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Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology with Interactive Physiology

by ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780130821928

ISBN10:
0130821926
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2000
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $90.66
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Summary

For a 1 semester or 1-2 quarter course for freshmen/sophomores in allied health, biology, PE or general studies. It provides a uniform depth of coverage for all body systems, yet is still a brief text. Emphasis is placed on essential fundamental concepts, applications and terminology without excessive detail. This text is known for its clarity of presentation and its outstanding illustration program. Innovative pedagogical elements and a tightly-integrated supplements package make this new edition an excellent choice for brief A&P courses.

Table of Contents

Preface to the Student xvi
Preface to the Instructor xxii
An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
2(26)
Introduction
4(1)
The Sciences of Anatomy and Physiology
4(1)
Anatomical Perspectives
4(1)
Microscopic Anatomy
5(1)
Gross Anatomy
5(1)
Physiology
5(1)
Levels of Organization
5(2)
An Introduction to Organ Systems
7(7)
Homeostasis and System Integration
14(11)
Homeostatic Regulation
14(1)
Negative Feedback
14(2)
Positive Feedback
16(1)
Homeostasis and Disease
16(1)
The Language of Anatomy
16(1)
Surface Anatomy
17(1)
Anatomical Landmarks
17(1)
Anatomical Regions
18(1)
Anatomical Directions
18(2)
Sectional Anatomy
20(1)
Planes and Sections
20(1)
Body Cavities
20(3)
Focus: Sectional Anatomy and Clinical Technology
23(2)
Chapter Review
25(3)
Key Terms
25(1)
Summary Outline
25(1)
Review Questions
26(1)
Answers to Concept Check Questions
27(1)
The Chemical Level of Organization
28(24)
Introduction
30(1)
Atoms and Molecules
30(4)
The Structure of an Atom
30(1)
Isotopes
31(1)
Atomic Weight
31(1)
Electrons and Electron Shells
31(1)
Chemical Bonds and Chemical Compounds
31(1)
Ionic Bonds
32(1)
Covalent Bonds
32(1)
Hydrogen Bonds
33(1)
Chemical Notation
34(1)
Chemical Reactions
34(3)
Basic Energy Concepts
34(1)
Classes of Reactions
35(1)
Decomposition
35(1)
Synthesis
35(1)
Exchange Reactions
36(1)
Reversible Reactions
36(1)
Acids and Bases
36(1)
pH
36(1)
Buffers and pH
37(1)
Inorganic Compounds
37(1)
Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen
37(1)
Water and Its Properties
37(1)
Solutions
38(1)
Inorganic Acids and Bases
38(1)
Salts
38(1)
Organic Compounds
38(9)
Carbohydrates
39(1)
Monosaccharides
39(1)
Disaccharides and Polysaccharides
39(1)
Lipids
39(1)
Fatty Acids
39(1)
Fats
40(1)
Steroids
41(1)
Phospholipids
42(1)
Proteins
42(1)
Protein Function
42(1)
Protein Structure
42(1)
Enzymes and Chemical Reactions
43(2)
Nucleic Acids
45(1)
Structure of Nucleic Acids
45(1)
High-Energy Compounds
46(1)
Chemicals and Living Cells
47(1)
Chapter Review
48(4)
Key Terms
48(1)
Summary Outline
49(1)
Review Questions
50(1)
Answers to Concept Check Questions
51(1)
Cell Structure and Function
52(28)
Introduction
54(1)
Studying Cells
54(3)
An Overview of Cellular Anatomy
55(2)
The Cell Membrane
57(7)
Membrane Structure
57(1)
Membrane Lipids
57(1)
Membrane Proteins
57(1)
Membrane Carbohydrates
58(1)
Membrane Transport
58(1)
Diffusion
58(3)
Filtration
61(1)
Carrier-Mediated Transport
61(1)
Vesicular Transport
62(2)
The Cytoplasm
64(5)
The Cytosol
65(1)
Organelles
65(1)
The Cytoskeleton
65(1)
Microvilli
65(1)
Centrioles, Cilia, and Flagella
66(1)
Ribosomes
66(1)
The Endoplasmic Reticulum
66(1)
The Golgi Apparatus
67(1)
Lysosomes
68(1)
Mitochondria
68(1)
The Nucleus
69(4)
Chromosome Structure
69(1)
The Genetic Code
70(1)
DNA Fingerprinting
70(1)
Protein Synthesis
70(1)
Transcription
70(1)
Translation
71(1)
Mutations
72(1)
Cell Division and Mitosis
73(3)
Interphase
73(1)
Mitosis
73(1)
Prophase
74(1)
Metaphase
74(1)
Anaphase
74(1)
Telophase
74(1)
Cytokinesis
74(1)
Cell Division and Cancer
75(1)
Cell Diversity and Differentiation
76(1)
