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# Essentials of Biostatistics In Public Health

**by**Sullivan, Lisa M.

2nd

### 9781449623944

1449623948

Paperback

3/1/2011

JONES & BARTLETT PUBLISHERS

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## Summary

Essentials of Biostatistics in Public Health, Second Edition provides a fundamental and engaging background for students learning to apply and appropriately interpret biostatistics applications in the field of public health.Many examples are drawn directly from the author's remarkable clinical experiences with the renowned Framingham Heart Study, making this text practical, interesting, and accessible for those with little mathematical background. The examples are real, relevant, and manageable in size so that students can easily focus on applications rather than become overwhelmed by computations. The text is accompanied by an online workbook: Statistical Computing Using Microsoft Excel (for Mac or PC).New Features of the Second Edition:" Learning objectives and more practice problems for every chapter" A new chapter on survival analysis " A new chapter on nonparametric statistics " Coverage of sensitivity, specificity, and performance of screening tests connecting probability to real and important applications" An expansion of the chapter on multivariable methods with more emphasis on interpretation of multivariable regression " A bank of questions for the audience response system ( ;clickers ;) for instructors

## Table of Contents

Acknowledgments | p. vii |

Preface | p. ix |

Prologue | p. xi |

About the Author | p. xiii |

Introduction | p. 1 |

What Is Biostatistics? | p. 2 |

What Are the Issues? | p. 2 |

Summary | p. 4 |

Study Designs | p. 7 |

Vocabulary | p. 8 |

Observational Study Designs | p. 8 |

Randomized Study Designs | p. 13 |

The Framingham Heart Study | p. 17 |

More on Clinical Trials | p. 17 |

Sample Size Implications | p. 20 |

Summary | p. 20 |

Practice Problems | p. 20 |

Quantifying the Extent of Disease | p. 23 |

Prevalence | p. 23 |

Incidence | p. 24 |

Relationships Between Prevalence and Incidence | p. 26 |

Comparing the Extent of Disease Between Groups | p. 27 |

Summary | p. 30 |

Practice Problems | p. 30 |

Summarizing Data Collected in the Sample | p. 35 |

Dichotomous Variables | p. 36 |

Ordinal and Categorical Variables | p. 40 |

Continuous Variables | p. 49 |

Summary | p. 60 |

Practice Problems | p. 62 |

The Role of Probability | p. 67 |

Sampling | p. 67 |

Basic Concepts | p. 69 |

Conditional Probability | p. 70 |

Independence | p. 73 |

Bayes' Theorem | p. 74 |

Probability Models | p. 75 |

Summary | p. 96 |

Practice Problems | p. 96 |

Confidence Interval Estimates | p. 101 |

Introduction to Estimation | p. 101 |

Confidence Intervals for One Sample, Continuous Outcome | p. 103 |

Confidence Intervals for One Sample, Dichotomous Outcome | p. 104 |

Confidence Intervals for Two Independent Samples, Continuous Outcome | p. 106 |

Confidence Intervals for Matched Samples, Continuous Outcome | p. 110 |

Confidence Intervals for Two Independent Samples, Dichotomous Outcome | p. 113 |

Summary | p. 117 |

Practice Problems | p. 118 |

Hypothesis Testing Procedures | p. 123 |

Introduction to Hypothesis Testing | p. 123 |

Tests with One Sample, Continuous Outcome | p. 130 |

Tests with One Sample, Dichotomous Outcome | p. 133 |

Tests with One Sample, Categorical and Ordinal Outcomes | p. 134 |

Tests with Two Independent Samples, Continuous Outcome | p. 138 |

Tests with Matched Samples, Continuous Outcome | p. 141 |

Tests with Two Independent Samples, Dichotomous Outcome | p. 144 |

Tests with More Than Two Independent Samples, Continuous Outcome | p. 147 |

Tests for Two or More Independent Samples, Categorical and Ordinal Outcomes | p. 156 |

Summary | p. 160 |

Practice Problems | p. 162 |

Power and Sample Size Determination | p. 169 |

Issues in Estimating Sample Size for Confidence Intervals Estimates | p. 170 |

Issues in Estimating Sample Size for Hypothesis Testing | p. 176 |

Summary | p. 185 |

Practice Problems | p. 185 |

Multivariable Methods | p. 189 |

Confounding and Effect Modification | p. 190 |

The Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel Method | p. 197 |

Introduction to Correlation and Regression Analysis | p. 198 |

Multiple Linear Regression Analysis | p. 206 |

Multiple Logistic Regression Analysis | p. 210 |

Summary | p. 213 |

Practice Problems | p. 214 |

Nonparametric Tests | p. 219 |

Introduction to Nonparametric Testing | p. 221 |

Tests with Two Independent Samples | p. 223 |

Tests with Matched Samples | p. 229 |

Tests with More Than Two Independent Samples | p. 236 |

Summary | p. 240 |

Practice Problems | p. 241 |

Survival Analysis | p. 243 |

Introduction to Survival Data | p. 245 |

Estimating the Survival Function | p. 247 |

Comparing Survival Curves | p. 252 |

Cox Proportional Hazards Regression Analysis | p. 260 |

Extensions | p. 264 |

Summary | p. 265 |

Practice Problems | p. 267 |

Appendix | p. 271 |

Glossary | p. 289 |

Index | p. 299 |

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