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Essentials of Chemical Reaction Engineering,9780137146123
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Essentials of Chemical Reaction Engineering



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Prentice Hall
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Learn Chemical Reaction Engineering through Reasoning, Not Memorization Essentials of Chemical Reaction Engineeringis the complete, modern introduction to chemical reaction engineering for todayrs"s undergraduate students. Starting from the strengths of his classicElements of Chemical Reaction Engineering, Fourth Edition,in this volume H. Scott Fogler added new material and distilled the essentials for undergraduate students. Foglerrs"s unique way of presenting the material helps students gain a deep, intuitive understanding of the fieldrs"s essentials through reasoning, using a CRE algorithm, not memorization. He especially focuses on important new energy and safety issues, ranging from solar and biomass applications to the avoidance of runaway reactions. Thoroughly classroom tested, this text reflects feedback from hundreds of students at the University of Michigan and other leading universities. It also provides new resources to help students discover how reactors behave in diverse situationsincluding many realistic, interactive simulations on DVD-ROM. New Coverage Includes Greater emphasis on safety: following the recommendations of the Chemical Safety Board (CSB), discussion of crucial safety topics, including ammonium nitrate CSTR explosions, case studies of the nitroaniline explosion, and the T2 Laboratories batch reactor runaway Solar energy conversions: chemical, thermal, and catalytic water spilling Algae production for biomass Steady-state nonisothermal reactor design: flow reactors with heat exchange Unsteady-state nonisothermal reactor design with case studies of reactor explosions About the DVD-ROM The DVD contains six additional, graduate-level chapters covering catalyst decay, external diffusion effects on heterogeneous reactions, diffusion and reaction, distribution of residence times for reactors, models for non-ideal reactors, and radial and axial temperature variations in tubular reactions. Extensive additional DVD resources include Summary notes, Web modules, additional examples, derivations, audio commentary, and self-tests Interactive computer games that review and apply important chapter concepts Innovative "Living Example Problems" with Polymath code that can be loaded directly from the DVD so students can play with the solution to get an innate feeling of how reactors operate A 15-day trial of Polymathtrade; is included, along with a link to the Fogler Polymath site A complete, new AspenTech tutorial, and four complete example problems Visual Encyclopedia of Equipment, Reactor Lab, and other intuitive tools More than 500 PowerPoint slides of lecture notes Additional updates, applications, and information are available at and .

Author Biography

H. Scott Fogler is the Ame and Catherine Vennema Professor of Chemical Engineering and the Arthur F. Thurnau Professor at the University of Michigan, and is the 2009 President of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. His research interests include flow and reaction in porous media, fused chemical relations, gellation kinetics, colloidal phenomena, and catalyzed dissolution. He has been thesis advisor for 40 Ph.D. students and has more than 200 refereed publications in these areas. Fogler has chaired ASEE’s Chemical Engineering Division, served as director of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, and earned the Warren K. Lewis Award from AIChE for contributions to chemical engineering education. He also received the Chemical Manufacturers Association’s National Catalyst Award. He is a coauthor of the best-selling textbook Strategies for Creative Problem Solving, Second Edition (Prentice Hall, 2008).