Chapter Review
76(4)
Key Terms
76(1)
Summary Outline
76(2)
Review Questions
78(1)
Answers to Concept Check Questions
79(1)
The Tissue Level of Organization
80(26)
Introduction
82(1)
Epithelial Tissue
82(7)
Functions of Epithelia
82(1)
Intercelluar Connections
83(1)
The Epithelial Surface
84(1)
The Basement Membrane
84(1)
Epithelial Renewal and Repair
84(1)
Classifying Epithelia
85(1)
Cell Layers
85(1)
Cell Shape
85(1)
Simple Squamous Epithelia
85(1)
Simple Cuboidal Epithelia
85(1)
Simple Columnar Epithelia
85(1)
Pseudostratified Epithelia
85(3)
Transitional Epithelia
88(1)
Stratified Squamous Epithelia
88(1)
Exfoliative Cytology
88(1)
Glandular Epithelia
88(1)
Mode of Secretion
88(1)
Type of Secretion
88(1)
Connective Tissues
89(6)
Classifying Connective Tissues
90(1)
Connective Tissue Proper
90(1)
Connective Tissue Fibers
90(2)
Ground Substance
92(1)
Marfan's Syndrome
92(1)
Loose Connective Tissue
92(1)
Adipose Tissue
92(1)
Adipose Tissue and Weight Loss
92(1)
Dense Connective Tissues
92(1)
Fluid Connective Tissues
92(1)
Supporting Connective Tissues
93(1)
Cartilage
93(2)
Cartilages and Knee Injuries
95(1)
Bone
95(1)
Membranes
95(2)
Mucous Membranes
96(1)
Serous Membranes
96(1)
Cutaneous Membrane
96(1)
Synovial Membranes
96(1)
Muscle Tissue
97(2)
Skeletal Muscle Tissue
99(1)
Cardiac Muscle Tissue
99(1)
Smooth Muscle Tissue
99(1)
Neural Tissue
99(1)
Tissue Injuries and Repairs
100(1)
Tissues and Aging
100(1)
Aging and Cancer Incidence
101(1)
Chapter Review
101(5)
Key Terms
101(1)
Summary Outline
101(2)
Review Questions
103(2)
Answers to Concept Check Questions
105(1)
The Integumentary System
106(14)
Introduction
108(1)
Integumentary Structure and Function
108(7)
The Epidermis
109(1)
Layers of the Epidermis
109(1)
Permeability of the Epidermis
110(1)
Drug Administration Through the Skin
110(1)
Skin Color
110(1)
The Epidermis and Vitamin D3
111(1)
The Dermis
111(1)
Layers of the Dermis
111(1)
Other Dermal Components
112(1)
The Subcutaneous Layer
112(1)
Accessory Structures
112(1)
Hair Follicles
112(1)
Hair Loss
113(1)
Sebaceous Glands
113(1)
Sweat Glands
113(1)
Nails
114(1)
Injury and Repair
115(1)
Aging and The Integumentary System
115(1)
Integration With Other Systems
116(1)
Chapter Review
116(4)
Key Terms
116(1)
Summary Outline
116(2)
Review Questions
118(1)
Answers to Concept Check Questions
119(1)
The Skeletal System
120(46)
Introduction
122(1)
The Structure of Bone
122(3)
Macroscopic Features of Bone
122(1)
Microscopic Features of Bone
123(1)
Compact and Spongy Bone
123(1)
Cells in Bone
124(1)
Bone Development and Growth
125(2)
Intramembranous Ossification
125(1)
Endochondral Ossification
125(1)
Bone Growth and Body Proportions
125(1)
Requirements For Normal Bone Growth
126(1)
Remodeling and Homeostatic Mechanisms
127(3)
Remodeling and Support
127(1)
Homeostasis and Mineral Storage
127(1)
Injury and Repair
127(1)
Aging and the Skeletal System
128(1)
Osteoporosis
128(1)
Focus: A Classification of Fractures
129(1)
An Overview of the Skeleton
130(1)
Skeletal Terminology
130(1)
Skeletal Divisions
130(1)
The Axial Division
131(7)
The Skull
131(1)
The Bones of the Cranium
131(5)
The Bones of the Face
136(1)
The Hyoid Bone
137(1)
The Skulls of Infants and Children
137(1)
The Neck and Trunk
138(4)
Spinal Curvature
138(1)
Vertebral Anatomy
138(1)
The Cervical Vertebrae
139(1)
The Thoracic Vertebrae
140(1)
The Lumbar Vertebrae
140(1)
The Sacrum and Coccyx
140(1)
The Thorax
141(1)
The Appendicular Division
142(7)
The Pectoral Girdle
142(1)
The Clavicle
142(1)
The Scapula
142(2)
The Upper Limb
144(1)
The Humerus
144(1)
The Radius and Ulna
144(1)
The Wrist and Hand
145(1)
The Pelvic Girdle
145(1)
The Coxa
146(1)
The Pelvis
147(1)
The Lower Limb
147(1)
The Femur
147(1)
The Tibia and Fibula
148(1)
The Ankle and Foot
148(1)
Articulations
149(9)
A Classification of Joints
149(1)
Immovable Joints (Synarthroses)
149(1)
Slightly Movable Joints (Amphiarthroses)
150(1)
Freely Movable Joints (Diarthroses)
150(1)
Rheumatism and Arthritis
150(1)
Articular Form and Function
151(1)
Types of Movement
151(2)
