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Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology

by
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780805349405

ISBN10:
0805349405
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
6/1/1999
Publisher(s):
Pearson College Div
List Price: $82.00
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Summary

Award-winning author Elaine N. Marieb brings her unique understanding of students' needs to Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology, Sixth Edition. The hallmarks of this popular text, which has introduced countless allied health students to the structure and function of the human body, are a clear and friendly writing style, just the right level of detail, and features that emphasize the relevance of A&P to students' lives and careers. The author uses numerous analogies to clarify concepts, and consistently defines key terms to assist students who may have little or no background in science. The Sixth Edition includes clearer, crisper art to help students better visualize the human body. In addition, a greater career orientation assists students in understanding and remembering information vital to making a successful transition to their professional lives.

Table of Contents

The Human Body: An Orientation
1(20)
An Overview of Anatomy and Physiology
2(1)
Anatomy
2(1)
Physiology
2(1)
Levels of Structural Organization
2(5)
From Atoms to Organisms
2(1)
Organ System Overview
3(4)
Maintaining Life
7(2)
Necessary Life Functions
7(2)
Survival Needs
9(1)
Homeostasis
9(2)
Homeostatic Control Mechanisms
10(1)
Homeostatic Imbalance
11(1)
The Language of Anatomy
11(8)
Anatomical Positions and Directional Terms
11(1)
Regional Terms
11(4)
Body Planes and Sections
15(1)
Body Cavities
15(4)
Summary
19(1)
Review Questions
20(1)
At the Clinic
20(1)
Focus on Careers: Dental Hygienist
20(1)
Basic Chemistry
21(32)
Concepts of Matter and Energy
22(1)
Matter
22(1)
Energy
22(1)
Composition of Matter
23(5)
Elements and Atoms
23(1)
Atomic Structure
24(2)
Identifying Elements
26(2)
Molecules and Compounds
28(1)
Chemical Bonds and Chemical Reactions
28(8)
Bond Formation
28(5)
Patterns of Chemical Reactions
33(3)
Biochemistry: The Chemical Composition of Living Matter
36(12)
Inorganic Compounds
36(3)
Organic Compounds
39(9)
Summary
48(3)
Review Questions
51(1)
At the Clinic
52
A Closer Look Medical Imaging: Illuminating the Body
34(19)
Cells and Tissues
53(1)
PART 1: CELLS 54(20)
Overview of the Cellular Basis of Life
54(1)
Anatomy of a Generalized Cell
54(7)
The Nucleus
55(1)
The Plasma Membrane
56(1)
The Cytoplasm
57(4)
Cell Physiology
61(13)
Membrane Transport
61(6)
Cell Division
67(5)
Protein Synthesis
72(2)
PART 2: BODY TISSUES 74(449)
Epithelial Tissue
76(2)
Special Characteristics of Epithelium
76(1)
Classification of Epithelium
76(2)
Connective Tissue
78(4)
Common Characteristics of Connective Tissue
78(2)
Types of Connective Tissue
80(2)
Muscle Tissue
82(2)
Types of Muscle Tissue
83(1)
Nervous Tissue
84(1)
Tissue Repair (Wound Healing)
84(2)
Developmental Aspects of Cells and Tissues
86(1)
Summary
87(2)
Review Questions
89(1)
At the Clinic
90
A Closer Look IV Therapy and Cellular ``Tonics''
64(6)
A Closer Look Cancer---The Intimate Enemy
70(3)
Focus on Careers: Medical Transcriptionist
73(18)
Skin and Body Membranes
91(20)
Classification of Body Membranes
92(2)
Epithelial Membranes
92(2)
Connective Tissues Membranes
94(1)
Integumentary System (Skin)
94(11)
Basic Skin Functions
94(1)
Structure of the Skin
95(3)
Skin Color
98(1)
Appendages of the Skin
99(4)
Homeostatic Imbalances of Skin
103(2)
Developmental Aspects of Skin and Body Membranes
105(2)
Summary
107(2)
Review Questions
109(1)
At the Clinic
110
A Closer Look Vampires and Touch-Me-Nots
106(2)
Systems in Sync
108(3)
The Skeletal System
111(42)
Bones: An Overview
112(8)
Functions of the Bones
112(1)
Classification of Bones
113(1)
Structure of a Long Bone
114(3)
Bone Formation, Growth, and Remodeling
117(1)
Bone Fractures
118(2)
Axial Skeleton
120(12)
Skull
120(6)
Vertebral Column (Spine)
126(6)
Bony Thorax
132(1)
Appendicular Skeleton
132(11)
Bones of the Shoulder Girdle
132(3)
Bones of the Upper Limbs
135(1)
Bones of the Pelvic Girdle
136(2)
