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Essentials Of Geology



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Pearson College Div
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Building on the tremendous reception to its parent book, Earth 6/e, the same groundbreaking media package is now integrated into this brief version of the best-selling introductory physical geology book. The GEODe II CD-ROM (included with every copy of the book), a text-dedicated web site, and mroe, provide complete, state-of-the-art multimedia support for both students and instructors. This book retains the hallmarks professors have come to expect from Tarbuck and Lutgens--student friendly writing style, carefully crafted illustrations by Dennis Tasa that are both geologically accurate and visually appealing, and updated coverage of the most recent geolgic events. For Geologists and Geology instructors.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xii
An Introduction to Geologyp. 1
The Science of Geologyp. 2
Historical Notes about Geologyp. 2
Catastrophismp. 3
The Birth of Modern Geologyp. 3
Geologic Timep. 5
The Nature of Scientific Inquiryp. 7
Hypothesisp. 7
Theoryp. 7
Scientific Methodsp. 8
A View of Earthp. 8
Hydrospherep. 10
Atmospherep. 11
The Solid Earthp. 11
Biospherep. 12
Dynamic Earthp. 12
Plate Tectonicsp. 12
Plate Boundariesp. 13
Earth as a System: The Rock Cyclep. 16
The Basic Cyclep. 16
Alternative Pathsp. 16
The Rock Cycle and Plate Tectonicsp. 19
Box 1.1 Earth as a Systemp. 18
Minerals: The Building Blocks of Rocksp. 22
Minerals: The Building Blocks of Rocksp. 23
The Composition and Structure of Mineralsp. 23
Atomic Structurep. 24
How Atoms Bond Togetherp. 25
Isotopes and Radioactive Decayp. 28
Properties of Mineralsp. 28
Crystal Formp. 28
Lusterp. 29
Colorp. 29
Streakp. 29
Hardnessp. 29
Cleavagep. 30
Fracturep. 30
Specific Gravityp. 30
Other Properties of Mineralsp. 31
Mineral Groupsp. 31
The Silicatesp. 32
Common Silicate Mineralsp. 34
Important Nonsilicate Mineralsp. 37
Mineral Resourcesp. 38
Asbestos: What Are the Risksp. 40
Igneous Rocksp. 43
Crystallization of Magmap. 44
Igneous Texturesp. 45
Factors Affecting Crystal Sizep. 46
Types of Igneous Texturesp. 47
Igneous Compositionsp. 48
Bowen's Reaction Seriesp. 49
Magmatic Differentiationp. 51
Assimilation and Magma Mixingp. 51
Naming Igneous Rocksp. 52
Igneous Rock Typesp. 52
Felsic (Granitic) Rocksp. 53
Intermediate (Andesitic) Rocksp. 56
Mafic (Basaltic) Rocksp. 57
Pyroclastic Rocksp. 58
Mineral Resources and Igneous Processesp. 58
Bingham Canyon, Utahp. 60
Volcanoes and Other Igneous Activityp. 64
The Nature of Volcanic Eruptionsp. 65
Factors Affecting Viscosityp. 65
Importance of Dissolved Gasesp. 67
Materials Extruded During an Eruptionp. 70
Lava Flowsp. 70
Gasesp. 70
Pyroclastic Materialsp. 71
Volcanoes and Volcanic Eruptionsp. 71
Shield Volcanoesp. 71
Cinder Conesp. 74
Composite Conesp. 75
Nuee Ardente: A Deadly Pyroclastic Flowp. 77
Laharp. 78
Other Volcanic Landformsp. 78
Calderas and Pyroclastic Flowsp. 78
Fissure Eruptions and Lava Plateausp. 80
Volcanic Pipes and Necksp. 81
Intrusive Igneous Activityp. 82
Dikesp. 82
Sillsp. 82
Laccolithsp. 82
Batholithsp. 83
Igneous Activity and Plate Tectonicsp. 85
Origin of Magmap. 85
Partial Melting and Magma Compositionsp. 86
Distribution of Igneous Activityp. 87
Mount St. Helens: Anatomy of an Eruptionp. 69
Volcano Sizesp. 73