A Functional Classification of Synovial Joints
153(2)
Representative Articulations
155(1)
Intervertebral Articulations
155(1)
Articulations of the Upper Limb
156(1)
Articulations of the Lower Limb
157(1)
Hip Fractures
157(1)
Integration with Other Systems
158(2)
Chapter Review
160(6)
Key Terms
160(1)
Summary Outline
160(3)
Review Questions
163(1)
Answers to Concept Check Questions
164(2)
The Muscular System
166(48)
Introduction
168(1)
Functions of Skeletal Muscle
168(1)
The Anatomy of Skeletal Muscles
168(9)
Gross Anatomy
168(1)
Connective Tissue Organization
168(1)
Nerves and Blood Vessels
168(1)
Microanatomy
169(1)
Transverse Tubules and the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
169(2)
Myofibrils and Myofilaments
171(1)
Sarcomere Organization
171(1)
Thin and Thick Filaments
171(1)
Sliding Filaments
171(1)
The Muscular Dystrophies
172(1)
The Control of Muscle Fiber Contraction
172(1)
The Structure and Function of the Neuromuscular Junction
172(1)
The Contraction Cycle
172(2)
Rigor Mortis
174(1)
Muscle Contraction: A Summary
174(1)
Interference with Neural Control Mechanisms
174(1)
Tetanus
174(3)
Muscle Mechanics
177(2)
The Frequency of Muscle Stimulation
177(1)
Incomplete Tetanus
177(1)
Complete Tetanus
177(1)
The Number of Muscle Fibers Involved
177(1)
Muscle Tone
178(1)
Isotonic and Isometric Contractions
178(1)
Muscle Elongation
179(1)
Elastic Forces
179(1)
Opposing Muscle Movements
179(1)
The Energetics of Muscular Activity
179(2)
ATP and CP Reserves
179(1)
ATP Generation
179(1)
Aerobic Metabolism
179(1)
Glycolysis
180(1)
Muscle Fatigue
180(1)
The Recovery Period
180(1)
Lactic Acid Recycling
181(1)
Heat Loss
181(1)
Muscle Performance
181(1)
Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibers
181(1)
Fast Fibers
181(1)
Slow Fibers
181(1)
The Distribution of Muscle Fibers and Muscle Performance
181(1)
Physical Conditioning
182(1)
Cardiac and Smooth Muscle Tissues
182(2)
Cardiac Muscle Tissue
182(1)
Differences between Cardiac Muscle and Skeletal Muscle
183(1)
Smooth Muscle Tissue
183(1)
Differences between Smooth Muscle and Other Muscle Tissues
183(1)
Anatomy of the Muscular System
184(22)
Origins, Insertions, and Actions
184(1)
Names of Skeletal Muscles
184(4)
The Axial Musculature
188(1)
Muscles of the Head and Neck
188(2)
Muscles of the Spine
190(2)
The Axial Muscles of the Trunk
192(1)
Muscles of the Pelvic Floor
192(1)
Hernias
192(3)
The Appendicular Musculature
195(1)
Muscles of the Shoulder and Upper Limb
195(6)
Muscles of the Lower Limb
201(3)
Intramuscular Injections
204(2)
Aging and the Muscular System
206(1)
Integration with other Systems
207(1)
Chapter Review
207(7)
Key Terms
207(1)
Summary Outline
207(4)
Review Questions
211(1)
Answers to Concept Check Questions
212(2)
Neural Tissue and the Central Nervous System
214(36)
Introduction
216(1)
The Nervous System
216(1)
Cellular Organization in Neural Tissue
216(4)
Neurons
217(1)
Functional Classification of Neurons
217(1)
The General Structure of Neurons
217(1)
Structural Classification of Neurons
218(1)
Neuroglia
218(2)
Neurophysiology
220(4)
The Membrane Potential
220(1)
Factors Responsible for the Membrane Potential
220(1)
Changes in the Membrane Potential
221(1)
The Generation of an Action Potential
222(1)
Conduction of an Action Potential
222(2)
Synaptic Communication
224(2)
Structure of a Synapse
224(1)
Synaptic Events and Neurotransmitters
225(1)
Neuronal Pools
226(1)
An Introduction to Reflexes
227(1)
The Reflex Arc
227(1)
An Introduction to the Anatomy of the Nervous System
227(3)
The Meninges
228(1)
The Dura Mater
229(1)
The Arachnoid
229(1)
Epidural and Subdural Damage
229(1)
The Pia Mater
230(1)
Meningitis
230(1)
The Blood-Brain Barrier
230(1)
The Spinal Cord
230(2)
Gross Anatomy
230(1)
Sectional Anatomy
230(2)
The Brain
232(11)
Major Divisions of the Brain
233(1)
The Ventricles of the Brain
234(1)
Cerebrospinal Fluid
235(1)
The Cerebrum
235(1)
Structure of the Cerebral Hemispheres
236(1)
Motor and Sensory Areas of the Cortex
236(1)
Association Areas
237(1)
Cortical Connections
237(1)
Cerebral Processing Centers
