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Essentials of Criminal Justice



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Thomson Learning
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  • Essentials of Criminal Justice
    Essentials of Criminal Justice
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    Study Guide for Siegel's Essentials of Criminal Justice, 8th
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    Custom Enrichment Module: Writing and Communicating for Criminal Justice
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    Study Guide for Siegelís Essentials of Criminal Justice
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    Essentials Of Criminal Justice
  • Essentials of Criminal Justice (with InfoTrac)
    Essentials of Criminal Justice (with InfoTrac)
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    Essentials of Criminal Justice

Table of Contents

Prefacep. XIX
The Nature of Crime, Law, and Criminal Justice
Crime and Criminal Justicep. 2
Is Crime a Recent Development?p. 6
Crime in the Old Westp. 6
Crime at the Turn of the Twentieth Centuryp. 6
Developing the Criminal Justice Systemp. 8
The Modern Era of Justicep. 8
Federal Involvement in Criminal Justicep. 9
The Criminal Justice System Todayp. 9
Agencies of the Criminal Justice Systemp. 10
The Formal Criminal Justice Processp. 11
The Criminal Justice Assembly Linep. 15
The Informal Criminal Justice Systemp. 18
The "Wedding Cake" Model of Justicep. 19
Criminal Justice and the Media: Double Jeopardyp. 21
Perspectives on Justicep. 22
Crime Control Perspectivep. 23
Rehabilitation Perspectivep. 24
Due Process Perspectivep. 25
Nonintervention Perspectivep. 25
Justice Perspectivep. 26
Restorative Justice Perspectivep. 26
Perspectives in Action: Controlling the Drug Tradep. 27
Crime Control Strategiesp. 28
Justice Model Strategiesp. 29
Rehabilitation Strategiesp. 30
Restorative Justice Strategiesp. 31
Nonintervention Strategiesp. 31
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: Is There a Need for Drug Treatment?p. 32
Perspectives in Perspectivep. 33
Summaryp. 35
Key Termsp. 35
Info Trac College Edition Exercisesp. 35
Questionsp. 36
Notesp. 36
The Nature of Crime and Victimizationp. 38
How Is Crime Defined?p. 41
Sources of Crime Datap. 42
Survey Datap. 42
Record Datap. 42
Other Sourcesp. 43
Measuring Crime Trendsp. 43
Official Crime Data: The Uniform Crime Reportsp. 43
Victim Surveysp. 45
Self-Report Surveysp. 47
Are the Three Sources of Crime Statistics Compatible?p. 50
Crime Trendsp. 50
Trends in Violent Crimep. 51
Trends in Property Crimep. 51
Trends in Self-Reports and Victimizationp. 53
What the Future Holdsp. 54
Crime Patternsp. 55
Race, Culture, and Gender: International Crime Trendsp. 55
Ecological and Seasonal Differencesp. 56
Gender and Crimep. 56
Race and Crimep. 57
Social Class and Crimep. 57
Age and Crimep. 58
Crime Victimsp. 58
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: The Chronic Offenderp. 60
Causes of Crime and Victimizationp. 63
Choice Theory: Because They Want Top. 64
Biological Theory: It's in Their Bloodp. 64
Psychological Theory: It's in Their Headsp. 65
Social Structure Theory: Because They're Poorp. 66
Social Process Theory: Socialized to Crimep. 67
Criminal Justice and the Media: The Media and Violencep. 68
Conflict Theory: It's a "Dog-Eat-Dog World"p. 70
Developmental Theory: Things Changep. 70
