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Essentials of Criminal Justice With Infotrac

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780534616410

ISBN10:
0534616410
Media:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
5/22/2003
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
List Price: $127.33
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Summary

Part I: THE NATURE OF CRIME, LAW, AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE. 1. Crime and Criminal Justice. 2. The Nature of Crime and Victimization. 3. Criminal Law: Substance and Procedure. Part II: THE POLICE AND LAW ENFORCEMENT. 4. Police in Society: History and Organization. 5. The Police: Role and Function. 6. Issues in Policing: Professional, Social, and Legal. Part III: COURTS AND ADJUDICATION. 7. Courts, Prosecution, and Defense. 8. Pretrial Procedures. 9. The Criminal Trial. 10. Punishment and Sentencing. Part IV: CORRECTIONS AND ALTERNATIVE SANCTIONS. 11. Community Sentences: Probation, Intermediate Sanctions, and Restorative Justice. 12. Corrections: History, Institutions, and Populations. 13. Prison Life. Part V: JUVENILE JUSTICE. 14. Juvenile Justice.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
PART ONE The Nature of Crime, Law, and Criminal Justice 1(108)
1 Crime and Criminal Justice
2(34)
Is Crime a Recent Development?
4(2)
Crime in the Old West
5(1)
Crime at the Turn of the Twentieth Century
5(1)
Developing the Criminal Justice System
6(2)
The Modern Era of Justice
7(1)
Federal Involvement in Criminal Justice
7(1)
The Criminal Justice System Today
8(2)
Agencies of the Criminal Justice System
8(2)
The Formal Criminal Justice Process
10(1)
CAREERS IN CRIMINAL JUSTICE Finding a Career in the Criminal Justice System
11(9)
The Criminal Justice Assembly Line
14(2)
The Informal Criminal Justice System
16(4)
The "Wedding Cake" Model of Justice
18(2)
CRIMINAL JUSTICE AND THE MEDIA Red Dragon
20(16)
Perspectives on Justice
22(5)
Crime Control Perspective
22(2)
Rehabilitation Perspective
24(1)
Due Process Perspective
24(1)
Nonintervention Perspective
25(1)
Justice Perspective
26(1)
Restorative Justice Perspective
26(1)
Perspectives in Action: Controlling the Drug Trade
27(6)
Crime Control Strategies
28(1)
Justice Model Strategies
29(1)
Rehabilitation Strategies
29(1)
Restorative Justice Strategies
30(1)
Nonintervention Strategies
30(2)
Perspectives in Perspective
32(1)
Summary
33(5)
Key Terms
34(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Exercises
34(1)
Questions
34(1)
Notes
34(2)
2 The Nature of Crime and Victimization
36(40)
How Is Crime Defined?
38(1)
How Is Crime Measured?
39(2)
Survey Data
39(1)
Record Data
40(1)
Alternative Data Sources
40(1)
Measuring Crime Trends
41(5)
Official Crime Data: The Uniform Crime Reports
41(2)
Victim Surveys: The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)
43(1)
Self-Report Surveys
43(2)
Are the Sources of Crime Statistics Compatible?