237(1)
Aphasia and Dyslexia
238(1)
Memory
238(1)
Hemispheric Specialization
239(1)
The Electroencephalogram
239(1)
The Cerebral Nuclei
239(1)
Seizures
240(1)
The Limbic System
241(1)
The Diencephalon
241(1)
The Thalamus
241(1)
The Hypothalamus
241(1)
The Midbrain
242(1)
The Pons
242(1)
The Cerebellum
243(1)
The Medulla Oblongata
243(1)
Aging and the Nervous System
243(1)
Alzheimer's Disease
244(1)
Chapter Review
244(6)
Key Terms
244(1)
Summary Outline
244(3)
Review Questions
247(1)
Answers to Concept Check Questions
248(2)
The Peripheral Nervous System and Integrated Neural Functions
250(20)
Introduction
252(1)
The Peripheral Nervous System
252(4)
The Cranial Nerves
252(1)
Distribution and Function
252(3)
The Spinal Nerves
255(1)
Nerve Plexuses
256(1)
The CNS and PNS: Integrated Functions
256(2)
Simple Reflexes
256(1)
The Stretch Reflex
256(1)
Complex Reflexes
257(1)
Withdrawal Reflexes
257(1)
Integration and Control of Spinal Reflexes
258(1)
Sensory and Motor Pathways
258(3)
Sensory Pathways
258(1)
The Posterior Column Pathway
258(1)
Motor Pathways
259(1)
The Pyramidal System
259(1)
The Extrapyramidal System
260(1)
Cerebral Palsy and Huntington's Disease
260(1)
The Autonomic Nervous System
261(4)
The Sympathetic Division
262(1)
The Sympathetic Chain
262(1)
The Collateral Ganglia
262(1)
The Adrenal Medullae
262(1)
The Parasympathetic Division
262(1)
Organization
263(1)
General Functions
263(1)
Relationships Between the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Divisions
264(1)
Integration with other Systems
265(1)
Chapter Review
265(5)
Key Terms
265(2)
Summary Outline
267(1)
Review Questions
268(1)
Answers to Concept Check Questions
269(1)
Sensory Function
270(34)
Introduction
272(1)
The General Senses
272(4)
Pain
272(1)
Temperature
273(1)
Touch, Pressure, and Position
273(1)
Tactile Receptors
273(1)
Baroreceptors
274(1)
Proprioceptors
275(1)
Chemical Detection
275(1)
Smell
276(1)
The Olfactory Pathways
276(1)
Taste
277(1)
The Taste Pathways
277(1)
Vision
278(11)
The Accessory Structures of the Eye
278(1)
The Anatomy of the Eye
279(1)
The Fibrous Tunic
280(1)
The Vascular Tunic
281(1)
The Neural Tunic
282(2)
The Chambers of the Eye
284(1)
The Lens
284(1)
Cataracts
284(2)
Focus: Accommodation Problems
286(1)
Visual Acuity
286(1)
Visual Physiology
286(1)
Rods and Cones
286(1)
Photoreceptor Function
287(1)
Visual Pigments
287(1)
Night Blindness
288(1)
The Visual Pathway
288(1)
Equilibrium and Hearing
289(2)
The Anatomy of the Ear
289(1)
The External Ear
290(1)
The Middle Ear
290(1)
The Inner Ear
291(1)
Equilibrium
291(3)
The Semicircular Ducts: Rotational Motion
292(1)
The Vestibule: Gravity and Linear Acceleration
292(2)
Central Processing of Vestibular Sensations
294(1)
Hearing
294(4)
The Cochlear Duct
294(1)
The Hearing Process
294(3)
Auditory Pathways
297(1)
Auditory Sensitivity
298(1)
Hearing Deficits
298(1)
Aging and the Senses
298(1)
Olfactory Sensitivity
298(1)
Gustatory Sensitivity
298(1)
Vision
298(1)
Hearing
299(1)
Chapter Review
299(5)
Key Terms
299(1)
Summary Outline
299(2)
Review Questions
301(2)
Answers to Concept Check Questions
303(1)
The Endocrine System
304(28)
Introduction
306(1)
An Overview of the Endocrine System
306(4)
The Structure of Hormones
306(1)
The Mechanisms of Hormonal Action
307(1)
Hormones and the Cell Membrane
307(1)
Hormones and Intracellular Receptors
308(1)
The Control of Endocrine Activity
309(1)
Direct Negative Feedback Control
309(1)
The Hypothalamus and Endocrine Regulation
309(1)
The Pituitary Gland
310(4)
The Anterior Pituitary Gland
310(1)
The Hypophyseal Portal System
310(1)
Hypothalamic Control of the Anterior Pituitary
311(1)
Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary
312(1)
The Posterior Pituitary Gland
313(1)
Diabetes Insipidus
313(1)
The Thyroid Gland
314(3)
Thyroid Follicles and Thyroid Hormones
314(2)
The C Cells of the Thyroid Gland: Calcitonin
316(1)
The Parathyroid Glands
317(1)
The Thymus
318(1)
The Adrenal Glands
318(2)
The Adrenal Cortex
318(1)
Corticosteroids
318(1)
The Adrenal Medulla
319(1)
The Kidneys