A Final Wordp. 71
Summaryp. 71
Key Termsp. 73
Info Trac College Edition Exercisesp. 73
Questionsp. 73
Notesp. 73
Criminal Law: Substance and Procedurep. 76
The Historical Development of the Criminal Lawp. 80
The Common Lawp. 80
The Principle of Stare Decisisp. 82
Criminal Law and Civil Lawp. 82
Sources of the Criminal Lawp. 83
Common Law, Statutes, and Case Decisionsp. 84
Administrative Rule Makingp. 84
Constitutional Law and Its Limitsp. 84
Crimes and Classificationsp. 85
Felonies and Misdemeanorsp. 85
Law in Review: Protecting Public Safetyp. 86
Other Statutory Classificationsp. 88
The Legal Definition of a Crimep. 88
Actus Reus and Mens Reap. 89
The Relationship of Mens Rea and Actus Reusp. 90
Strict Liabilityp. 90
Criminal Responsibilityp. 90
The Legal Definition of Insanityp. 91
Intoxicationp. 93
Agep. 93
Criminal Defense: Justification or Excusep. 93
Consentp. 94
Self-Defensep. 94
Entrapmentp. 95
Mistake, Compulsion, and Necessityp. 95
Substantive Criminal Law Reformp. 97
The RICO Actp. 97
Federal Crime Legislation, 1984-1999p. 98
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: Criminal Law Reformp. 98
Constitutional Criminal Procedurep. 100
The U.S. Constitutionp. 100
The Bill of Rightsp. 101
The State Criminal Justice System under the Constitutionp. 102
Procedural Due Process of Lawp. 103
Future Directions in Criminal Lawp. 104
Summaryp. 106
Key Termsp. 106
InfoTrac College Edition Exercisesp. 106
Questionsp. 106
Notesp. 107
The Police and Law Enforcement
Police in Society: History and Organizationp. 108
The History of Policep. 111
Eighteenth-Century Developmentsp. 111
Law Enforcement in Colonial Americap. 112
Early Police Agenciesp. 113
Twentieth-Century Reformp. 115
The Emergence of Professionalismp. 115
The Modern Era of Policing: 1960-2000p. 116
Policing in the 1960sp. 116
Policing in the 1970sp. 116
Policing in the 1980sp. 117
Policing in the 1990sp. 117
Law Enforcement Todayp. 118
Federal Law Enforcement Agenciesp. 118
State Law Enforcement Agenciesp. 121
County Law Enforcement Agenciesp. 122
Metropolitan Law Enforcement Agenciesp. 122
The Future of Law Enforcementp. 124
Criminal Investigationp. 124
Information Technologyp. 125
Criminal Identificationp. 125
Criminal Justice and Technology: Crime Mappingp. 126
Automated Fingerprint Identification Systemsp. 128
DNA Testingp. 129
Communicationsp. 130
Private Securityp. 131
Summaryp. 132
Key Termsp. 132
InfoTrac College Edition Exercisesp. 132
Questionsp. 132
Notesp. 132
The Police: Role and Functionp. 134
The Police Organizationp. 136
The Police Rolep. 138
The Patrol Functionp. 139
Patrol Activitiesp. 140
Does Patrol Deter Crime?p. 140
Proactive Patrolp. 141
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: Zero Tolerance: Aggressive Policing in New York Cityp. 142
Adding Patrol Officersp. 144
The Investigation Functionp. 144
Sting Operationsp. 145
Undercover Workp. 145
Evaluating Investigationsp. 146
Improving Investigationsp. 146
The Changing Concepts of Policingp. 147
Community Policingp. 147
Problem-Oriented Policingp. 152
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: School Resource Officersp. 154
Has Innovative Policing Met Its Goals?p. 155
Support Functionsp. 156
Improving Police Productivityp. 158
Consolidation and Informal Arrangementsp. 158
Sharing, Pooling, and Contractingp. 159
Police Service Districtsp. 160
Civilian Employeesp. 160
Multiple Taskingp. 160