Volcanoes and Climatep. 90
Weathering and Soilsp. 93
Earth's External Processesp. 94
Weatheringp. 95
Mechanical Weatheringp. 95
Frost Wedgingp. 95
Unloadingp. 96
Biological Activityp. 97
Chemical Weatheringp. 97
Water and Carbonic Acidp. 97
How Granite Weathersp. 97
Weathering of Silicate Mineralsp. 98
Spheroidal Weatheringp. 99
Rates of Weatheringp. 99
Mineral Makeupp. 99
Climatep. 100
Differential Weatheringp. 100
Soilp. 100
An Interface in the Earth Systemp. 101
What Is Soil?p. 102
Controls of Soil Formationp. 102
Parent Materialp. 102
Timep. 103
Climatep. 103
Plans and Animalsp. 103
Slopep. 104
The Soil Profilep. 104
Soil Typesp. 106
Pedalferp. 106
Pedocalp. 106
Lateritep. 107
Soil Erosionp. 107
How Soil Is Erodedp. 107
Rates of Erosionp. 109
Sedimentation and Chemical Pollutionp. 110
Weathering Creates Ore Depositsp. 110
Bauxitep. 110
Other Depositsp. 110
Laterites and the Clearing of the Rain Forestp. 108
Sedimentary Rocksp. 113
Types of Sedimentary Rocksp. 115
Detrital Sedimentary Rocksp. 115
Shalep. 116
Sandstonep. 117
Conglomerate and Brecciap. 119
Chemical Sedimentary Rocksp. 120
Limestonep. 120
Dolostonep. 122
Chertp. 122
Evaporitesp. 122
Coalp. 123
Turning Sediment into Sedimentary Rockp. 123
Classification of Sedimentary Rocksp. 124
Sedimentary Rocks Represent Past Environmentsp. 126
Sedimentary Structuresp. 126
Nonmetallic Mineral Resources From Sedimentary Rocksp. 131
Energy Resources From Sedimentary Rocksp. 132
Coalp. 133
Oil and Natural Gasp. 133
United States Per Capita Use of Mineral and Energy Resourcesp. 132
Metamorphic Rocksp. 137
Metamorphic Environmentsp. 139
Agents of Metamorphismp. 139
Heat as a Metamorphic Agentp. 141
Pressure and Stress as Metamorphic Agentsp. 141
Chemical Activity as a Metamorphic Agentp. 142
How Metamorphism Alters Rocksp. 142
Textural Changesp. 142
Mineralogical Changesp. 144
Common Metamorphic Rocksp. 144
Foliated Metamorphic Rocksp. 145
Nonfoliated Metamorphic Rocksp. 146
Contact Metamorphismp. 147
Metamorphism Along Fault Zonesp. 149
Regional Metamorphismp. 149
Zones of Regional Metamorphismp. 150
Metamorphism and Mineral Resourcesp. 151
Impact Metamorphism and Tectitesp. 140
Mass Wasting: The Work of Gravityp. 155
Mass Wasting and Landform Developmentp. 157
Controls and Triggers of Mass Wastingp. 157
The Role of Waterp. 157
Oversteepened Slopesp. 157
Vegetationp. 158
Earthquakes as Triggersp. 158
Classification of Mass-Wasting Processesp. 158
Type of Materialp. 159
Type of Motionp. 159
Rate of Movementp. 160
Slumpp. 160
Rockslidep. 161
Debris Flowp. 163
Debris Flows in Semiarid Regionsp. 163
Laharsp. 163
Earthflowp. 165
Slow Movementsp. 166
Creepp. 166
Solifluctionp. 166
Reducing Debris-Flow Hazards in the San Francisco Bay Regionp. 164
The Sensitive Permafrost Landscapep. 167
Running Waterp. 169
Earth as a System: The Hydrologic Cyclep. 170
Running Waterp. 171
Streamflowp. 172
Gradient and Channel Characteristicsp. 173
Dischargep. 173
Changes From Upstream to Downstreamp. 175
Base Level and Graded Streamsp. 176
Work of Streamsp. 178
Erosionp. 178
Transportationp. 178
Depositionp. 180
Stream Valleysp. 182
Narrow Valleysp. 183
Wide Valleysp. 184
Floods and Flood Controlp. 184
Causes of Floodsp. 184
Flood Controlp. 185
Drainage Basins and Patternsp. 187
The Effect of Urbanization on Dischargep. 174
The Red River Floodsp. 181
Groundwaterp. 191
Importance of Underground Waterp. 192
Distribution of Underground Waterp. 193