45(1)
Crime Trends
46(6)
Trends in Official Violent Crime
46(2)
POLICY, PROGRAMS, AND ISSUES IN CRIMINAL JUSTICE Factors That Have an Impact on Crime Rates
48(4)
Trends in Official Property Crime
50(1)
Victimization Trends
50(1)
Self Report Trends
50(1)
What the Future Holds
51(1)
RACE, CULTURE, AND GENDER IN CRIMINAL JUSTICE International Crime Trends
52(5)
Crime Patterns
52(5)
Ecological and Seasonal Differences
53(1)
Gender and Crime
54(1)
Race and Crime
55(1)
Social Class and Crime
55(1)
Age and Crime
55(2)
POLICY PROGRAMS, AND ISSUES IN CRIMINAL JUSTICE Teens and Guns
57(7)
Crime Victims
58(3)
Causes of Crime and Victimization
61(3)
Choice Theory: Because They Want To
61(1)
Sociobiological Theory: It's in Their Blood
61(2)
Psychological Theory: It's in Their Heads
63(1)
CRIMINAL JUSTICE AND THE MEDIA The Media and Violence
64(12)
Social Structure Theory: Because They're Poor
67(1)
Social Process Theory: Socialized to Crime
67(2)
Conflict Theory: It's a "Dog-Eat-Dog" World
69(1)
Developmental Theory: Things Change
69(2)
A Final Word
71(1)
Summary
71(7)
Key Terms
72(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Exercises
72(1)
Questions
72(1)
Notes
72(4)
3 Criminal Law: Substance and Procedure
76(33)
The Historical Development of the Criminal Law
78(4)
Common Law and the Principle of Stare Decisis
79(2)
Criminal Law and Civil Law
81(1)
Sources of the Criminal Law
82(2)
Common Law, Statutes, and Case Decisions
82(1)
Administrative Rule Making
83(1)
Constitutional Law and Its Limits
83(1)
LAW IN REVIEW Chicago v. Morales
84(10)
Crimes and Classifications
85(2)
Felonies and Misdemeanors
85(1)
Other Statutory Classifications
86(1)
The Legal Definition of a Crime
87(4)
Actus Reus
88(1)
Mens Rea
89(1)
The Relationship of Mens Rea and Actus Reus
90(1)
Strict Liability
91(1)
Criminal Defenses
91(3)
Ignorance or Mistake
91(1)
Insanity
92(1)
Intoxication
93(1)
LAW IN REVIEW The Insanity Defense
94(6)
Age
95(1)
Justification and Excuse
95(2)
Reforming the Criminal Law
97(2)
Changing Defenses
98(1)
Constitutional Criminal Procedure
99(1)
The U.S. Constitution
99(1)
POLICY PROGRAMS, AND ISSUES IN CRIMINAL JUSTICE The Criminal Law and Terrorism
100(6)
The Bill of Rights
101(1)
The Fourteenth Amendment
102(2)
Procedural Due Process of Law
103(1)
Summary
104(2)
Key Terms
104(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Exercises
104(1)
Questions
104(1)
Notes
105(1)
Criminal Justice Confronts Terrorism-Who Is the Terrorist?
106(3)
PART TWO The Police and Law Enforcement 109(108)
4 Police in Society: History and Organization
110(26)
The History of Police
112(2)
Eighteenth-Century Developments
113(1)
CAREERS IN CRIMINAL JUSTICE Law Enforcement
114(14)
Law Enforcement in Colonial America
116(1)
Early Police Agencies
116(1)
Twentieth-Century Reform
117(1)
The Emergence of Professionalism
118(1)
The Modern Era of Policing: 1960-2003
119(2)
Policing in the 1960's
119(1)
Policing in the 1970's
119(1)
Policing in the 1980's
120(1)
Policing in the 1990's
120(1)
Policing and Law Enforcement Today
121(5)
Federal Law Enforcement Agencies
121(3)
State Law Enforcement Agencies
124(1)
County Law Enforcement Agencies
125(1)
Metropolitan Law Enforcement Agencies
125(1)
Technology and Law Enforcement
126(1)
Information Technology
127(1)
CRIMINAL JUSTICE AND TECHNOLOGY Crime Mapping
128(8)
Criminal Identification
128(2)
Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems
130(1)
DNA Testing
131(1)
Communications
132(1)
Summary
133(5)
Key Terms
134(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Exercises
134(1)
Questions
134(1)
Notes
134(2)
5 The Police: Role and Function
136(30)
The Police Organization
138(1)
The Police Role
139(2)
The Patrol Function
141(4)
Patrol Activities
142(1)
Does Patrol Deter Crime?
143(1)
Proactive Patrol
143(2)
POLICY, PROGRAMS, AND ISSUES IN CRIMINAL JUSTICE The Indianapolis Gun Control Program
145(5)
Adding Patrol Officers
146(1)
The Investigation Function
147(3)
Sting Operations
148(1)
Undercover Work
148(1)
Evaluating Investigations
149(1)
Improving Investigations
149(1)
CRIMINAL JUSTICE AND THE MEDIA Crime Scene Investigation: CSI
150(10)
Community Policing
151(9)
Broken Windows: The Development of Community Policing
152(3)
Problem-Oriented Policing
155(4)
Support Functions
159(1)
POLICY, PROGRAMS, AND ISSUES IN CRIMINAL JUSTICE Police Oversight: Civilian Review Boards
160(6)
Summary
161(8)
Key Terms
162(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Exercises
162(1)
Questions
162(1)
Notes
162(4)
6 Issues in Policing: Professional, Social, and Legal
166(51)
The Police Profession
169(3)
The Police Culture
169(1)
The Police Personality
170(1)
Policing Style
171(1)
Police Discretion
172(4)
Legal Factors
173(1)
Environmental Factors
173(1)
Departmental Factors
174(1)
Situational Factors
175(1)
Extralegal Factors
175(1)
Who Are the Police?
