Acknowledgments | p. vii |

Preface | p. ix |

Prologue | p. xi |

About the Author | p. xiii |

Introduction | p. 1 |

What Is Biostatistics? | p. 2 |

What Are the Issues? | p. 2 |

Summary | p. 4 |

Study Designs | p. 7 |

Vocabulary | p. 8 |

Observational Study Designs | p. 8 |

Randomized Study Designs | p. 13 |

The Framingham Heart Study | p. 17 |

More on Clinical Trials | p. 17 |

Sample Size Implications | p. 20 |

Summary | p. 20 |

Practice Problems | p. 20 |

Quantifying the Extent of Disease | p. 23 |

Prevalence | p. 23 |

Incidence | p. 24 |

Relationships Between Prevalence and Incidence | p. 26 |

Comparing the Extent of Disease Between Groups | p. 27 |

Summary | p. 30 |

Practice Problems | p. 30 |

Summarizing Data Collected in the Sample | p. 35 |

Dichotomous Variables | p. 36 |

Ordinal and Categorical Variables | p. 40 |

Continuous Variables | p. 49 |

Summary | p. 60 |

Practice Problems | p. 62 |

The Role of Probability | p. 67 |

Sampling | p. 67 |

Basic Concepts | p. 69 |

Conditional Probability | p. 70 |

Independence | p. 73 |

Bayes' Theorem | p. 74 |

Probability Models | p. 75 |

Summary | p. 96 |

Practice Problems | p. 96 |

Confidence Interval Estimates | p. 101 |

Introduction to Estimation | p. 101 |

Confidence Intervals for One Sample, Continuous Outcome | p. 103 |

Confidence Intervals for One Sample, Dichotomous Outcome | p. 104 |

Confidence Intervals for Two Independent Samples, Continuous Outcome | p. 106 |

Confidence Intervals for Matched Samples, Continuous Outcome | p. 110 |

Confidence Intervals for Two Independent Samples, Dichotomous Outcome | p. 113 |

Summary | p. 117 |

Practice Problems | p. 118 |

Hypothesis Testing Procedures | p. 123 |

Introduction to Hypothesis Testing | p. 123 |

Tests with One Sample, Continuous Outcome | p. 130 |

Tests with One Sample, Dichotomous Outcome | p. 133 |

Tests with One Sample, Categorical and Ordinal Outcomes | p. 134 |

Tests with Two Independent Samples, Continuous Outcome | p. 138 |

Tests with Matched Samples, Continuous Outcome | p. 141 |

Tests with Two Independent Samples, Dichotomous Outcome | p. 144 |

Tests with More Than Two Independent Samples, Continuous Outcome | p. 147 |

Tests for Two or More Independent Samples, Categorical and Ordinal Outcomes | p. 156 |

Summary | p. 160 |

Practice Problems | p. 162 |

Power and Sample Size Determination | p. 169 |

Issues in Estimating Sample Size for Confidence Intervals Estimates | p. 170 |

Issues in Estimating Sample Size for Hypothesis Testing | p. 176 |

Summary | p. 185 |

Practice Problems | p. 185 |

Multivariable Methods | p. 189 |

Confounding and Effect Modification | p. 190 |

The Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel Method | p. 197 |

Introduction to Correlation and Regression Analysis | p. 198 |

Multiple Linear Regression Analysis | p. 206 |

Multiple Logistic Regression Analysis | p. 210 |

Summary | p. 213 |

Practice Problems | p. 214 |

Nonparametric Tests | p. 219 |

Introduction to Nonparametric Testing | p. 221 |

Tests with Two Independent Samples | p. 223 |

Tests with Matched Samples | p. 229 |

Tests with More Than Two Independent Samples | p. 236 |

Summary | p. 240 |

Practice Problems | p. 241 |

Survival Analysis | p. 243 |

Introduction to Survival Data | p. 245 |

Estimating the Survival Function | p. 247 |

Comparing Survival Curves | p. 252 |

Cox Proportional Hazards Regression Analysis | p. 260 |

Extensions | p. 264 |

Summary | p. 265 |

Practice Problems | p. 267 |

Appendix | p. 271 |

Glossary | p. 289 |

Index | p. 299 |

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