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Balancing classical and modern genetics, "Essentials of Genetics" helps readers understand basic genetics concepts, apply those concepts to genetics problems, and recognize the logic behind them. This succinct treatment features coverage of new research that will capture readers' interests. Mendelian (transmission) genetics, and modern molecular genetics with analytical reasoning woven into discussions, plus references to classical experiments and recent applications. Helps readers connect the science of genetics to the issues of today. Modernizes treatment of timely topics, including genomics, bioinformatics, proteomics (chapter 18), applications and ethics of genetic engineering (chapter 19); updated and extended coverage of gene regulation (chapter 15), cancer genetics (chapter 16). Features beautifully redesigned illustrations throughout, helping readers understand concepts more clearly. A useful reference for anyone interested in learning more about genetics.
Table of Contents
Most chapters end with a Chapter Summary, Insights and Solutions, Key Terms, Problems and Discussion Questions and Selected Readings. 1. An Introduction to Genetics.
The Historical Context of Genetics. The Molecular Basis of Genetics. Investigative Approaches in Genetics. Genetics and Society.
2. Mitosis and Meiosis.
Cell Structure. Homologous Chromosomes, Haploidy, and Diploidy. Mitosis and Cell Division. Cell Cycle Control. Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction. Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis. The Significance of Meiosis. The Relationship Between Chromatin and Chromosomes.
3. Mendelian Genetics.
Gregor Johann Mendel. The Monohybrid Cross. The Dihybrid Cross. The Trihybrid Cross. The Rediscovery of Mendel's Work. Independent Assortment and Genetic Variation. Probability and Genetic Events. Evaluating Genetic Data: Chi-Square Analysis. Human Pedigrees.
4. Modification of Mendelian Ratios.
Potential Function of Alleles. Symbols for Alleles. Incomplete (Partial) Dominance. Codominance. Multiple Alleles. Lethal Alleles. Combinations of Two Gene Pairs. Gene Interaction. Complementation Analysis and Alleles. Gehes on the X Chromosome. Sex-Limited and Sex-Influenced Inheritance. Phenotypic Expression.
5. Sex Determination and Sex Chromosomes.
Sexual Differentiation and Life Cycles. X and Y Chromosomes: Early Studies. Chromosome Composition and Sex Determination in Humans. Sexual Differentiation in Humans. The Sex Ratio in Humans. The X Chromosome and Dosage Compensation. Chromosome Composition and Sex Determination in Drosophila. Temperature Variation and Sex Determination in Reptiles.
7. Chromosome Variation in Number and Arrangement.
Variation in Chromosome Number: An Overview. Nondisjunction: The Origin of Aneuploidy. Monosomy. Trisomy. Polyploidy and Its Origins. Variation in Chromosome Structure and Arrangement: An Overview. Deletions. Duplications. Inversions. Translocations. Fragile Sites in Humans.
8. Linkage and Chromosome Mapping in Eukaryotes.
Linkage Versus Independent Assortment. Incomplete Linkage, Crossing Over, and Chromosome Mapping. Mapping in Drosophila and Maize. The Accuracy of Mapping Experiments. The Genetic Map of Drosophila. Somatic Cell Hybridization and Human Gene Mapping. Haploid Organisms in Linkage and Mapping Studies. Other Aspects of Genetic Exchange. Did Mendel Encounter Linkage?
9. Mapping in Bacteria.
Bacterial Mutation and Growth. Genetic Recombination in Bacteria: Conjugation. Rec Proteins and Bacterial Recombination. F Factors and Plasmids. Bacterial Transformation. The Genetic Study of Bacteriophages. Transduction: Virus-Mediated Bacterial DNA Transfer. Intergenic Recombination and Mapping in Bacteriophages.
10. DNA Structure and Analysis.
Characteristics of the Genetic Material. The Genetic Material: Early Studies. Evidence Favoring DNA in Bacteria and Bacteriophages. Indirect and Direct Evidence Favoring DNA in Eukaryotes. RNA as the Genetic Material in Some Viruses. Structural Analysis of DNA. The Watson-Crick Model. The Structure of RNA. Hydrogen Bonds and the Analysis of Nucleic Acids. Electrophoresis of Nucleic Acids.
11. DNA Replication and Recombination.
The Mode of DNA Replication. Synthesis of DNA in Microorganisms. DNA Synthesis: A Model. A Coherent Model of DNA Synthesis. Genetic Control of Replication. Eukaryotic DNA Synthesis. DNA Replication, Telomeres, and Telomerase. DNA Recombination.