176(2)
Police Education
176(2)
RACE, CULTURE, AND GENDER IN CRIMINAL JUSTICE Racial Profiling: Does Race Influence the Police Use of Discretion?
178(10)
Minorities in Policing
178(3)
Women in Policing
181(2)
Legal Control of Policing
183(5)
The Police and the Courts
184(1)
Custodial Interrogation
184(3)
Search and Seizure
187(1)
LAW IN REVIEW United States v. Bin Laden
188(10)
The Exclusionary Rule
192(2)
Problems of Policing
194(4)
Job Stress
194(2)
Violence
196(2)
POLICY, PROGRAMS, AND ISSUES CRIMINAL JUSTICE Working with the Problem Cops: Early Intervention Programs
198(16)
Corruption
203(4)
Summary
207(7)
Key Terms
207(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Exercises
208(1)
Questions
208(1)
Notes
208(6)
Criminal Justice Confronts Terrorism-The Law Enforcement Response to Terrorism
214(3)
PART THREE Courts and Adjudication 217(130)
7 Courts, Prosecution, and the Defense
218(34)
The Criminal Court Process
220(1)
State Courts
221(3)
Courts of Limited Jurisdiction
221(2)
Courts of General Jurisdiction
223(1)
POLICY, PROGRAMS, AND ISSUES IN CRIMINAL JUSTICE Specialized Courts
224(24)
Appellate Courts
224(2)
Federal Courts
226(6)
U.S. District Courts
226(2)
U.S. Courts of Appeals
228(1)
The U.S. Supreme Court
229(3)
Federal and State Court Caseloads
232(1)
The Judiciary
232(2)
Judicial Functions
233(1)
Judicial Qualifications
233(1)
The Prosecutor
234(3)
Duties of the Prosecutor
235(1)
Types of Prosecutors
236(1)
Prosecutorial Discretion
237(2)
Factors Influencing Decision Making
238(1)
The Role of Prosecutorial Discretion
239(1)
Legal Restraints
239(1)
The Defense Attorney
239(2)
The Role of the Criminal Defense Attorney
240(1)
Ethical Issues
241(1)
The Right to Counsel
241(6)
The Private Bar
243(1)
Legal Services for the Indigent
244(1)
The Competence of Defense Attorneys
245(2)
Court Administration
247(1)
CRIMINAL JUSTICE AND TECHNOLOGY Technology and Court Management
248(4)
Summary
250(4)
Key Terms
250(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Exercises
250(1)
Questions
250(1)
Notes
251(1)
8 Pretrial Procedures
252(28)
Procedures Following Arrest
254(1)
Pretrial Services
255(1)
POLICY, PROGRAMS, AND ISSUES IN CRIMINAL JUSTICE Pretrial Service Programs
256(8)
Bail
256(7)
Bail Today
257(2)
Receiving Bail
259(1)
The Legal Right to Bail
259(1)
Making Bail
260(3)
Preventive Detention
263(1)
LAW IN REVIEW United States v. Salerno
264(16)
Pretrial Detention
265(1)
The Effects of Detention
265(1)
Charging the Defendant
266(4)
The Indictment Process-The Grand Jury
266(1)
The Indictment Process-The Preliminary Hearing
267(1)
Arraignment
268(1)
The Plea
268(2)
Plea Bargaining
270(7)
Legal Issues in Plea Bargaining
272(1)
Plea-Bargaining Decision Making
273(1)
The Role of the Prosecutor
274(1)
The Role of the Defense Counsel
274(1)
The Role of the Judge
275(1)
The Victim
275(1)
Plea-Bargaining Reform
276(1)
Pretrial Diversion
277(1)
Summary
277(5)
Key Terms
278(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Exercises
278(1)
Questions
278(1)
Notes
278(2)
9 The Criminal Trial
280(24)
Legal Rights During Trial
282(6)
The Right to Confront Witnesses
282(1)
The Right to a Jury Trial
283(1)
The Right to Counsel at Trial
284(1)
The Right to Self-Representation
285(1)
The Right to a Speedy Trial
286(1)
The Right to a Fair Trial
286(1)
The Right to a Public Trial
287(1)
CRIMINAL JUSTICE AND THE MEDIA TV or Not TV? Should Criminal Trials Be Televised
288(9)
The Trial Process
290(7)
Jury Selection
290(3)
Opening Statements
293(2)
Motion for a Directed Verdict
295(1)
Presentation of the Defense Attorney's Evidence
295(1)
Closing Arguments
296(1)
Instructions to the Jury
296(1)
The Verdict
296(1)
LAW IN REVIEW The Danielle van Dam Case: Should Defense Lawyers Tell the Truth?