Bones of the Lower Limbs
138(5)
Joints
143(4)
Fibrous Joints
143(1)
Cartilaginous Joints
143(1)
Synovial Joints
143(1)
Inflammatory Disorders of Joints
144(3)
Developmental Aspects of the Skeleton
147(2)
Summary
149(2)
Review Questions
151(1)
At the Clinic
152
A Closer Look Protect Your Back---It's the Only One You've Got!
130(10)
A Closer Look Surface Anatomy---Exploring Yourself
140(8)
Systems in Sync
148(5)
The Muscular System
153(40)
Overview of Muscle Tissues
154(4)
Muscle Types
154(3)
Muscle Functions
157(1)
Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle
158(2)
Skeletal Muscle Activity
160(8)
Stimulation and Contraction of Single Skeletal Muscle Cells
160(4)
Contraction of a Skeletal Muscle as a Whole
164(4)
Muscle Movements, Types, and Names
168(5)
Types of Body Movements
168(3)
Types of Muscles
171(1)
Naming Skeletal Muscles
172(1)
Gross Anatomy of Skeletal Muscles
173(13)
Head Muscles
173(1)
Truck and Neck Muscles
174(3)
Muscles of the Upper Limb
177(1)
Muscles of the Lower Limb
178(8)
Developmental Aspects of the Muscular System
186(3)
Summary
189(1)
Review Questions
190(1)
At the Clinic
191
A Closer Look Athletes Looking Good---Doing Better with Anabolic Steroids?
172(15)
Focus on Careers: Massage Therapist
187(1)
Systems in Sync
188(5)
The Nervous System
193(46)
Organization of the Nervous System
195(1)
Structural Classification
195(1)
Functional Classification
195(1)
Nervous Tissue: Structure and Function
196(9)
Supporting Cells
196(3)
Neurons
199(6)
Central Nervous System
205(13)
Functional Anatomy of the Brain
206(5)
Protection of the Central Nervous System
211(4)
Brain Dysfunctions
215(1)
Spinal Cord
216(2)
Peripheral Nervous System
218(11)
Structure of a Nerve
218(1)
Cranial Nerves
218(4)
Spinal Nerves and Nerve Plexuses
222(3)
Autonomic Nervous System
225(4)
Developmental Aspects of the Nervous System
229(5)
Summary
234(2)
Review Questions
236(1)
At the Clinic
237
A Closer Look Pleasure Me! Pleasure Me!
214(17)
A Closer Look Tracking Down CNS Problems
231(2)
Systems in Sync
233(6)
Special Senses
239(26)
The Eye and Vision
240(11)
Anatomy of the Eye
240(7)
Pathway of Light through the Eye and Light Refraction
247(3)
Visual Fields and Visual Pathways to the Brain
250(1)
Eye Reflexes
250(1)
The Ear: Hearing and Balance
251(6)
Anatomy of the Ear
251(2)
Mechanism of Hearing
253(1)
Mechanisms of Equilibrium
254(2)
Hearing and Equilibrium Deficits
256(1)
Chemical Senses: Taste and Smell
257(4)
Olfactory Receptors and the Sense of Smell
257(1)
Taste Buds and the Sense of Taste
258(1)
Developmental Aspects of the Special Senses
259(2)
Summary
261(1)
Review Questions
262(1)
At the Clinic
263
A Closer Look Visual Pigments---The Actual Photoreceptors
245(3)
A Closer Look If I Can't See Things Far Away, Am I Nearsighted or Farsighted?
248(17)
The Endocrine System
265(28)
The Endocrine System and Hormone Function---An Overview
266(3)
The Chemistry of Hormones
266(1)
Mechanisms of Hormone Action
266(1)
Control of Hormone Release
267(2)
The Major Endocrine Organs
269(16)
Pituitary Gland
269(5)
Thyroid Gland
274(2)
Parathyroid Glands
276(1)
Adrenal Glands
277(3)
Pancreatic Islets
280(2)
Pineal Gland
282(1)
Thymus
282(2)
Gonads
284(1)
Other Hormone-Producing Tissues and Organs
285(1)
Placenta
288
Developmental Aspects of the Endocrine System
285(3)
Summary
288(2)
Review Questions
290(1)
At the Clinic
291
A Closer Look Sunlight and the Clock Within
283(4)
Systems in Sync
287(6)
Blood
293(20)
Composition and Functions of Blood
294(1)
Components
294(7)
Physical Characteristics, and Volume
294(1)
Plasma
294(1)
Formed Elements
295(5)
Hematopoiesis (Blood Cell Formation)
300(1)
Hemostasis
301(4)
Disorders of Hemostasis
303(2)
Blood Groups and Transfusions
305(3)
Human Blood Groups
305(3)
Blood Typing
308(1)
Developmental Aspects of Blood
308(1)
Summary
309(1)
Review Questions
310(1)
At the Clinic
311
A Closer Look Concocting Blood: Artificial Blood Substitutes
304(3)
Focus on Careers: Phlebotomy Technician
307(6)
The Cardiovascular System
313(38)
Cardiovascular System: The Heart
314(11)
Anatomy of the Heart
314(6)
Physiology of the Heart
320(5)
Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels
325(19)
Microscopic Anatomy of Blood Vessels
325(2)
Gross Anatomy of Blood Vessels