Special-Assignment Programsp. 160
Budget Supplementsp. 160
Differential Police Responsep. 161
Summaryp. 161
Key Termsp. 161
InfoTrac College Edition Exercisesp. 161
Questionsp. 161
Notesp. 162
Issues in Policingp. 164
The Police Professionp. 167
The Police Culturep. 167
Criminal Justice and the Media: NYPD Bluep. 168
The Police Personalityp. 169
Policing Stylep. 170
Police Discretionp. 172
Legal Factorsp. 172
Environmental Factorsp. 173
Departmental Factorsp. 173
Situational Factorsp. 174
Extralegal Factorsp. 175
Who Are the Police?p. 176
Race, Culture, and Gender: Does Race Influence the Police Use of Discretion?p. 176
Police Educationp. 177
Minorities in Policingp. 178
Women in Policingp. 179
Problems of Policingp. 182
Job Stressp. 182
Violencep. 184
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: Suing the Policep. 188
Corruptionp. 193
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: In the Line of Fire: Shootings of Policep. 193
Summaryp. 197
Key Termsp. 198
InfoTrac College Edition Exercisesp. 198
Questionsp. 198
Notesp. 198
Police and the Rule of Lawp. 202
Court Review of Police Operationsp. 204
Search and Seizurep. 205
Search Warrant Requirementsp. 206
Use of Informersp. 206
Warrantless Searchesp. 206
Searches Incident to a Lawful Arrestp. 206
Field Interrogation: Stop and Friskp. 208
Motor Vehicle Searchesp. 208
Consent Searchesp. 209
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: Traffic Stops: Undercutting the Fourth Amendmentp. 210
The Bus Sweepp. 211
The Doctrines of Plain View and Curtilagep. 211
Electronic Surveillancep. 213
Arrestp. 214
Interrogation of a Suspect: The Miranda Casep. 215
Law in Review: Miranda v. Arizona (1966)p. 216
The Pretrial Identification Processp. 218
The Exclusionary Rulep. 219
Current Status and Controversyp. 221
Law in Review: Mapp v. Ohio (1961)p. 223
Summaryp. 224
Key Termsp. 224
InfoTrac College Edition Exercisesp. 224
Questionsp. 225
Notesp. 225
Courts and Adjudication
Courts, Prosecution, and the Defensep. 226
The Criminal Court Processp. 229
State Courtsp. 230
Courts of Limited Jurisdictionp. 230
Courts of General Jurisdictionp. 231
Appellate Courtsp. 231
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: Specialty Courtsp. 232
Federal Courtsp. 233
District Courtsp. 235
Federal Appeals Courtsp. 236
The U.S. Supreme Courtp. 236
Federal and State Court Caseloadsp. 238
Law in Review: The Role of the High Court and States' Rightsp. 239
The Judiciaryp. 240
Other Judicial Functionsp. 240
Judicial Qualificationsp. 241
The Prosecutorp. 242
Duties of the Prosecutorp. 243
Types of Prosecutorsp. 244
Prosecutorial Discretionp. 245
The Role of the Prosecutorial Discretionp. 246
Judicial Restraintsp. 247
The Defense Attorneyp. 248
The Role of the Criminal Defense Attorneyp. 249
Ethical Issuesp. 249
The Right to Counselp. 251
The Private Barp. 252
Legal Services for the Indigentp. 252
The Competence of Defense Attorneysp. 258
Court Administrationp. 259
Technology and Court Managementp. 260
Summaryp. 261
Key Termsp. 262
InfoTrac College Edition Exercisesp. 262
Questionsp. 262
Notesp. 262
Pretrial Proceduresp. 264
Procedures Following Arrestp. 267
Pretrial Servicesp. 268
Bailp. 269
The Legal Right to Bailp. 270
Receiving Bailp. 271
Bail Bonding Todayp. 272
The History of Bail Reformp. 272
The Preventive Detention Controversyp. 273
Pretrial Detentionp. 275
Law in Review: United States v. Salerno (1987)p. 276
