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Essentials of Exercise Physiology

by ; ;
ISBN13:

9780683305074

ISBN10:
0683305077
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2000
Publisher(s):
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
List Price: $64.95
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Summary

Queens College of the City University of New York, Flushing. Text, for students, includes the fundamental aspects of exercise physiology. Discusses basic and applied exercise physiology and information important to health-related professionals. Previous edition: c1994. Includes The Student Study Guide and Workbook. Softcover.

Table of Contents

Section 1: Introduction to Exercise Physiology 3(38)
Origins of Exercise Physiology: Foundations for the Field of Study
5(33)
Earliest Development
8(1)
Early United States Experience
8(10)
Contributions of the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory (1927--1946)
18(1)
Nordic Connection (Denmark, Sweden, Norway, and Finland)
19(3)
Other Contributors to Exercise Physiology
22(1)
Contemporary Developments
22(1)
A Common Link
23(2)
General Goals of Science
25(1)
Hierarchy in Science
25(1)
Casual and Causal Relationships
26(3)
Factors That Affect Relationships Among Variables
29(3)
Establishing Laws
32(1)
Developing Theories
32(1)
Certainty of Science
33(1)
Publishing Results of Experiments
34(1)
Empirical vs. Theoretical Research; Basic vs. Applied Research
34(2)
Thought Questions
36(1)
Selected References
37(1)
Section 2: Nutrition and Energy Transfer 38(190)
Macronutrients and Food Energy
40(27)
Carbohydrates
41(6)
Lipids
47(4)
Proteins
51(5)
Recommended Dietary Allowance
56(5)
Calorie---A Measurement of Food Energy
61(1)
Gross Energy Value of Foods
61(1)
Net Energy Value of Foods
62(3)
Calories Equal Calories
65(1)
Thought Questions
65(1)
Selected References
66(1)
Micronutrients and Water
67(28)
Vitamins
68(6)
Vitamin Supplements: The Competitive Edge?
74(1)
Minerals
75(7)
Minerals and Exercise Performance
82(2)
Water in the Body
84(2)
Water Requirement in Exercise
86(6)
Thought Questions
92(1)
Selected References
93(2)
Fundamentals of Human Energy Transfer
95(29)
Adenosine Triphosphate: The Energy Currency
98(2)
Phosphocreatine: The Energy Reservoir
100(1)
Intramuscular High-Energy Phosphates
101(1)
Energy Source Important
101(1)
Cellular Oxidation
102(3)
Energy Release From Carbohydrate
105(7)
Energy Release From Fat
112(2)
Energy Release From Protein
114(2)
The Metabolic Mill
116(1)
Fats Burn in a Carbohydrate Flame
116(1)
Regulation of Energy Metabolism
117(1)
Acid-Base Regulation and pH
118(2)
Buffering and Strenuous Exercise
120(2)
Thought Questions
122(1)
Selected References
122(2)
Human Energy Transfer During Exercise
124(18)
Immediate Energy: The ATP-PCr System
125(1)
Short-Term Energy: The lactic Acid System
126(1)
Long-Term Energy: The Aerobic System
127(5)
Fast-and Slow-Twitch Muscle Fibers
132(1)
Energy Spectrum of Exercise
132(3)
Oxygen Uptake During Recovery: The So-Called ``Oxygen Debt''
135(6)
Thought Questions
141(1)
Selected References
141(1)
Measurement of Human Energy Expenditure
142(12)
Heat Produced by the Body
143(5)
Direct Versus Indirect Calorimetry
148(1)
Respiratory Quotient (RQ)
148(1)
Respiratory Exchange Ratio (R)
149(3)
Thought Questions
152(1)
Selected References
153(1)
Energy Expenditure During Rest and Physical Activity
154(25)
Energy Expenditure at Rest: Basal Metabolic Rate
155(1)
Influence of Body Size on Resting Metabolism
156(1)
Estimating Resting Daily Energy Expenditure
157(1)
Factors Affecting Energy Expenditure
157(5)
Energy Cost of Recreational and Sport Activities
162(1)
Average Daily Rates of Energy Expenditure
163(1)
Classification of Work
163(3)
Economy of Movement
166(1)
Mechanical Efficiency
167(1)
Energy Expenditure During Walking
168(2)
Energy Expenditure During Running
170(4)
Energy Expenditure During Swimming
174(3)
Thought Questions
177(1)
Selected References
178(1)
Evaluating Energy-Generating Capacities During Exercise
179(27)
Overview of Energy Transfer Capacity During Exercise
180(1)
Anaerobic Energy: Immediate and Short-Term Energy Systems
181(7)
Aerobic Energy: Long-Term Energy System
188(1)
Maximal Oxygen Uptake Measurement
189(9)