320(1)
The Heart
320(1)
Endocrine Tissues of the Digestive System
320(2)
The Pancreas
320(1)
Diabetes Mellitus
321(1)
Regulation of Blood Glucose Concentrations
321(1)
Endocrine Tissues of the Reproductive System
322(1)
The Testes
322(1)
The Ovearies
322(1)
Endocrinology and Athletic Performance
323(1)
The Pineal Gland
323(1)
Patterns of Hormonal Interaction
324(2)
Hormones and Growth
324(1)
Hormones and Behavior
324(1)
Hormones and Stress
325(1)
Hormones and Aging
326(1)
Endocrine Disorders
326(1)
Integration with other Systems
326(1)
Chapter Review
326(6)
Key Terms
326(1)
Summary Outline
326(4)
Review Questions
330(1)
Answers to Concept Check Questions
331(1)
Blood
332(22)
Introduction
334(1)
The Functions of Blood
334(1)
The Composition of Blood
334(2)
Blood Collection and Analysis
334(2)
Plasma
336(1)
Differences Between Plasma and Interstitial Fluid
336(1)
Plasma Proteins
336(1)
Formed Elements
336(12)
The Production of Formed Elements
336(1)
Red Blood Cells
337(1)
The Structure of RBCs
337(1)
Hemoglobin Structure and Function
338(1)
RBC Life Span and Circulation
338(1)
Abnormal Hemoglobin
338(1)
Red Blood Cell Formation
339(1)
Blood Tests and RBCs
340(1)
Blood Types
340(2)
Testing for Compatibility
342(1)
Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn
343(1)
White Blood Cells
343(1)
WBC Circulation and Movement
343(1)
General Functions
344(1)
Neutrophils
344(1)
Eosinophils
344(1)
Basophils
344(1)
Monocytes
344(1)
Lymphocytes
344(1)
The Differential Count and Changes in WBC Profiles
345(1)
White Blood Cell Formation
346(1)
Platelets
347(1)
Hemostasis
348(2)
The Clotting Process
348(1)
The Extrinsic, Intrinsic, and Common Pathways
348(1)
Clot Retraction and Removal
349(1)
Abnormal Hemostasis
350(1)
Chapter Review
350(4)
Key Terms
350(1)
Summary Outline
351(1)
Review Questions
352(1)
Answers to Concept Check Questions
353(1)
The Heart
354(20)
Introduction
356(1)
The Heart and the Circulatory System
356(1)
The Anatomy and Organization of the Heart
356(7)
The Surface Anatomy of the Heart
357(1)
Internal Anatomy and Organization
357(2)
Structural Differences between the Left and Right Ventricles
359(1)
The Heart Valves
360(1)
Mitral Valve Prolapse
361(1)
Valvular Heart Disease
361(1)
The Heart Wall
361(1)
Cardiac Muscle Cells
361(1)
The Fibrous Skeleton
361(1)
The Blood Supply to the Heart
362(1)
The Heartbeat
363(5)
Contractile Cells
363(1)
The Conducting System
364(1)
Nodal Cells
364(1)
Conducting Cells
364(1)
The Electrocardiogram
365(2)
The Cardiac Cycle
367(1)
Heart Sounds
368(1)
Heart Dynamics
368(2)
Factors Controlling Cardiac Output
368(1)
Blood Volume Reflexes
368(1)
Autonomic Innervation
369(1)
Extracellular Ions, Temperature, and the Heart
370(1)
Chapter Review
370(4)
Key Terms
370(1)
Summary Outline
371(1)
Review Questions
372(1)
Answers to Concept Check Questions
373(1)
Blood Vessels and Circulation
374(36)
Introduction
376(1)
The Anatomy of Blood Vessels
376(3)
The Structure of Vessel Walls
376(1)
Arteries
377(1)
Capillaries
377(1)
Capillary Beds
377(1)
Arteriosclerosis
378(1)
Veins
379(1)
Circulatory Physiology
379(5)
Pressure
379(1)
Resistance
380(1)
Vascular Resistance
380(1)
Viscosity
380(1)
Turbulence
380(1)
Circulatory Pressure
380(1)
Arterial Blood Pressure
380(1)
Capillary Pressures and Capillary Dynamics
381(1)
Capillary Dynamics and Blood Volume
381(1)
Venous Pressure
382(1)
Checking the Pulse and Blood Pressure
383(1)
Cardiovascular Regulation
384(5)
The Autoregulation of Blood Flow
384(1)
The Neural Control of Blood Pressure and Blood Flow
385(1)
Baroreceptor Reflexes
385(1)
Chemoreceptor Reflexes
386(1)
Influence of the ANS and Higher Brain Centers
386(1)
Hormones and Cardiovascular Regulation
387(1)
Angiotensin II
387(1)
Antidiuretic Hormone
387(1)
Erythropoietin
387(2)
Atrial Natriuretic Peptide
389(1)
Patterns of Cardiovascular Response
389(1)
Exercise and the Cardiovascular System
389(1)
Exercise, Cardiovascular Fitness, and Health
389(1)
Cardiovascular Response to Hemorrhaging
389(1)
The Elevation of Blood Pressure
389(1)
The Restoration of Blood Volume