Charging the Defendantp. 278
The Incident Process--The Grand Juryp. 278
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: The Pretrial Release Debatep. 278
The Indictment Process--The Preliminary Hearingp. 279
Arraignmentp. 280
The Pleap. 281
Plea Bargainingp. 282
Legal Issues in Plea Bargainingp. 283
Plea-Bargaining Decision Makingp. 284
The Role of the Prosecutor in Plea Bargainingp. 284
The Role of the Defense Counsel in Plea Bargainingp. 286
The Role of the Judge in Plea Bargainingp. 287
The Victim and Plea Bargainingp. 287
Plea-Bargaining Reformp. 288
Pretrial Diversionp. 289
Summaryp. 291
Key Termsp. 291
InfoTrac College Edition Exercisesp. 291
Questionsp. 292
Notesp. 292
The Criminal Trialp. 294
Legal Rights during Trialp. 297
The Right to Confront Witnessesp. 298
The Right to a Jury Trialp. 298
The Right to Counsel at Trialp. 300
The Right to Self-Representationp. 302
Law in Review: Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)p. 302
The Right to a Speedy Trialp. 304
The Right to a Fair Trialp. 305
The Right to a Public Trialp. 306
The Trial Processp. 307
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: Guidelines to Televising Criminal Trialsp. 308
Jury Selectionp. 310
Opening Statementsp. 311
Presentation of the Prosecutor's Evidencep. 312
Race, Culture, and Gender: Jury Selection and Peremptory Challengesp. 313
Motion for a Directed Verdictp. 314
Presentation of the Defense Attorney's Evidencep. 315
Closing Argumentsp. 315
Instructions to the Juryp. 315
The Verdictp. 316
The Sentencep. 316
The Appealp. 316
Evidentiary Standardsp. 318
Criminal Trial Practices in the Twenty-First Centuryp. 319
Summaryp. 320
Key Termsp. 321
InfoTrac College Edition Exercisesp. 322
Questionsp. 322
Notesp. 322
Punishment and Sentencingp. 324
The History of Punishmentp. 327
From Exile to Fines, Torture to Forfeiturep. 327
Public Work and Transportation to the Coloniesp. 328
The Rise of the Prisonp. 329
The Goals of Modern Sentencingp. 330
General Deterrencep. 330
Incapacitationp. 330
Specific Deterrencep. 331
Retribution/Just Desertp. 331
Rehabilitationp. 331
Equity/Restitutionp. 332
Imposing the Sentencep. 332
Sentencing Modelsp. 333
Indeterminate Sentencesp. 333
Determinate Sentencesp. 334
Structured Sentencesp. 335
Mandatory Sentencesp. 338
How People Are Sentencedp. 338
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: Let's Get Tough: Truth-in-Sentencing and Three-Strikes Lawsp. 340
What Factors Affect Sentencing?p. 342
Capital Punishmentp. 344
Arguments for the Death Penaltyp. 345
Race, Culture, and Gender: Race and Sentencingp. 346
Race, Culture, and Gender: The International Use of the Death Penaltyp. 348
Arguments against the Death Penaltyp. 350
Legal Issuesp. 353
Death-Qualified Juriesp. 354
Does the Death Penalty Deter Murder?p. 355
Summaryp. 356
Key Termsp. 356
InfoTrac College Edition Exercisesp. 357
Questionsp. 357
Notesp. 357
Corrections and Alternative Sanctions
Probation and Intermediate Sanctionsp. 360
Probationp. 362
The History of Probationp. 363
The Concept of Probationp. 363
Awarding Probationp. 364
The Extent of Probationp. 364
Eligibility for Probationp. 365
Conditions of Probationp. 366
Administration of Probation Servicesp. 366
How Successful Is Probation?p. 370
Legal Rights of Probationersp. 373
The Future of Probationp. 374
Intermediate Sanctionsp. 375
Advantages of Intermediate Sanctionsp. 376
Race, Culture, and Gender: Community Sentencing Abroadp. 376