12. The Genetic Code and Transcription.
Characteristics of the Genetic Code. Initial Insights into the Code. Deciphering the Code. The Coding Dictionary. Confirming the Code Using Phage MS2. The Universality of the Genetic Code. Transcription: DNA-Dependent RNA Synthesis. RNA Polymerase. Transcription in Eukaryotes. Intervening Sequences and Split Genes. RNA Editing.
13. Translation and Proteins.
Translation: Components Essential to Protein Synthesis. Translation: The Process. Translation in Eukaryotes. Proteins, Heredity, and Metabolism. The One-Gene: One-Enzyme Hypothesis. One-Gene: One-Polypeptide Chain. Colinearity Between Genes and Proteins. Protein Structure and Biological Diversity. Posttranslational Modification of Proteins. Protein Function. Protein Domains and Exon Shuffling.
14. Gene Mutation.
Classification of Mutations. Detection of Mutation. Spontaneous Mutation Rate. The Molecular Basis of Mutation. Ultraviolet and High-Energy Radiation. Mutations in Humans: Case Studies. Detection of Mutagenicity: The Ames Test. Counteracting DNA Damage: Repair Systems. Site-Directed Mutagenesis. Knockout Genes and Transgenes. Transposable Genetic Elements.
15. Gene Regulation.
Genetic Regulation in Prokaryotes: An Overview. Lactose Metabolism in E. coli: An Inducible System. Tryptophan Metabolism in E. coli: A Repressible Gene System. Genetic Regulation in Eukaryotes: An Overview. Regulatory Elements, Transcription Factors, and Eukaryotic Genes. Gene Regulation by Steroid Hormones. Posttranscriptional Regulation of Gene Expression.
16. Construction and Analysis of DNA Clones.
Recombinant DNA Technology: An Overview. Constructing Recombinant DNA Molecules. Cloning in E. coli Host Cells. Cloning in Eukaryotic Host Cells. Cloning Without Host Cells: The PCR Reaction. Libraries Are Collections of Cloned Sequences. Recovering Cloned Sequences from a Library. Characterizing Cloned Sequences. DNA Sequencing: The Ultimate Way to Characterize a Clone.
17. DNA Sequence Organization and Chromosomes.
Viral and Bacterial Chromosomes. Mitochondrial and Chloroplast DNA. Specialized Chromosomes. Organization of Chromatin in Eukaryotes. DNA Sequence Organization in Eukaryotes. The Eukaryotic Genome: What Proportion Encodes Genes?
18. Genomics and Proteomics.
Genomic Analysis. Anatomy of Prokaryotic Genomes. Anatomy of Eukaryotic Genomes. Genome Evolution. Comparative Genomics: Multigene Families. Proteomics.
19. Biotechnology and Its Implications for Society.
Mapping Human Genes. Genetic Disorders: Diagnosis and Screening. Genetic Testing and Ethical Dilemmas. Gene Therapy. DNA Fingerprints. Genome Projects. The Human Genome Project: An Overview. Biotechnology.
20. Genes and Development.
Basic Concepts in Developmental Genetics. Genetics of Embryonic Development in Drosophila. Flower Development in Arabidopsis: Role of Homeotic Selector Genes. Cell-Cell Interactions in C. elegans Development.
21. Genetic Basis of Cancer.
The Cell Cycle and Cancer. Genes, Cancer, and the Cell Cycle. Tumor Suppressor Genes. Oncogenes. A Genetic Model of Cancer: Colon Cancer. Gatekeeper and Caretaker Genes. Chromosomal Translocations and Leukemia. Environmental Factors and Cancer.
22. Population Genetics.
Populations and Gene Pools. Calculating Allele Frequencies. The Hardy-Weinberg Law. Extensions of the Hardy-Weinberg Law. Using the Hardy-Weinberg Law: Calculating Heterozygote Frequency. Factors That Alter Allele Frequencies in Populations. Natural Selection. Mutation. Migration. Genetic Drift. Nonrandom Mating.
23. Genetics and Evolution.
Evolutionary History: Models of Speciation. Estimating Genetic Variation. Evolution and Genetic Variation. Changes in the Genetic Structure of Populations. Formation of Species. Reconstructing Evolutionary History. Using Evolutionary History.
24. Conservation Genetics.
Genetic Diversity. Population Size and Species Survival. Genetic Effects of Decreased Population Size. Genetic Erosion: The Loss of Genetic Diversity. Conservation of Genetic Diversity.
Appendix. Answers to Selected Problems. Glossary. Index.