390(1)
Shock
390(1)
The Blood Vessels
390(14)
The Pulmonary Circulation
391(1)
The Systemic Circulation
392(1)
Systemic Arteries
392(5)
Systemic Veins
397(5)
Fetal Circulation
402(1)
Placental Blood Supply
402(1)
Circulation in the Heart and Great Vessels
403(1)
Circulatory Changes at Birth
403(1)
Aging and the Cardiovascular System
404(1)
Integration with other Systems
404(1)
Chapter Review
404(6)
Key Terms
404(1)
Summary Outline
404(3)
Review Questions
407(2)
Answers to Concept Check Questions
409(1)
The Lymphatic System and Immunity
410(26)
Introduction
412(1)
Organization of the Lymphatic System
412(6)
Functions of the Lymphatic System
412(1)
Lymphatic Vessels
413(1)
Lymphocytes
413(1)
Types of Lymphocytes
413(1)
The Origin and Circulation of Lymphocytes
414(1)
Lymphoid Nodules
415(1)
Lymphoid Organs
416(1)
Lymph Nodes
416(1)
Swollen Glands
416(1)
The Thymus
416(1)
The Spleen
416(2)
Injury to the Spleen
418(1)
Body Defenses and the Lymphatic System
418(1)
Nonspecific Defenses
418(3)
Physical Barriers
418(1)
Phagocytes
418(2)
Immunological Surveillance
420(1)
Interferons
420(1)
Complement
420(1)
Inflammation
420(1)
Fever
421(1)
Specific Defenses: The Immune Response
421(7)
Forms of Immunity
421(1)
Properties of Immunity
422(1)
An Overview of the Immune Response
422(1)
T Cells and Cell-Mediated Immunity
422(1)
Crtotoxic T Cells
423(1)
Memory T Cells
423(1)
Suppressor T Cells
423(1)
Helper T Cells
423(1)
B Cells and Antibody-Mediated Immunity
424(1)
B Cell Activation
424(1)
Antibody Structure
424(1)
Classes of Antibodies
425(1)
Antibody Function
425(1)
Note Aids
426(1)
Primary and Secondary Responses to Antigen Exposure
427(1)
Hormones of the Immune System
427(1)
Patterns of Immune Response
428(2)
Immune Disorders
428(1)
Autoimmune Disorders
428(1)
Allergies
429(1)
Stress and the Immune Response
430(1)
Age and the Immune Response
430(1)
Integration with other Systems
430(1)
Technology, Immunity, and Disease
430(1)
Chapter Review
430(6)
Key Terms
430(2)
Summary Outline
432(2)
Review Questions
434(1)
Answers to Concept Check Questions
435(1)
The Respiratory System
436(26)
Introduction
438(1)
The Functions of the Respiratory System
438(1)
The Organization of the Respiratory System
438(9)
The Respiratory Tract
438(1)
The Nose
438(2)
The Pharynx
440(1)
Cystic Fibrosis
440(1)
The Larynx
441(1)
The Vocal Cords and Sound Production
442(1)
The Trachea
442(1)
Tracheal Blockage
443(1)
The Bronchi
443(1)
The Bronchioles
443(1)
The Alveolar Ducts and Alveoli
443(2)
The Respiratory Memberane
445(1)
Circulation to the Respiratory Membrane
445(1)
Pneumonia
445(1)
The Lungs
445(1)
The Pleural Cavities
446(1)
Respiratory Changes at Birth
446(1)
Respiratory Physiology
447(7)
Tuberculosis
447(1)
Pulmonary Ventilation
447(1)
Artificial Respiration
447(1)
Pressure and Airflow to the Lungs
447(2)
Modes of Breathing
449(1)
Respiratory Volumes and Rates
449(1)
Pulmonary Function Tests
450(1)
Gas Exchange at the Respiratory Membrane
450(1)
Mixed Gases and Partial Pressures
450(1)
Alveolar versus Atmospheric Air
450(1)
Decompression Sickness
451(1)
Partial Pressures within the Circulatory System
451(1)
Emphysema
451(1)
Gas Pickup and Delivery
451(1)
Oxygen Transport
451(1)
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
452(1)
Carbon Dioxide Transport
453(1)
The Control of Respiration
454(3)
The Respiratory Centers of the Brain
454(1)
The Activities of the Respiratory Rhythmicity Center
454(1)
The Reflex Control of Respiration
454(1)
Mechanoreceptor Reflexes
454(1)
Chemoreceptor Reflexes
455(1)
Hypercapnia
455(1)
Lung Cancer, Smoking, and Diet
456(1)
Control By Higher Centers
456(1)
SIDS
456(1)
Aging and the Respiratory System
457(1)
Integration with other Systems
457(1)
Chapter Review
457(5)
Key Terms
457(2)
Summary Outline
459(1)
Review Questions
460(1)
Answers to Concept Check Questions
461(1)
The Digestive System
462(32)
Introduction
464(1)
An Overview of the Digestive Tract
464(3)
Histological Organization
464(1)
The Mucosa
464(1)
The Submucosa
464(1)
The Muscularis Externa
464(2)
The Serosa
466(1)
