dimensionsp. 314
An Integrative Modelp. 314
Treatment of Eating Disordersp. 316
Drug Treatmentsp. 316
Psychological Treatmentsp. 316
Phoebe: Taking Controlp. 317
Preventing Eating Disordersp. 319
Obesityp. 321
Statisticsp. 321
Disordered Eating Patterns in Cases of Obesityp. 322
Causesp. 322
Treatmentp. 323
Sleep Disorders: The Major Dyssomniasp. 325
An Overview of Sleep Disordersp. 325
Primary Insomniap. 327
Sonja: School on Her Mindp. 328
Primary Hypersomniap. 331
Ann: Sleeping in Publicp. 331
Narcolepsyp. 332
Breathing-Related Sleep Disordersp. 332
Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disordersp. 333
Treatment of Sleep Disordersp. 334
Medical Treatmentsp. 334
Environmental Treatmentsp. 335
Psychological Treatmentsp. 336
Preventing Sleep Disordersp. 337
Parasomnias and Their Treatmentp. 337
Summaryp. 339
Key Termsp. 340
Answers to Concept Checksp. 340
Chapter Quizp. 341
Sexual and Gender Identity Disordersp. 344
What Is Normal Sexuality?p. 345
Gender Differencesp. 346
Cultural Differencesp. 348
The Development of Sexual Orientationp. 348
Gender Identity Disorderp. 350
Joe: Trapped in the Wrong Bodyp. 350
Defining Gender Identity Disorderp. 350
Causesp. 351
John/Joanp. 352
Treatmentp. 353
Overview of Sexual Dysfunctionsp. 354
Sexual Desire Disordersp. 356
Mr. and Mrs. C.: Getting Startedp. 356
Lisa: The Terror of Sexp. 357
Sexual Arousal Disordersp. 357
Bill: Long Marriage, New Problemp. 358
Orgasm Disordersp. 359
Greta and Will: Loving Disunionp. 359
Gary: Running Scaredp. 360
Sexual Pain Disordersp. 361
Jill: Sex and Spasmsp. 361
Assessing Sexual Behaviorp. 362
Causes and Treatment of Sexual Dysfunctionp. 363
Causes of Sexual Dysfunctionp. 363
Treatment of Sexual Dysfunctionp. 368
Carl: Never Too Latep. 368
Paraphilia: Clinical-Descriptionsp. 372
Fetishismp. 372
Voyeurism and Exhibitionismp. 372
Robert: Outside the Curtainsp. 373
Transvestic Fetishismp. 373
Mr. M.: Strong Man in a Dressp. 373
Sexual Sadism and Sexual Masochismp. 374
Pedophilia and Incestp. 374
Tony: More and Less a Fatherp. 375
Paraphilia in Womenp. 376
Causes of Paraphiliap. 376
Robert: Revenge on Repressionp. 376
Tony: Trained Too Youngp. 376
Assessing and Treating Paraphiliap. 378
Psychological Treatmentp. 378
Tony: Imagining the Worstp. 378
Drug Treatmentsp. 380
Summaryp. 380
Summaryp. 381
Key Termsp. 382
Answers to Concept Checksp. 382
Chapter Quizp. 383
Substance-Related and Impulse-Control Disordersp. 386
Perspectives on Substance-Related Disordersp. 387
Danny: Multiple Dependenciesp. 387
Levels of Involvementp. 388
Diagnostic Issuesp. 393
Depressantsp. 394
Alcohol Use Disordersp. 394
Sedative, Hypnotic, or Anxiolytic Substance Use Disordersp. 398
Stimulantsp. 400
Amphetamine Use Disordersp. 400
Cocaine Use Disordersp. 401
Nicotine Use Disordersp. 403
Caffeine Use Disordersp. 404
Opioidsp. 404
Hallucinogensp. 405
Marijuanap. 406
LSD and Other Hallucinogensp. 407
Other Drugs of Abusep. 408
Causes of Substance-Related Disordersp. 409
Biological Dimensionsp. 410
Psychological Dimensionsp. 411
Cognitive Factorsp. 412
Social Dimensionsp. 413
Cultural Dimensionsp. 413
An Integrative Modelp. 414
Treatment of Substance-Related Disordersp. 416
Biological Treatmentsp. 416
Psychosocial Treatmentsp. 418
Preventionp. 421
Impulse-Control Disordersp. 422
Intermittent Explosive Disorderp. 422
Kleptomaniap. 422
Pyromaniap. 423
Pathological Gamblingp. 423
Trichotillomaniap. 424
Summaryp. 424
Key Termsp. 425
Answers to Concept Checksp. 425
Chapter Quizp. 427
Personality Disordersp. 430
An Overview of Personality Disordersp. 431
Aspects of Personality Disordersp. 431
Categorical and Dimensional Modelsp. 432
Personality Disorder Clustersp. 433
Statistics and Developmentp. 433
Gender Differencesp. 434
Comorbidityp. 436
Personality Disorders Under Studyp. 436
Cluster A Personality Disordersp. 437
Paranoid Personality Disorderp. 437
Jake: Research Victimp. 437
Schizoid Personality Disorderp. 439
Mr. Z.: All on His Ownp. 440
Schizotypal Personality Disorderp. 441
Mr. S.: Man with a Missionp. 441
Cluster B Personality Disordersp. 443
Antisocial Personality Disorderp. 444
Ryan: The Thrill Seekerp. 444
Borderline Personality Disorderp. 452
Claire: A Stranger Among Usp. 452
Histrionic Personality Disorderp. 455
Pat: Always Onstagep. 455
Narcissistic Personality Disorderp. 457
Willie: It's All About Mep. 457
Cluster C Personality Disordersp. 459
Avoidant Personality Disorderp. 459
Jane: Not Worth Noticingp. 459
Dependent Personality Disorderp. 461
Karen: Whatever You Sayp. 461
Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorderp. 462
Daniel: Getting It Exactly Rightp. 462
Summaryp. 464
Key Termsp. 465
Answers to Concept Checksp. 465
Chapter Quizp. 467
Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disordersp. 470
Perspectives on Schizophreniap. 471
Early Figures in Diagnosing Schizophreniap. 471
Identifying Symptomsp. 472
Arthur: Saving the Childrenp. 472
Clinical Description, Symptoms, and Subtypesp. 474
Positive Symptomsp. 474
David: Missing Uncle Billp. 475
Negative Symptomsp. 477
Disorganized Symptomsp. 478
Schizophrenia Subtypesp. 479
Other Psychotic Disordersp. 480
Prevalence and Causes of Schizophreniap. 483
Statisticsp. 483
Developmentp. 483
Cultural Factorsp. 484
Genetic Influencesp. 485
Neurobiological Influencesp. 488
Psychological and Social Influencesp. 492
Treatment of Schizophreniap. 494
Biological Interventionsp. 495
Psychosocial Interventionsp. 497
Treatment Across Culturesp. 500
Preventionp. 500
Summaryp. 501
Key Termsp. 502
Answers to Concept Checksp. 502
Chapter Quizp. 503
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