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Essentials Of Criminal Justice

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780534523633

ISBN10:
0534523633
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/10/2000
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing

Questions About This Book?

What version or edition is this?
This is the 3rd edition with a publication date of 7/10/2000.
What is included with this book?
  • The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any CDs, lab manuals, study guides, etc.

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Table of Contents

Preface xix
PART I The Nature of Crime, Law, and Criminal Justice
Crime and Criminal Justice
2(36)
Is Crime a Recent Development?
6(2)
Crime in the Old West
6(1)
Crime at the Turn of the Twentieth Century
6(2)
Developing the Criminal Justice System
8(1)
The Modern Era of Justice
8(1)
Federal Involvement in Criminal Justice
9(1)
The Criminal Justice System Today
9(2)
Agencies of the Criminal Justice System
10(1)
The Formal Criminal Justice Process
11(7)
The Criminal Justice Assembly Line
15(3)
The Informal Criminal Justice System
18(3)
The ``Wedding Cake'' Model of Justice
19(2)
Criminal Justice and the Media: Double Jeopardy
21(1)
Perspectives on Justice
22(5)
Crime Control Perspective
23(1)
Rehabilitation Perspective
24(1)
Due Process Perspective
25(1)
Nonintervention Perspective
25(1)
Justice Perspective
26(1)
Restorative Justice Perspective
26(1)
Perspectives in Action: Controlling the Drug Trade
27(5)
Crime Control Strategies
28(1)
Justice Model Strategies
29(1)
Rehabilitation Strategies
30(1)
Restorative Justice Strategies
31(1)
Nonintervention Strategies
31(1)
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: Is There a Need for Drug Treatment?
32(3)
Perspectives in Perspective
33(2)
Summary
35(1)
Key Terms
35(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Exercises
35(1)
Questions
36(1)
Notes
36(2)
The Nature of Crime and Victimization
38(38)
How Is Crime Defined?
41(1)
Sources of Crime Data
42(1)
Survey Data
42(1)
Record Data
42(1)
Other Sources
43(1)
Measuring Crime Trends
43(7)
Official Crime Data: The Uniform Crime Reports
43(2)
Victim Surveys
45(2)
Self-Report Surveys
47(3)
Are the Three Sources of Crime Statistics Compatible?
50(1)
Crime Trends
50(5)
Trends in Violent Crime
51(1)
Trends in Property Crime
51(2)
Trends in Self-Reports and Victimization
53(1)
What the Future Holds
54(1)
Crime Patterns
55(1)
Race, Culture, and Gender: International Crime Trends
55(5)
Ecological and Seasonal Differences
56(1)
Gender and Crime
56(1)
Race and Crime
57(1)
Social Class and Crime
57(1)
Age and Crime
58(1)
Crime Victims
58(2)
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: The Chronic Offender
60(3)
Causes of Crime and Victimization
63(5)
Choice Theory: Because They Want To
64(1)
Biological Theory: It's in Their Blood
64(1)
Psychological Theory: It's in Their Heads
65(1)
Social Structure Theory: Because They're Poor
66(1)
Social Process Theory: Socialized to Crime
67(1)
Criminal Justice and the Media: The Media and Violence
68(3)
Conflict Theory: It's a ``Dog-Eat-Dog World''
70(1)
Developmental Theory: Things Change
70(1)
A Final Word
71(1)
Summary
71(2)
Key Terms
73(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Exercises
73(1)
Questions
73(1)
Notes
73(3)
Criminal Law: Substance and Procedure
76(32)
The Historical Development of the Criminal Law
80(3)
The Common Law
80(2)
The Principle of Stare Decisis
82(1)
Criminal Law and Civil Law
82(1)
Sources of the Criminal Law
83(2)
Common Law, Statutes, and Case Decisions
84(1)
Administrative Rule Making
84(1)
Constitutional Law and Its Limits
84(1)
Crimes and Classifications
85(1)
Felonies and Misdemeanors
85(1)
Law in Review: Protecting Public Safety
86(2)
Other Statutory Classifications
88(1)
The Legal Definition of a Crime
88(2)
Actus Reus and Mens Rea
89(1)
The Relationship of Mens Rea and Actus Reus
90(1)
Strict Liability
90(1)
Criminal Responsibility
90(3)
The Legal Definition of Insanity
91(2)
Intoxication
93(1)
Age
93(1)
Criminal Defense: Justification or Excuse
93(4)
Consent
94(1)
Self-Defense
94(1)
Entrapment
95(1)
Mistake, Compulsion, and Necessity
95(2)
Substantive Criminal Law Reform
97(1)
The RICO Act
97(1)
Federal Crime Legislation, 1984-1999
98(1)
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: Criminal Law Reform
98(2)
Constitutional Criminal Procedure