Ascites
466(1)
The Movement of Digestive Materials
466(1)
Peristalsis and Segmentation
466(1)
The Oral Cavity
467(3)
The Tongue
467(1)
Salivary Glands
467(1)
Mumps
468(1)
Salivary Secretions
468(1)
Teeth
468(1)
Dental Succession
469(1)
The Pharynx
470(1)
The Esophagus
470(1)
Swallowing
470(1)
Esophagitis and Hiatal Hernias
471(1)
The Stomach
471(3)
The Gastric Wall
471(1)
Parietal Cells
471(1)
Chief Cells
471(2)
Gastritis and Peptic Ulcers
473(1)
The Regulation of Gastric Activity
473(1)
Stomach Cancer
474(1)
Digestion in the Stomach
474(1)
The Small Intestine
474(4)
The Intestinal Wall
475(1)
Intestinal Movements
476(1)
Intestinal Secretions
476(1)
Vomiting
476(1)
Intestinal Hormones
Digestion in the Small Intestine
477(1)
The Pancreas
478(1)
Histological Organization
478(1)
Pancreatitis
478(1)
The Control of Pancreatic Secretion
479(1)
The Liver
479(3)
Anatomy of the Liver
479(1)
Histological Organization
479(1)
Liver Functions
480(1)
Metabolic Regulation
480(1)
Hematological Regulation
481(1)
The Synthesis and Secretion of Bile
481(1)
Other Liver Functions
481(1)
The Gallbladder
481(1)
The Physiological Role of Bile
481(1)
The Large Intestine
482(3)
The Cecum
482(1)
The Colon
482(1)
Colon Cancer
482(2)
The Physiology of the Large Intestine
484(1)
Absorption in the Large Intestine
484(1)
Movements of the Large Intestine
484(1)
Diverticulosis
484(1)
The Rectum
484(1)
Defecation
484(1)
Diarrhea and Constipation
485(1)
Digestion and Absorption
485(3)
The Processing and Absorption of Nutrients
485(1)
Carbohydrate Digestion and Absorption
485(1)
Lactose Intolerance
486(1)
Lipid Digestion and Absorption
486(1)
Protein Digestion and Absorption
486(1)
Water and Electrolyte Absorption
487(1)
The Absorption of Vitamins
487(1)
Malabsorption Syndromes
488(1)
Aging and the Digestive System
488(1)
Integration with Other Systems
488(1)
Chapter Review
488(6)
Key Terms
488(2)
Summary Outline
490(2)
Review Questions
492(1)
Answers to Concept Check Questions
493(1)
Nutrition and Metabolism
494(22)
Introduction
496(1)
Cellular Metabolism
496(8)
Carbohydrate Metabolism
497(1)
Glycolysis
497(1)
Mitochondrial Energy Production
497(2)
Energy Yield of Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration
499(1)
Carbohydrate Loading
500(1)
Other Catabolic Pathways
500(1)
Gluconeogenesis
500(1)
Lipid Metabolism
501(1)
Lipid Catabolism
501(1)
Lipids and Energy Production
501(1)
Lipid Synthesis
501(1)
Lipid Transport and Distribution
502(1)
Protein Metabolism
502(1)
Amino Acid Catabolism
502(1)
Dietary Fats and Cholesterol
503(1)
Amino Acids and Protein Synthesis
503(1)
Ketoacidosis
504(1)
Nucleic Acid Metabolism
504(1)
Nucleic Acid Synthesis
504(1)
A Summary of Cellular Metabolism
504(1)
Diet and Nutrition
504(6)
The Basic Food Groups
505(1)
Minerals, Vitamins, and Water
506(1)
Minerals
506(1)
Vitamins
507(1)
Water
508(1)
Diet and Disease
509(1)
Bioenergetics
510(2)
Food and Energy
510(1)
Metabolic Rate
510(1)
Thermoregulation
510(1)
Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
510(2)
Aging and Nutritional Requirements
512(1)
Chapter Review
512(4)
Key Terms
512(1)
Summary Outline
513(1)
Review Questions
514(1)
Answers to Concept Check Questions
515(1)
The Urinary System
516(30)
Introduction
518(1)
The Organization of the Urinary System
518(1)
The Kidneys
518(6)
Superficial and Sectional Anatomy
519(1)
The Nephron
519(1)
An Overview of the Nephron
520(1)
Functions of the Nephron
520(1)
The Renal Corpuscle
521(2)
The Proximal Convoluted Tubule
523(1)
The Loop of Henle
523(1)
The Distal Convoluted Tubule
523(1)
The Collecting System
523(1)
The Blood Supply to the Kidneys
523(1)
Basic Principles of Urine Production
524(7)
Filtration at the Glomerulus
525(1)
Filtration Pressure
525(1)
The Glomerular Filtration Rate
526(1)
Reabsorption and Secretion Along the Renal Tubule
526(1)
The Proximal Convoluted Tubule
526(1)
The Loop of Henle
526(1)
The Distal Convoluted Tubule and the Collecting System
527(1)
The Properties of Normal Urine
528(1)
The Control of Kidney Function
528(1)
The Local Regulation of Kidney Function