The Water Tablep. 193
How Groundwater Movesp. 196
Factors Affecting the Storage and Movement of Groundwaterp. 196
Porosityp. 196
Permeability, Aquitards and Aquifersp. 196
Springsp. 197
Wellsp. 197
Artesian Wellsp. 198
Environmental Problems Associated With Groundwaterp. 199
Treating Groundwater as a Nonrenewable Resourcep. 199
Land Subsidence Caused by Groundwater Withdrawalp. 200
Groundwater Contaminationp. 201
Hot Springs and Geysersp. 202
Geothermal Energyp. 203
The Geologic Work of Groundwaterp. 205
Cavernsp. 205
Karst Topographyp. 207
The Ogallala Aquifer--How Long Will the Water Last?p. 194
Glaciers and Glaciationp. 210
Glaciers: A Part of Two Basic Cyclesp. 211
Valley (Alpine) Glaciersp. 212
Ice Sheetsp. 212
Other Types of Glaciersp. 213
How Glaciers Movep. 213
Rates of Glacial Movementp. 213
Budget of a Glacierp. 214
Glacial Erosionp. 215
Landforms Created by Glacial Erosionp. 217
Glaciated Valleysp. 217
Aretes and Hornsp. 219
Roches Moutonneesp. 220
Glacial Depositsp. 221
Types of Glacial Driftp. 221
Moraines, Outwash Plains, and Kettlesp. 222
Drumlins, Eskers, and Kamesp. 224
Glaciers of the Ice Agep. 225
Some Indirect Effects of Ice Age Glaciersp. 225
Causes of Glaciationp. 226
Plate Tectonicsp. 227
Variations in Earth's Orbitp. 228
What If the Ice Melted?p. 212
Climate Change Recorded in Glacial Icep. 230
Deserts and Windp. 233
Common Misconceptionsp. 234
Distribution and Causes of Dry Landsp. 235
Low-Latitude Desertsp. 235
Middle-Latitude Desertsp. 237
Geologic Processes In Aird Climatesp. 237
Weatheringp. 238
The Role of Waterp. 238
Basin and Range: The Evolution of Desert Landscapep. 239
Transportation of Sediment by Windp. 241
Bed Loadp. 241
Suspended Loadp. 241
Wind Erosionp. 242
Deflation, Blowouts, and Desert Pavementp. 243
Wind Abrasionp. 243
Wind Depositsp. 244
Sand Depositsp. 244
Types of Sand Dunesp. 246
Loess Depositsp. 247
Desertification: A Global Environmental Problemp. 236
Dust Bowl: Soil Erosion in the Great Plainsp. 242
Shorelinesp. 250
Wavesp. 251
Characteristics of Wavesp. 252
Types of Wavesp. 252
Wave Erosionp. 253
Wave Refractionp. 255
Moving Sand Along the Beachp. 256
Shoreline Featuresp. 258
Wave-Cut Cliffs and Platformsp. 258
Arches, Stacks, Spits, and Barsp. 258
Barrier Islandsp. 260
The Evolving Shorep. 260
Shoreline Erosion Problemsp. 260
Groinsp. 262
Breakwaters and Seawallsp. 262
Beach Nourishmentp. 263
Abandonment and Relocationp. 263
Contrasting the Atlantic and Pacific Coastsp. 263
Emergent and Submergent Coastsp. 265
Tidesp. 266
Causes of Tidesp. 266
Spring and Neap Tidesp. 267
Tidal Currentsp. 268
Louisana's Vanishing Coastal Wetlandsp. 257
Is Global Warming Causing Sea Level to Rise?p. 264
The Ocean Floorp. 270
The Vast World Oceanp. 271
Mapping the Ocean Floorp. 272
Continental Marginsp. 277
Passive Continental Marginsp. 277
Active Continental Marginsp. 278
Submarine Canyons and Turbidity Currentsp. 279
Features of the Deep Ocean Basinp. 280
Deep-Ocean Trenchesp. 280
Abyssal Plainsp. 281
Seamountsp. 281
Mid-Ocean Ridgesp. 281
Coral Reefs and Atollsp. 283
Seafloor Sedimentsp. 284
Terrigenous Sedimentp. 284
Biogenous Sedimentp. 284
Hydrogenous Sedimentp. 285
Drilling Deep Into the Ocean Floorp. 276
Seafloor Sediments and Climate Changep. 285
Earthquakes and Earth's Interiorp. 288
What Is an Earthquake?p. 289
Earthquakes and Faultsp. 292
Elastic Reboundp. 292
Earthquakes Along the San Andreasp. 293
Foreshocks and Aftershocksp. 294