Maximal Oxygen Uptake Predictions
198(6)
Thought Questions
204(1)
Selected References
205(1)
Optimal Nutrition for Exercise and Sport
206(22)
Nutrient Requirements
207(2)
Exercise and Food Intake
209(5)
The Precompetition Meal
214(2)
Carbohydrate Intake Before, During, and After Intense Exercise
216(2)
Glucose Intake, Electrolytes, and Water Uptake
218(1)
Recommended Oral Rehydration Beverage
219(1)
Post-Exercise Carbohydrate Intake
219(2)
Carbohydrate Needs in Intense Training
221(1)
Diet, Glycogen Stores, and Endurance
221(3)
Carbohydrate Loading
224(1)
Thought Questions
225(1)
Selected References
226(2)
Section 3: The Physiologic Support Systems 228(126)
The Pulmonary System and Exercise
230(32)
Anatomy of Ventilation
231(3)
Lung Volumes and Capacities
234(3)
Pulmonary Ventilation
237(2)
Disruptions in Normal Breathing Patterns
239(2)
Respired Gases: Concentrations and Partial Pressures
241(1)
Movement of Gas in Air and Fluids
242(1)
Gas Exchange in the Body
243(2)
Oxygen Transport in the Blood
245(3)
Carbon Dioxide Transport in Blood
248(2)
Ventilatory Control
250(2)
Ventilatory Control in Exercise
252(2)
Pulmonary Ventilation and Energy Demands
254(4)
Does Ventilation Limit Aerobic Capacity?
258(2)
Thought Questions
260(1)
Selected References
261(1)
The Cardiovascular System and Exercise
262(34)
Components of the Cardiovascular System
264(4)
Blood Pressure
268(3)
Heart's Blood Supply
271(4)
Heart Rate Regulation
275(5)
Blood Distribution
280(2)
Integrated Response in Exercise
282(2)
Cardiac Output
284(1)
Resting Cardiac Output
285(1)
Exercise Cardiac Output
285(1)
Exercise Stroke Volume
286(2)
Exercise Heart Rate
288(1)
Cardiac Output Distribution
288(1)
Cardiac Output and Oxygen Transport
289(1)
Extraction of Oxygen: The a-vO2 Difference
290(1)
Cardiovascular Adjustments to Upper-Body Exercise
291(1)
``Athlete's Heart''
292(2)
Thought Questions
294(1)
Selected References
294(2)
The Neuromuscular System and Exercise
296(32)
Neuromotor System Organization
297(10)
Motor Unit Physiology
307(3)
Proprioceptors in Muscles, Joints, and Tendons
310(4)
Comparison of Skeletal, Cardiac, and Smooth Muscle
314(1)
Gross Structure of Skeletal Muscle
315(1)
Skeletal Muscle Ultrastructure
316(3)
Chemical and Mechanical Events During Contraction and Relaxation
319(3)
Muscle Fiber Type
322(4)
Thought Questions
326(1)
Selected References
327(1)
Hormones, Exercise, and Training
328(26)
Endocrine System Overview
329(1)
Endocrine System Organization
329(2)
Resting and Exercise-Induced Endocrine Secretions
331(3)
Anterior Pituitary Hormones
334(2)
Posterior Pituitary Hormones
336(1)
Thyroid Hormones
337(1)
Parathyroid Hormone
337(1)
Adrenal Hormones
338(2)
Pancreatic Hormones
340(2)
Diabetes Mellitus
342(4)
Endurance Training and Endocrine Function
346(5)
Resistance Training and Endocrine Function
351(1)
Thought Questions
352(1)
Selected References
352(2)
Section 4: Exercise Training and Adaptations in Functional Capacity 354(72)
Training the Anaerobic and Aerobic Energy Systems
356(32)
Training Must Focus on Energy Requirements
357(1)
General Training Principles
358(2)
Anaerobic Training
360(2)
Aerobic Training
362(4)
Factors That Affect Aerobic Conditioning
366(2)
Adaptations to Exercise Training
368(7)
Formulating an Aerobic Training Program
375(5)
Continuous Versus Intermittent Aerobic Training
380(2)
Maintaining Aerobic Fitness
382(1)
Exercise Training During Pregnancy
382(4)
Thought Questions
386(1)
Selected References
387(1)
Training Muscles to Become Stronger
388(38)
Foundations for Studying Muscular Strength
389(1)
Measurement of Muscular Strength
390(3)
Strength Testing Considerations
393(1)
Training Muscles to Become Stronger
393(6)
Gender Differences in Muscular Strength
399(3)
Resistance Training for Children
402(1)
Systems of Resistance Training
402(9)
Neural Adaptations
411(1)
Muscle Adaptations
412(3)
Connective Tissue and Bone Adaptations
415(1)
Cardiovascular Adaptations
415(2)
Metabolic Stress of Resistance Training
417(2)
Body Composition Adaptations
419(1)
Muscle Soreness and Stiffness
419(5)
Thought Questions
424(1)
Selected References
425(1)
Section 5: Factors Affecting Physiological Function, Energy Transfer, and Exercise Performance 426(72)
Environment and Exercise
428(33)
Thermoregulation
429(1)
Thermal Balance