297(7)
The Sentence
298(1)
The Appeal
299(1)
Evidentiary Standards
300(1)
Summary
301(5)
Key Terms
301(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Exercises
302(1)
Questions
302(1)
Notes
302(2)
10 Punishment and Sentencing
304(43)
The History of Punishment
306(2)
From Exile to Fines, Torture to Forfeiture
306(1)
Public Work and Transportation to the Colonies
307(1)
The Rise of the Prison
308(1)
The Goals of Modern Sentencing
308(4)
General Deterrence
309(1)
Incapacitation
310(1)
Specific Deterrence
310(1)
Retribution/Just Desert
310(1)
Rehabilitation
311(1)
Equity/Restitution
311(1)
Imposing the Sentence
312(7)
Sentencing Models
313(1)
Indeterminate Sentences
313(1)
Determinate Sentences
314(1)
Structural Sentences
315(3)
Mandatory Sentences
318(1)
Truth in Sentencing
319(1)
How People Are Sentenced
319(1)
POLICY, PROGRAMS, AND ISSUES IN CRIMINAL JUSTICE Let's Get Tough: Three-Strikes Laws
320(6)
What Factors Affect Sentencing?
322(3)
Capital Punishment
325(1)
RACE, CULTURE, AND GENDER IN CRIMINAL JUSTICE Race and Sentencing
326(3)
Arguments for the Death Penalty
328(1)
RACE, CULTURE, AND GENDER IN CRIMINAL JUSTICE The Death Penalty Abroad
329(16)
Arguments Against the Death Penalty
331(5)
Legal Issues
336(1)
Jury Issues
337(1)
Does the Death Penalty Deter Murder?
338(1)
Summary
339(6)
Key Terms
340(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Exercises
340(1)
Questions
340(1)
Notes
340(5)
Criminal Justice Confronts Terrorism-Courts and Terrorism
345(2)
PART FOUR Corrections and Alternative Sanctions 347(110)
11 Community Sentences: Probation, Intermediate Sanctions, and Restorative Justice
348(36)
Probation
350(6)
The History of Probation
351(1)
Why Probation?
351(1)
Awarding Probation
352(1)
The Extent of Probation
352(1)
Eligibility for Probation
353(1)
Conditions of Probation
354(1)
Administration of Probation Services
355(1)
CAREERS IN CRIMINAL JUSTICE Probation Officers
356(8)
Duties of Probation Officers
357(2)
How Successful Is Probation?
359(2)
Legal Rights of Probationers
361(1)
The Future of Probation
362(1)
Intermediate Sanctions
363(1)
Advantages of Intermediate Sanctions
363(1)
RACE, CULTURE, AND GENDER IN CRIMINAL JUSTICE: Alternatives to Incarceration Abroad
364(11)
Fines
365(1)
Forfeiture
366(1)
Restitution
367(1)
Shock Probation and Split Sentencing
368(1)
Intensive Probation Supervision
369(1)
House Arrest
370(1)
Electronic Monitoring
371(1)
Residential Community Corrections
372(1)
Can Intermediate Sanctions Work?
373(1)
Restorative Justice
374(5)
The Concept of Restoration
374(1)
POLICY, PROGRAMS, AND ISSUES IN CRIMINAL JUSTICE Reintegrative Shaming
375(4)
The Process of Restoration
376(1)
Restoration Programs
376(2)
The Challenge of Restorative Justice
378(1)
POLICY, PROGRAMS, AND ISSUES IN CRIMINAL JUSTICE: Restorative Justice in the Community
379(5)
Summary
380(7)
Key Terms
380(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Exercises
381(1)
Questions
381(1)
Notes
381(3)
12 Corrections: History, Institutions, and Populations
384(30)
The History of Correctional Institutions
387(8)
American Developments
388(3)
Incarceration Philosophies
391(1)
Prisons at the Turn of the Twentieth Century
392(3)
Jails
395(3)
Jail Populations
396(1)
Who Are Jail Inmates?