100(2)
The U.S. Constitution
100(1)
The Bill of Rights
101(1)
The State Criminal Justice System under the Constitution
102(1)
Procedural Due Process of Law
103(1)
Future Directions in Criminal Law
104(2)
Summary
106(1)
Key Terms
106(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Exercises
106(1)
Questions
106(1)
Notes
107(1)
PART II The Police and Law Enforcement
Police in Society: History and Organization
108(26)
The History of Police
111(5)
Eighteenth-Century Developments
111(1)
Law Enforcement in Colonial America
112(1)
Early Police Agencies
113(2)
Twentieth-Century Reform
115(1)
The Emergence of Professionalism
115(1)
The Modern Era of Policing: 1960-2000
116(2)
Policing in the 1960s
116(1)
Policing in the 1970s
116(1)
Policing in the 1980s
117(1)
Policing in the 1990s
117(1)
Law Enforcement Today
118(6)
Federal Law Enforcement Agencies
118(3)
State Law Enforcement Agencies
121(1)
County Law Enforcement Agencies
122(1)
Metropolitan Law Enforcement Agencies
122(2)
The Future of Law Enforcement
124(2)
Criminal Investigation
124(1)
Information Technology
125(1)
Criminal Identification
125(1)
Criminal Justice and Technology: Crime Mapping
126(5)
Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems
128(1)
DNA Testing
129(1)
Communications
130(1)
Private Security
131(1)
Summary
132(1)
Key Terms
132(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Exercises
132(1)
Questions
132(1)
Notes
132(2)
The Police: Role and Function
134(30)
The Police Organization
136(2)
The Police Role
138(1)
The Patrol Function
139(3)
Patrol Activities
140(1)
Does Patrol Deter Crime?
140(1)
Proactive Patrol
141(1)
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: Zero Tolerance: Aggressive Policing in New York City
142(2)
Adding Patrol Officers
144(1)
The Investigation Function
144(3)
Sting Operations
145(1)
Undercover Work
145(1)
Evaluating Investigations
146(1)
Improving Investigations
146(1)
The Changing Concepts of Policing
147(7)
Community Policing
147(5)
Problem-Oriented Policing
152(2)
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: School Resource Officers
154(2)
Has Innovative Policing Met Its Goals?
155(1)
Support Functions
156(2)
Improving Police Productivity
158(3)
Consolidation and Informal Arrangements
158(1)
Sharing, Pooling, and Contracting
159(1)
Police Service Districts
160(1)
Civilian Employees
160(1)
Multiple Tasking
160(1)
Special-Assignement Programs
160(1)
Budget Supplements
160(1)
Differential Police Response
161(1)
Summary
161(1)
Key Terms
161(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Exercises
161(1)
Questions
161(1)
Notes
162(2)
Issues in Policing
164(38)
The Police Profession
167(1)
The Police Culture
167(1)
Criminal Justice and the Media: NYPD Blue
168(4)
The Police Personality
169(1)
Policing Style
170(2)
Police Discretion
172(4)
Legal Factors
172(1)
Environmental Factors
173(1)
Departmental Factors
173(1)
Situational Factors
174(1)
Extralegal Factors
175(1)
Who Are the Police?
176(1)
Race, Culture, and Gender: Does Race Influence the Police Use of Discretion?
176(6)
Police Education
177(1)
Minorities in Policing
178(1)
Women in Policing
179(3)
Problems of Policing
182(6)
Job Stress
182(2)
Violence
184(4)
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: Suing the Police
188(5)
Corruption
193(1)
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: In the Line of Fire: Shootings of Police
193(4)
Summary
197(1)
Key Terms
198(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Exercises
198(1)
Questions
198(1)
Notes
198(4)
Police and the Rule of Law
202(24)
Court Review of Police Operations
204(1)
Search and Seizure
205(1)
Search Warrant Requirements
206(1)
Use of Informers
206(1)
Warrantless Searches
206(4)
Searches Incident to a Lawful Arrest
206(2)
Field Interrogation: Stop and Frisk
208(1)
Motor Vehicle Searches
208(1)
Consent Searches
209(1)
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: Traffic Stops: Undercutting the Fourth Amendment
210(4)
The Bus Sweep
211(1)
The Doctrines of Plain View and Curtilage
211(2)
Electronic Surveillance
213(1)
Arrest
214(2)
Interrogation of a Suspect: The Miranda Case
215(1)
Law in Review: Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
216(2)
The Pretrial Identification Process
218(1)
The Exclusionary Rule
219(4)
Current Status and Controversy
221(2)
Law in Review: Mapp v. Ohio (1961)
223(1)
Summary
224(1)
Key Terms