Table of Contents

Preface xv

About the Author xxix


Chapter 1: Mole Balances 1

1.1 The Rate of Reaction, —rA 4

1.2 The General Mole Balance Equation 8

1.3 Batch Reactors (BRs) 10

1.4 Continuous-Flow Reactors 12

1.5 Industrial Reactors 22


Chapter 2: Conversion and Reactor Sizing 33

2.1 Definition of Conversion 34

2.2 Batch Reactor Design Equations 34

2.3 Design Equations for Flow Reactors 37

2.4 Sizing Continuous-Flow Reactors 40

2.5 Reactors in Series 49

2.6 Some Further Definitions 60


Chapter 3: Rate Laws 73

3.1 Basic Definitions 74

3.2 The Reaction Order and the Rate Law 76

3.3 The Reaction Rate Constant 86

3.4 Present Status of Our Approach to Reactor Sizing and Design 93


Chapter 4: Stoichiometry 105

4.1 Batch Systems 107

4.2 Flow Systems 113


Chapter 5: Isothermal Reactor Design: Conversion 139

5.1 Design Structure for Isothermal Reactors 140

5.2 Batch Reactors (BRs) 144

5.3 Continuous Stirred Tank Reactors (CSTRs) 152

5.4 Tubular Reactors 162

5.5 Pressure Drop in Reactors 169

5.6 Synthesizing the Design of a Chemical Plant 188


Chapter 6: Isothermal Reactor Design: Molar Flow Rates 207

6.1 The Molar Flow Rate Balance Algorithm 208

6.2 Mole Balances on CSTRs, PFRs, PBRs, and Batch Reactors 208

6.3 Applications of the Molar Flow Rate Algorithm to Microreactors 212

6.4 Membrane Reactors 217

6.5 Unsteady-State Operation of Stirred Reactors 225

6.6 Semibatch Reactors 226


Chapter 7: Collection and Analysis of Rate Data 245

7.1 The Algorithm for Data Analysis 246

7.2 Determining the Reaction Order for Each of Two Reactants Using the Method of Excess 248

7.3 Integral Method 249

7.4 Differential Method of Analysis 253

7.5 Nonlinear Regression 259

7.6 Reaction Rate Data from Differential Reactors 264

7.7 Experimental Planning 271


Chapter 8: Multiple Reactions 283

8.1 Definitions 283

8.2 Algorithm for Multiple Reactions 286

8.3 Parallel Reactions 289

8.4 Reactions in Series 298

8.5 Complex Reactions 308

8.6 Membrane Reactors to Improve Selectivity in Multiple Reactions 316

8.7 Sorting It All Out 321

8.8 The Fun Part 321


Chapter 9: Reaction Mechanisms, Pathways, Bioreactions, and Bioreactors 339

9.1 Active Intermediates and Nonelementary Rate Laws 340

9.2 Enzymatic Reaction Fundamentals 349

9.3 Inhibition of Enzyme Reactions 364

9.4 Bioreactors and Biosynthesis 371


Chapter 10: Catalysis and Catalytic Reactors 409

10.1 Catalysts 409

10.2 Steps in a Catalytic Reaction 415

10.3 Synthesizing a Rate Law, Mechanism, and Rate-Limiting Step 431

10.4 Heterogeneous Data Analysis for Reactor Design 446

10.5 Reaction Engineering in Microelectronic Fabrication 456

10.6 Model Discrimination 461


Chapter 11: Nonisothermal Reactor Design—The Steady State Energy Balance and Adiabatic PFR Applications 477

11.1 Rationale 478

11.2 The Energy Balance 479

11.3 The User Friendly Energy Balance Equations 486

11.4 Adiabatic Operation 492

11.5 Adiabatic Equilibrium Conversion and Reactor Staging 502

11.6 Optimum Feed Temperature 509


Chapter 12: Steady-State Nonisothermal Reactor Design–Flow Reactors with Heat Exchange 521

12.1 Steady-State Tubular Reactor with Heat Exchange 522

12.2 Balance on the Heat Transfer Fluid 525

12.3 Algorithm for PFR/PBR Design with Heat Effects 527

12.4 CSTR with Heat Effects 545

12.5 Multiple Steady States (MSS) 556

12.6 Nonisothermal Multiple Chemical Reactions 563

12.7 Safety 577


Chapter 13: Unsteady-State Nonisothermal Reactor Design 601

13.1 The Unsteady-State Energy Balance 602

13.2 Energy Balance on Batch Reactors 604

13.3 Semibatch Reactors with a Heat Exchanger 615

13.4 Unsteady Operation of a CSTR 620

13.5 Nonisothermal Multiple Reactions 624


Appendix A: Numerical Techniques 649


Appendix B: Ideal Gas Constant and Conversion Factors 655


Appendix C: Thermodynamic Relationships Involving the Equilibrium Constant 659


Appendix D: Nomenclature 665


Appendix E: Software Packages 669

E.1 Polymath 669

E.2 AspenTech 670

E.3 COMSOL 671

E.4 Software Packages 671


Appendix F: Rate Law Data 673


Appendix G: Open-Ended Problems 675

G.1 Design of Reaction Engineering Experiment 675

G.2 Effective Lubricant Design 675

G.3 Peach Bottom Nuclear Reactor 675

G.4 Underground Wet Oxidation 675

G.5 Hydrodesulfurization Reactor Design 676

G.6 Continuous Bioprocessing 676

G.7 Methanol Synthesis 676

G.8 Alcohol Metabolism 676

G.9 Methanol Poisoning 676

G.10 Cajun Seafood Gumbo 676


Appendix H: How to Use the DVD-ROM 679

H.1 DVD-ROM Components 679

H.2 How the DVD-ROM/Web Can Help Learning Styles 682

H.3 Navigation 683


Index 685

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