429(1)
Hypothalamic Regulation of Body Temperature
430(1)
Thermoregulation in Cold Stress
431(1)
Thermoregulation in Heat Stress
431(3)
Integration of Heat Dissipating Mechanisms
434(1)
Effects of Clothing on Thermoregulation
434(3)
Nutritional Aspects of Exercise in Extreme Environments
437(1)
Exercise in the Heat
438(1)
Circulatory Adjustments
438(1)
Core Temperature During Exercise
439(1)
Water Loss in the Heat
439(4)
Factors That Improve Heat Tolerance
443(3)
Evaluating Environmental Heat Stress
446(1)
Exercise in the Cold
447(1)
Evaluating Environmental Cold Stress
447(2)
Stress of Altitude
449(1)
Acclimatization
450(3)
Altitude-Related Medical Problems
453(2)
Exercise Capacity at Altitude
455(1)
Altitude Training and Sea Level Performance
456(2)
Thought Questions
458(1)
Selected References
459(2)
Ergogenic Aids
461(37)
Anabolic Steroids
463(3)
Androstenedione: A Legal Supplement in Some Sports
466(2)
Clenbuterol: Anabolic Steroid Substitute
468(1)
Growth Hormone: The Next Magic Pill?
469(1)
DHEA: New Drug On the Circuit
469(2)
Amphetamines
471(1)
Caffeine
471(5)
Alcohol
476(2)
Pangamic Acid
478(1)
Buffering Solutions
478(2)
Phosphate Loading
480(1)
Anti-Cortisol Producing Compounds
480(1)
Chromium
481(3)
Creatine
484(5)
Red Blood Cell Reinfusion
489(2)
Warm-Up
491(1)
Breathing Hyperoxic Gas
492(3)
Thought Questions
495(1)
Selected References
495(3)
Section 6: Optimizing Body Composition, Aging, and Health-Related Exercise Benefits 498(165)
Body Composition: Components, Assessment, and Human Variability
500(28)
Gross Composition of the Human Body
501(4)
Leaness, Exercise, and Menstrual Irregularities
505(1)
Methods to Assess Body Size and Composition
506(12)
Body Mass Index
518(2)
Average Values for Body Composition
520(2)
Body Composition of Champion Athletes
522(4)
Thought Questions
526(1)
Selected References
526(2)
Obesity, Exercise, and Weight Control
528(26)
Obesity: A Long-Term Process
529(1)
Not Necessarily Overeating
529(3)
Health Risks of Obesity
532(1)
How Fat is Too Fat?
533(7)
The Energy Balance Equation
540(1)
Dieting to Tip the Energy Balance Equation
541(4)
Exercising to Tip the Energy Balance Equation
545(4)
Diet Plus Exercise: The Ideal Combination
549(1)
Gaining Weight
550(2)
Thought Questions
552(1)
Selected References
552(2)
Exercise, Aging, and Cardiovascular Health
554(33)
Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health
555(1)
Safety of Exercising
556(1)
The New Gerontology
557(1)
Concept of Successful Aging
558(1)
Aging and Bodily Function
558(10)
Regular Exercise: A Fountain of Youth?
568(3)
Coronary Heart Disease
571(3)
Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease
574(8)
Behavioral Changes Improve Overall Health Profile
582(1)
Thought Questions
583(1)
Selected References
584(3)
Clinical Exercise Physiology for Health-Related Professionals
587(76)
The Exercise Physiologist/Health-Fitness Professional In the Clinical Setting
588(1)
Sports Medicine and Exercise Physiology: A Vital Link
588(2)
Training and Certification by Professional Organizations
590(3)
Exercise Programs for Special Populations
593(1)
Oncology
593(2)
Cardiovascular Diseases
595(3)
Cardiac Disease Assessment
598(7)
Stress Test Protocols
605(1)
Maximal Treadmill, Cycle Ergometer, and Swimming Tests
606(1)
Safety of Stress Testing
607(3)
Exercise-Induced Indicators of CHD
610(1)
Invasive Physiologic Tests
611(1)
Patient Classification for Cardiac Rehabilitation
611(1)
Phases of Cardiac Rehabilitation
612(1)
Exercise Prescription
612(2)
The Rehabilitation Program
614(2)
Cardiac Medications
616(1)
Pulmonary Diseases
616(8)
Pulmonary Assessments
624(1)
Pulmonary Rehabilitation and Exercise Prescription
625(1)
Pulmonary Medications
626(2)
Thought Questions
628(1)
Selected References
628(4)
Appendices
A. Reliable Information Resources and Exercise Physiology
632(3)
B. The Internet and Exercise Physiology
635(10)
C. The Metric System and Conversion Constants in Exercise Physiology
645(3)
D. Metabolic Computations in Open-Circuit Spirometry
648(5)
E. Frequently Cited Journals in Exercise Physiology
653(1)
F. Evaluation of Body Composition---Girth Method
654(7)
G. Evaluation of Body Composition---Skinfold Method
661(2)
Index 663


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