224(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Exercises
224(1)
Questions
225(1)
Notes
225(1)
PART III Courts and Adjudication
Courts, Prosecution, and the Defense
226(38)
The Criminal Court Process
229(1)
State Courts
230(2)
Courts of Limited Jurisdiction
230(1)
Courts of General Jurisdiction
231(1)
Appellate Courts
231(1)
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: Specialty Courts
232(1)
Federal Courts
233(5)
District Courts
235(1)
Federal Appeals Courts
236(1)
The U.S. Supreme Court
236(2)
Federal and State Court Caseloads
238(1)
Law in Review: The Role of the High Court and States' Rights
239(1)
The Judiciary
240(2)
Other Judicial Functions
240(1)
Judicial Qualifications
241(1)
The Prosecutor
242(3)
Duties of the Prosecutor
243(1)
Types of Prosecutors
244(1)
Prosecutorial Discretion
245(3)
The Role of the Prosecutorial Discretion
246(1)
Judicial Restraints
247(1)
The Defense Attorney
248(3)
The Role of the Criminal Defense Attorney
249(1)
Ethical Issues
249(2)
The Right to Counsel
251(8)
The Private Bar
252(1)
Legal Services for the Indigent
252(6)
The Competence of Defense Attorneys
258(1)
Court Administration
259(2)
Technology and Court Management
260(1)
Summary
261(1)
Key Terms
262(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Exercises
262(1)
Questions
262(1)
Notes
262(2)
Pretrial Procedures
264(30)
Procedures Following Arrest
267(1)
Pretrial Services
268(1)
Bail
269(4)
The Legal Right to Bail
270(1)
Receiving Bail
271(1)
Bail Bonding Today
272(1)
The History of Bail Reform
272(1)
The Preventive Detention Controversy
273(2)
Pretrial Detention
275(1)
Law in Review: United States v. Salerno (1987)
276(2)
Charging the Defendant
278(1)
The Incident Process---The Grand Jury
278(1)
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: The Pretrial Release Debate
278(4)
The Indictment Process---The Preliminary Hearing
279(1)
Arraignment
280(1)
The Plea
281(1)
Plea Bargaining
282(7)
Legal Issues in Plea Bargaining
283(1)
Plea-Bargaining Decision Making
284(1)
The Role of the Prosecutor in Plea Bargaining
284(2)
The Role of the Defense Counsel in Plea Bargaining
286(1)
The Role of the Judge in Plea Bargaining
287(1)
The Victim and Plea Bargaining
287(1)
Plea-Bargaining Reform
288(1)
Pretrial Diversion
289(2)
Summary
291(1)
Key Terms
291(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Exercises
291(1)
Questions
292(1)
Notes
292(2)
The Criminal Trial
294(30)
Legal Rights during Trial
297(5)
The Right to Confront Witnesses
298(1)
The Right to a Jury Trial
298(2)
The Right to Counsel at Trial
300(2)
The Right to Self-Representation
302(1)
Law in Review: Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)
302(5)
The Right to a Speedy Trial
304(1)
The Right to a Fair Trial
305(1)
The Right to a Public Trial
306(1)
The Trial Process
307(1)
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: Guidelines to Televising Criminal Trials
308(5)
Jury Selection
310(1)
Opening Statements
311(1)
Presentation of the Prosecutor's Evidence
312(1)
Race, Culture, and Gender: Jury Selection and Peremptory Challenges
313(5)
Motion for a Directed Verdict
314(1)
Presentation of the Defense Attorney's Evidence
315(1)
Closing Arguments
315(1)
Instructions to the Jury
315(1)
The Verdict
316(1)
The Sentence
316(1)
The Appeal
316(2)
Evidentiary Standards
318(1)
Criminal Trial Practices in the Twenty-First Century
319(1)
Summary
320(1)
Key Terms
321(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Exercises
322(1)
Questions
322(1)
Notes
322(2)
Punishment and Sentencing
324(36)
The History of Punishment
327(3)
From Exile to Fines, Torture to Forfeiture
327(1)
Public Work and Transportation to the Colonies
328(1)
The Rise of the Prison
329(1)
The Goals of Modern Sentencing
330(3)
General Deterrence
330(1)
Incapacitation
330(1)
Specific Deterrence
331(1)
Retribution/Just Desert
331(1)
Rehabilitation
331(1)
Equity/Restitution
332(1)
Imposing the Sentence
332(1)
Sentencing Models
333(5)
Indeterminate Sentences
333(1)
Determinate Sentences
334(1)
Structured Sentences
335(3)
Mandatory Sentences
338(1)
How People Are Sentenced
338(2)
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: Let's Get Tough: Truth-in-Sentencing and Three-Strikes Laws
340(4)
What Factors Affect Sentencing?
342(2)
Capital Punishment
344(2)
Arguments for the Death Penalty
345(1)
Race, Culture, and Gender: Race and Sentencing
346(2)
Race, Culture, and Gender: The International Use of the Death Penalty