Tectonic Forces and Earthquakesp. 294
Earthquake Wavesp. 295
Finding Earthquake Epicentersp. 297
Earthquake Intensity and Magnitudep. 298
Destruction from Earthquakesp. 300
Destruction from Seismic Vibrationsp. 300
Tsunamip. 302
Landslides and Ground Subsidencep. 305
Firep. 305
Can Earthquakes Be Predicted?p. 305
Short-Range Predictionsp. 305
Long-Range Forecastsp. 306
Earthquakes and Earth's Interiorp. 307
Discovering Earth's Major Layersp. 308
Discovering Earth's Compositionp. 310
Damaging Earthquakes East of the Rockiesp. 291
Plate Tectonicsp. 313
Continental Drift: An Idea Before Its Timep. 314
Evidence: The Continental Jigsaw Puzzlep. 315
Evidence: Fossils Match Across the Seasp. 315
Evidence: Rock Types and Structures Matchp. 317
Evidence: Ancient Climatesp. 318
The Great Debatep. 318
Plate Tectonics: A Modern Version of an Old Ideap. 319
Plate Boundariesp. 322
Divergent Boundariesp. 322
Convergent Boundariesp. 325
Transform Fault Boundariesp. 329
Testing the Plate Tectonics Modelp. 332
Evidence: Paleomagnetismp. 332
Magnetic Reversals and Seafloor Spreadingp. 333
Evidence: Earthquake Patternsp. 335
Evidence: Ocean Drillingp. 335
Evidence: Hot Spotsp. 337
Pangaea: Before and Afterp. 338
Breakup of Pangaeap. 339
Before Panageap. 339
The Driving Mechanismp. 342
Convection Current Hypothesisp. 342
Slab-Push and Slab-Pull Hypothesesp. 344
Hot Plumes Hypothesisp. 344
Plate Tectonics Into the Futurep. 342
Mountain Buildingp. 346
Crustal Upliftp. 348
Isostasyp. 348
Isostatic Adjustmentp. 348
Rock Deformationp. 350
Types of Deformationp. 350
Foldsp. 351
Faultsp. 352
Jointsp. 356
Mountain Typesp. 357
Fault-Block Mountainsp. 357
Upwarped Mountainsp. 361
Folded Mountainsp. 361
Mountain Buildingp. 361
Mountain Building at Convergent Boundariesp. 363
Mountain Building and Continental Accretionp. 367
The San Andreas Fault Systemp. 354
The Rocky Mountainsp. 362
Geologic Timep. 370
Geology Needs a Time Scalep. 371
Relative Dating--Key Principlesp. 372
Law of Superpositionp. 372
Principle of Original Horizontalityp. 372
Principle of Cross-Cutting Relationshipsp. 372
Inclusionsp. 374
Unconformitiesp. 374
Using Relative Dating Principlesp. 375
Correlation of Rock Layersp. 376
Fossils: Evidence of Past Lifep. 377
Types of Fossilsp. 377
Conditions Favoring Preservationp. 379
Fossils and Correlationp. 381
Dating with Radioactivityp. 382
Radioactivityp. 382
Half-Lifep. 384
Radiometric Datingp. 385
Dating With Carbon-14p. 386
Importance of Radiometric Datingp. 387
The Geologic Time Scalep. 387
Structure of the Time Scalep. 388
Precambrian Timep. 388
Difficulties in Dating the Geologic Time Scalep. 388
Radonp. 385
Earth History: A Brief Summaryp. 393
Origin of Earthp. 395
Earth's Atmosphere Evolvesp. 396
Precambrian Time: Vast and Enigmaticp. 397
Precambrian Rocksp. 397
Precambrian Fossilsp. 398
Paleozoic Era: Life Explodesp. 399
Early Paleozoic Historyp. 399
Early Paleozoic Lifep. 402
Late Paleozoic Historyp. 403
Late Paleozoic Lifep. 405
Mesozoic Era: Age of the Dinosaursp. 407
Mesozoic Historyp. 407
Mesozoic Lifep. 409
Cenozoic Era: Age of Mammalsp. 410
Cenozoic North Americap. 411
Cenozoic Lifep. 415
The Great Paleozoic Extinctionp. 407
Demise of the Dinosaursp. 412
Metric and English Units Comparedp. 420
Periodic Table of the Elementsp. 422
Mineral Identification Keyp. 423
Topographic Mapsp. 426
Glossaryp. 432
Indexp. 445
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