Finesp. 377
Forfeiturep. 379
Restitutionp. 380
Shock Probation and Split Sentencingp. 381
Intensive Probation Supervisionp. 381
House Arrestp. 382
Electronic Monitoringp. 383
Residential Community Correctionsp. 385
Can Intermediate Sanctions Work?p. 387
Summaryp. 388
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: Restorative Justice in the Communityp. 389
Key Termsp. 390
InfoTrac College Edition Exercisesp. 390
Questionsp. 390
Notesp. 391
Corrections: History, Institutions, and Populationsp. 394
The History of Correctional Institutionsp. 398
American Developmentsp. 400
Jailsp. 406
Jail Populationsp. 408
Jail Inmate Characteristicsp. 408
Jail Conditionsp. 409
Prisonsp. 410
Types of Prisonsp. 410
Criminal Justice and Technology: Super-Maximum-Security Prisonsp. 412
Prison Inmate Characteristicsp. 414
Alternative Correctional Institutionsp. 416
Prison Farms and Campsp. 416
Shock Incarceration in Boot Campsp. 416
Community Correctional Facilitiesp. 419
Private Prisonsp. 419
Correctional Populationsp. 421
Why Is the Prison Population Rising?p. 421
Prison Overcrowdingp. 421
Summaryp. 424
Criminal Justice and Technology: Using Technology to Increase Prison Securityp. 424
Key Termsp. 425
InfoTrac College Edition Exercisesp. 426
Questionsp. 426
Notesp. 426
Prison Lifep. 428
Men Imprisonedp. 432
Living in Prisonp. 432
The Inmate Social Codep. 435
The New Inmate Culturep. 436
Women Imprisonedp. 436
Female Institutionsp. 436
Race, Culture, and Gender: Women in Prison: Vengeful Equityp. 438
Correctional Treatment Methodsp. 441
Group Counselingp. 441
Treating the Special-Needs Inmatep. 442
Educational and Vocational Programsp. 443
Inmate Self-Helpp. 446
Can Rehabilitation Work?p. 447
Guarding the Institutionp. 448
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: The No-Frills Movementp. 449
Female Correctional Officersp. 450
Prison Violencep. 450
Individual Violencep. 451
Collective Violencep. 451
Controlling Violencep. 452
Prisoner's Rightsp. 452
Substantive Rightsp. 454
Leaving Prisonp. 456
Parolep. 456
The Effectiveness of Parolep. 460
Summaryp. 463
Key Termsp. 463
InfoTrac College Edition Exercisesp. 463
Questionsp. 464
Notesp. 464
Juvenile Justice
Juvenile Justicep. 466
The History of Juvenile Justicep. 469
Care of Children in Early Americap. 470
The Child-Saving Movementp. 470
The Development of Juvenile Justicep. 472
Juvenile Justice Todayp. 475
Police Processing of the Juvenile Offenderp. 476
Legal Rightsp. 479
The Juvenile Court Processp. 480
The Intake Processp. 481
The Detention Processp. 481
Bailp. 482
Plea Bargainingp. 483
Waiver of Jurisdictionp. 484
The Trialp. 486
Disposition and Treatmentp. 487
The Juvenile Correctional Processp. 489
Probationp. 489
Institutionalizationp. 490
Comprehensive Juvenile Justice Reformp. 494
Early Preventionp. 494
Intervention Programsp. 494
Graduated Sanction Programsp. 494
Reforming Institutionalizationp. 495
Policy, Programs, and Issues in Criminal Justice: Preventing Delinquency with Early Childhood Interventionp. 496
Increasing Waiverp. 498
Current and Future Issues in Juvenile Justicep. 498
Summaryp. 499
Key Termsp. 499
InfoTrac College Edition Exercisesp. 499
Questionsp. 500
Notesp. 500
Glossaryp. 502
Table of Casesp. 517
Name Indexp. 520
Subject Indexp. 529
Photo Creditsp. 546
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

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