348(8)
Arguments against the Death Penalty
350(3)
Legal Issues
353(1)
Death-Qualified Juries
354(1)
Does the Death Penalty Deter Murder?
355(1)
Summary
356(1)
Key Terms
356(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Exercises
357(1)
Questions
357(1)
Notes
357(3)
PART IV Corrections and Alternative Sanctions
Probation and Intermediate Sanctions
360(34)
Probation
362(13)
The History of Probation
363(1)
The Concept of Probation
363(1)
Awarding Probation
364(1)
The Extent of Probation
364(1)
Eligibility for Probation
365(1)
Conditions of Probation
366(1)
Administration of Probation Services
366(4)
How Successful Is Probation?
370(3)
Legal Rights of Probationers
373(1)
The Future of Probation
374(1)
Intermediate Sanctions
375(1)
Advantages of Intermediate Sanctions
376(1)
Race, Culture, and Gender: Community Sentencing Abroad
376(12)
Fines
377(2)
Forfeiture
379(1)
Restitution
380(1)
Shock Probation and Split Sentencing
381(1)
Intensive Probation Supervision
381(1)
House Arrest
382(1)
Electronic Monitoring
383(2)
Residential Community Corrections
385(2)
Can Intermediate Sanctions Work?
387(1)
Summary
388(1)
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: Restorative Justice in the Community
389(1)
Key Terms
390(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Exercises
390(1)
Questions
390(1)
Notes
391(3)
Corrections: History, Institutions, and Populations
394(34)
The History of Correctional Institutions
398(8)
American Developments
400(6)
Jails
406(4)
Jail Populations
408(1)
Jail Inmate Characteristics
408(1)
Jail Conditions
409(1)
Prisons
410(2)
Types of Prisons
410(2)
Criminal Justice and Technology: Super-Maximum-Security Prisons
412(4)
Prison Inmate Characteristics
414(2)
Alternative Correctional Institutions
416(5)
Prison Farms and Camps
416(1)
Shock Incarceration in Boot Camps
416(3)
Community Correctional Facilities
419(1)
Private Prisons
419(2)
Correctional Populations
421(3)
Why Is the Prison Population Rising?
421(1)
Prison Overcrowding
421(3)
Summary
424(1)
Criminal Justice and Technology: Using Technology to Increase Prison Security
424(1)
Key Terms
425(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Exercises
426(1)
Questions
426(1)
Notes
426(2)
Prison Life
428(38)
Men Imprisoned
432(4)
Living in Prison
432(3)
The Inmate Social Code
435(1)
The New Inmate Culture
436(1)
Women Imprisoned
436(2)
Female Institutions
436(2)
Race, Culture, and Gender: Women in Prison: Vengeful Equity
438(3)
Correctional Treatment Methods
441(7)
Group Counseling
441(1)
Treating the Special-Needs Inmate
442(1)
Educational and Vocational Programs
443(3)
Inmate Self-Help
446(1)
Can Rehabilitation Work?
447(1)
Guarding the Institution
448(1)
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: The No-Frills Movement
449(1)
Female Correctional Officers
450(1)
Prison Violence
450(2)
Individual Violence
451(1)
Collective Violence
451(1)
Controlling Violence
452(1)
Prisoner's Rights
452(4)
Substantive Rights
454(2)
Leaving Prison
456(7)
Parole
456(4)
The Effectiveness of Parole
460(3)
Summary
463(1)
Key Terms
463(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Exercises
463(1)
Questions
464(1)
Notes
464(2)
PART V Juvenile Justice
Juvenile Justice
466(36)
The History of Juvenile Justice
469(6)
Care of Children in Early America
470(1)
The Child-Saving Movement
470(2)
The Development of Juvenile Justice
472(3)
Juvenile Justice Today
475(1)
Police Processing of the Juvenile Offender
476(4)
Legal Rights
479(1)
The Juvenile Court Process
480(9)
The Intake Process
481(1)
The Detention Process
481(1)
Bail
482(1)
Plea Bargaining
483(1)
Waiver of Jurisdiction
484(2)
The Trial
486(1)
Disposition and Treatment
487(2)
The Juvenile Correctional Process
489(5)
Probation
489(1)
Institutionalization
490(4)
Comprehensive Juvenile Justice Reform
494(2)
Early Prevention
494(1)
Intervention Programs
494(1)
Graduated Sanction Programs
494(1)
Reforming Institutionalization
495(1)
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: Preventing Delinquency with Early Childhood Intervention
496(2)
Increasing Waiver
498(1)
Current and Future Issues in Juvenile Justice
498(1)
Summary
499(1)
Key Terms
499(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Exercises
499(1)
Questions
500(1)
Notes
500(2)
Glossary 502(15)
Table of Cases 517(3)
Name Index 520(9)
Subject Index 529(17)
Photo Credits 546


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