528(1)
Symapathetic Activation and Kidney Function
528(1)
Focus: A Summary of Urine Formation
529(1)
The Treatment of Kidney Failure
530(1)
The Hormonal Control of Kidney Function
530(1)
Urine Transport, Storage, and Elimination
531(2)
The Ureters and Urinary Bladder
531(1)
The Urethra
532(1)
The Micturition Reflex and Urination
532(1)
Incontinence
533(1)
Integration with Other Systems
533(2)
Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
535(5)
Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
535(1)
Fluid Balance
536(1)
Fluid Shifts
536(1)
Electrolyte Balance
536(1)
Acid-Base Balance
537(1)
Acids in the Body
537(1)
Buffers and Buffer Systems
538(1)
Maintaining Acid-Base Balance
539(1)
Clinical Noye: Disturbances of Acid-Base Balance
539(1)
Aging and the Urinary System
540(1)
Chapter Review
541(5)
Key Terms
541(1)
Summary Outline
541(3)
Review Questions
544(1)
Answers to Concept Check Questions
545(1)
The Reproductive System
546(30)
Introduction
548(1)
The Reproductive System of the Male
548(8)
The Testes
548(2)
Cryptorchidism
550(1)
Spermatogenesis
550(1)
Anatomy of a Spermatozoon
551(1)
The Male Reproductive Tract
552(1)
The Epididymis
552(1)
The Ductus Deferens
552(1)
The Urethra
552(1)
The Accessory Glands
552(1)
The Seminal Vesicles
552(1)
The Prostate Gland
553(1)
Prostatitis
553(1)
The Bulbourethral Glands
553(1)
Semen
553(1)
The Penis
553(2)
Hormones and Male Reproductive Function
555(1)
FSH and Spermatogenesis
555(1)
LH and Androgen Production
555(1)
The Reproductive System of the Female
556(9)
The Ovaries
556(1)
Oogenesis
557(1)
The Ovarian Cycle
557(2)
The Uterine Tubes
559(1)
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
559(1)
The Uterus
560(1)
The Uterine Cycle
560(1)
Amenorrhea
560(1)
The Vagina
561(1)
The External Genitalia
561(1)
The Mammary Glands
561(1)
Breast Cancer
562(1)
Hormones and the Female Reproductive Cycle
562(1)
Hormones and the Preovulatory Phase
562(3)
Hormones and the Postovulatory Phase
565(1)
Hormones and the Uterine Cycle
565(1)
Hormones and Body Temperature
565(1)
The Physiology of Sexual Intercourse
565(1)
Male Sexual Function
565(1)
Female Sexual Function
565(1)
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
566(1)
Aging and the Reproductive System
566(1)
Menopause
566(1)
The Male Climacteric
566(1)
Integration with Other Systems
566(5)
FOCUS: Birth Control Strategies
569(2)
Chapter Review
571(5)
Key Terms
571(1)
Summary Outline
572(1)
Review Questions
573(2)
Answers to Concept Check Questions
575(1)
Development and Inheritance
576
Introduction
578(1)
An Overview of Topics in Development
578(1)
Fertilization
578(3)
The Oocyte at Ovulation
578(2)
A Preview of Prenatal Development
580(1)
The First Trimester
581(9)
Cleavage and Blastocyst Formation
581(1)
Implantation
581(1)
The Formation of the Blastodisc
582(1)
Infertility
582(1)
Gastrulation and Germ Layer Formation
582(1)
The Formation of Extraembryonic Membranes
583(2)
Placentation
585(1)
Placental Circulation
585(1)
Placental Hormones
585(1)
Embryogenesis
585(5)
The Second and Third Trimesters
590(2)
Pregnancy and Maternal Systems
590(1)
Structural and Functional Changes in the Uterus
591(1)
Labor and Delivery
592(2)
The Stages of Labor
592(1)
Premature Labor
593(1)
Multiple Births
594(1)
Postnatal Development
594(1)
The Neonatal Period, Infancy, and Childhood
594(1)
The Neonatal Period
594(1)
Infancy and Childhood
595(1)
Adolescence and Maturity
595(1)
Genetics, Development, and Inheritance
595(5)
Genes and Chromosomes
596(1)
Autosomal Chromosomes
596(2)
Sex Chromosomes
598(1)
The Human Genome Project
598(1)
Chromosomal Abnormalties and Genetic Analysis
599(1)
Chapter Review
600
Key Terms
600(1)
Summary Outline
600(2)
Review Questions
602(1)
Answers to Concept Check Questions
603
Appendix I: Answers to End-of-Chapter Questions A
Appendix II: A Periodic Chart of the Elements A-10
Appendix III: Weights and Measures A-11
Appendix IV: Normal Physiolgical Values A-14
Glossary/Index GI-1
Illustration Credits IC-1


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