396(1)
Jail Conditions
397(1)
New-Generation Jails
397(1)
Prisons
398(2)
Types of Prisons
398(2)
CRIMINAL JUSTICE AND TECHNOLOGY Ultra-Maximum-Security Prisons
400(14)
Prison Inmate Characteristics
402(1)
Alternative Correctional Institutions
403(5)
Prison Farms and Camps
403(1)
Shock Incarceration in Boot Camps
404(2)
Community Correctional Facilities
406(1)
Private Prisons
406(2)
Correctional Populations
408(2)
Explaining Prison Population Trends
409(1)
Prison Overcrowding
409(1)
Summary
410(6)
Key Terms
411(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Exercises
411(1)
Questions
411(1)
Notes
411(3)
13 Prison Life
414(43)
Men Imprisoned
416(5)
Living in Prison
416(3)
The Inmate Social Code
419(1)
The New Inmate Culture
420(1)
Women Imprisoned
421(4)
Female Institutions
422(1)
Female Inmates
423(1)
Adapting to the Female Institution
424(1)
Correctional Treatment Methods
425(8)
Individual and Group Counseling
426(1)
Treating the Special-Needs Inmate
426(1)
Educational and Vocational Programs
427(4)
Inmate Self-Help
431(1)
Can Rehabilitation Work?
431(2)
Guarding the Institution
433(2)
Female Correctional Officers
434(1)
Prison Violence
435(3)
Individual Violence
435(1)
CRIMINAL, JUSTICE AND THE MEDIA Newjack
436(2)
Collective Violence
437(1)
CRIMINAL JUSTICE AND TECHNOLOGY Technocorrections: Contemporary Correctional Technology
438(5)
Prisoners' Rights
440(3)
Substantive Rights
441(2)
LAW IN REVIEW Hope v. Pelzer
443(6)
Leaving Prison
444(5)
Parole
444(1)
The Parole Board
445(1)
Parole Hearings
445(1)
The Parolee in the Community
446(1)
The Effectiveness of Parole
447(1)
Why Do People Fail on Parole?
448(1)
POLICY, PROGRAMS, AND ISSUES IN CRIMINAL JUSTICE The Problems of Reentry
449(6)
Summary
450(5)
Key Terms
451(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Exercises
451(1)
Questions
451(1)
Notes
451(4)
Criminal Justice Confronts Terrorism-Corrections and Terrorism
455(2)
PART FIVE Juvenile Justice 457(34)
14. The Juvenile Justice System
458(33)
The History of Juvenile Justice
460(5)
Care of Children in Early America
461(1)
The Child-Saving Movement
461(1)
The Refuge Movement Spreads
462(1)
The Development of Juvenile Justice
463(2)
Juvenile Justice Today
465(1)
Police Processing of the Juvenile Offender
466(3)
Use of Discretion
468(1)
Legal Rights
469(1)
The Juvenile Justice Process
469(7)
The Intake Process
470(1)
The Detention Process
470(2)
Bail
472(1)
Plea Bargaining
472(1)
Waiver of Jurisdiction
472(2)
The Trial
474(1)
Alternatives to the Juvenile Trial
475(1)
Disposition and Treatment
475(1)
POLICY, PROGRAMS, AND ISSUES IN CRIMINAL JUSTICE Teen Courts
476(9)
Juvenile Sentencing Reform
477(2)
The Juvenile Correctional Process
479(7)
Probation
479(1)
Institutionalization
480(1)
Deinstitutionalization
481(1)
Aftercare
481(1)
Preventing Delinquency
482(1)
Community Strategies
482(1)
Enforcement Strategies
483(1)
Keep the Juvenile Court?
484(1)
POLICY, PROGRAMS, AND ISSUES IN CRIMINAL JUSTICE: Operation Ceasefire
485(1)
POLICY, PROGRAMS, AND ISSUES IN CRIMINAL JUSTICE Should We Abolish the Juvenile Court?
486(5)
Summary
487(4)
Key Terms
487(1)
InfoTrac College Edition Exercises
487(1)
Questions
487(1)
Notes
488(3)
Glossary 491(9)
Table of Cases 500(2)
Name Index 502(7)
Subject Index 509(11)
Photo Credits 520


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