Acknowledgments | p. vii |
Preface | p. ix |
Prologue | p. xi |
About the Author | p. xiii |
Introduction | p. 1 |
What Is Biostatistics? | p. 2 |
What Are the Issues? | p. 2 |
Summary | p. 4 |
Study Designs | p. 7 |
Vocabulary | p. 8 |
Observational Study Designs | p. 8 |
Randomized Study Designs | p. 13 |
The Framingham Heart Study | p. 17 |
More on Clinical Trials | p. 17 |
Sample Size Implications | p. 20 |
Summary | p. 20 |
Practice Problems | p. 20 |
Quantifying the Extent of Disease | p. 23 |
Prevalence | p. 23 |
Incidence | p. 24 |
Relationships Between Prevalence and Incidence | p. 26 |
Comparing the Extent of Disease Between Groups | p. 27 |
Summary | p. 30 |
Practice Problems | p. 30 |
Summarizing Data Collected in the Sample | p. 35 |
Dichotomous Variables | p. 36 |
Ordinal and Categorical Variables | p. 40 |
Continuous Variables | p. 49 |
Summary | p. 60 |
Practice Problems | p. 62 |
The Role of Probability | p. 67 |
Sampling | p. 67 |
Basic Concepts | p. 69 |
Conditional Probability | p. 70 |
Independence | p. 73 |
Bayes' Theorem | p. 74 |
Probability Models | p. 75 |
Summary | p. 96 |
Practice Problems | p. 96 |
Confidence Interval Estimates | p. 101 |
Introduction to Estimation | p. 101 |
Confidence Intervals for One Sample, Continuous Outcome | p. 103 |
Confidence Intervals for One Sample, Dichotomous Outcome | p. 104 |
Confidence Intervals for Two Independent Samples, Continuous Outcome | p. 106 |
Confidence Intervals for Matched Samples, Continuous Outcome | p. 110 |
Confidence Intervals for Two Independent Samples, Dichotomous Outcome | p. 113 |
Summary | p. 117 |
Practice Problems | p. 118 |
Hypothesis Testing Procedures | p. 123 |
Introduction to Hypothesis Testing | p. 123 |
Tests with One Sample, Continuous Outcome | p. 130 |
Tests with One Sample, Dichotomous Outcome | p. 133 |
Tests with One Sample, Categorical and Ordinal Outcomes | p. 134 |
Tests with Two Independent Samples, Continuous Outcome | p. 138 |
Tests with Matched Samples, Continuous Outcome | p. 141 |
Tests with Two Independent Samples, Dichotomous Outcome | p. 144 |
Tests with More Than Two Independent Samples, Continuous Outcome | p. 147 |
Tests for Two or More Independent Samples, Categorical and Ordinal Outcomes | p. 156 |
Summary | p. 160 |
Practice Problems | p. 162 |
Power and Sample Size Determination | p. 169 |
Issues in Estimating Sample Size for Confidence Intervals Estimates | p. 170 |
Issues in Estimating Sample Size for Hypothesis Testing | p. 176 |
Summary | p. 185 |
Practice Problems | p. 185 |
Multivariable Methods | p. 189 |
Confounding and Effect Modification | p. 190 |
The Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel Method | p. 197 |
Introduction to Correlation and Regression Analysis | p. 198 |
Multiple Linear Regression Analysis | p. 206 |
Multiple Logistic Regression Analysis | p. 210 |
Summary | p. 213 |
Practice Problems | p. 214 |
Nonparametric Tests | p. 219 |
Introduction to Nonparametric Testing | p. 221 |
Tests with Two Independent Samples | p. 223 |
Tests with Matched Samples | p. 229 |
Tests with More Than Two Independent Samples | p. 236 |
Summary | p. 240 |
Practice Problems | p. 241 |
Survival Analysis | p. 243 |
Introduction to Survival Data | p. 245 |
Estimating the Survival Function | p. 247 |
Comparing Survival Curves | p. 252 |
Cox Proportional Hazards Regression Analysis | p. 260 |
Extensions | p. 264 |
Summary | p. 265 |
Practice Problems | p. 267 |
Appendix | p. 271 |
Glossary | p. 289 |
Index | p. 299 |
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