327(11)
Physiology of Circulation
338(6)
Developmental Aspects of the Cardiovascular System
344(2)
Summary
346(2)
Review Questions
348(1)
At the Clinic
349
A Closer Look Atherosclerosis? Get Out the Cardiovascular Drano!
336
A Closer Look Electrocardiography: (Don't) Be Still My Heart
321(14)
Focus on Careers: Certified Surgical Technologist (CST)
335(9)
Systems in Sync
344(7)
The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses
351(34)
Lymphatic System
352(1)
Lymphatic Vessels
352(1)
Lymph Nodes
353(2)
Other Lymphoid Organs
355(1)
Body Defenses
356(1)
Nonspecific Body Defenses
357(5)
Surface Membrane Barriers
357(1)
Cells and Chemicals
357(5)
Specific Body Defenses: The Immune System
362(15)
Antigens
363(1)
Cells of the Immune System: An Overview
363(2)
Humoral (Antibody-Mediated) Immune Response
365(6)
Cellular (Cell-Mediated) Immune Response
371(3)
Organ Transplants and Rejection
374(1)
Disorders of Immunity
374(3)
Developmental Aspects of the Lymphatic System and Body Defenses
377(4)
Summary
381(2)
Review Questions
383(1)
At the Clinic
384
A Closer Look AIDS: The Plague of the Twentieth Century
378(2)
Systems in Sync
380(5)
The Respiratory System
385(26)
Functional Anatomy of the Respiratory System
386(7)
The Nose
386(2)
Pharynx
388(1)
Larynx
388(1)
Trachea
388(1)
Primary Bronchi
389(1)
Lungs
389(4)
Respiratory Physiology
393(10)
Mechanics of Breathing
393(2)
Respiratory Volumes and Capacities
395(1)
Respiratory Sounds
396(1)
External Respiration, Gas Transport, and Internal Respiration
397(2)
Control of Respiration
399(4)
Respiratory Disorders
403(2)
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
403(2)
Developmental Aspects of the Respiratory System
405(2)
Summary
407(2)
Review Questions
409(1)
At the Clinic
410
A Closer Look Dangerous Raptures of the Deep
400(4)
Focus on Careers: Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN)
404(2)
Systems in Sync
406(5)
The Digestive System and Body Metabolism
411(44)
Anatomy of the Digestive System
412(11)
Organs of the Alimentary Canal
412(9)
Accessory Digestive Organs
421(2)
Functions of the Digestive System
423(11)
Overview of the Gastrointestinal Processes and Controls
423(2)
Activities Occurring in the Mouth, Pharynx, and Esophagus
425(4)
Activities of the Stomach
429(1)
Activities of the Small Intestine
430(3)
Activities of the Large Intestine
433(1)
Nutrition and Metabolism
434(11)
Nutrition
435(1)
Metabolism
435(1)
Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein Metabolism in Body Cells
436(3)
The Central Role of the Liver in Metabolism
439(2)
Body Energy Balance
441(4)
Developmental Aspects of the Digestive System and Metabolism
445(4)
Summary
449(3)
Review Questions
452(1)
At the Clinic
453
A Closer Look Peptic Ulcers: ``Something Is Eating at Me''
428(18)
A Closer Look Obesity: Magical Solution Wanted
446(2)
Systems in Sync
448(7)
The Urinary System
455(22)
Kidneys
456(12)
Location and Structure
456(2)
Nephrons and Urine Formation
458(4)
Control of Blood Composition by the Kidneys
462(5)
Characteristics of Urine
467(1)
Ureters, Urinary Bladder, and Urethra
468(3)
Ureters
468(2)
Urinary Bladder
470(1)
Urethra
470(1)
Micturition
471(1)
Developmental Aspects of the Urinary System
471(2)
Summary
473(2)
Review Questions
475(1)
At the Clinic
476
A Closer Look Renal Failure and the Artificial Kidney
469(3)
Systems in Sync
472(5)
The Reproductive System
477(46)
Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System
478(4)
Testes
479(1)
Duct System
479(1)
Accessory Glands and Semen
480(1)
External Genitalia
481(1)
Male Reproductive Functions
482(3)
Spermatogenesis
482(2)
Testosterone Production
484(1)
Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System
485(3)
Ovaries
485(1)
Duct System
486(2)
External Genitalia
488(1)
Female Reproductive Functions and Cycles
488(6)
Oogenesis and the Ovarian Cycle
488(3)
Menstrual Cycle
491(1)
Hormone Production by the Ovaries
492(2)
Mammary Glands
494(1)
Survey of Pregnancy and Embryonic Development
495(9)
Accomplishing Fertilization
495(1)
Events of Embryonic and Fetal Development
496(3)
Effects of Pregnancy on the Mother
499(1)
Childbirth
500(4)
Developmental Aspects of the Reproductive System
504(3)
Summary
507(2)
Review Questions
509(1)
At the Clinic
510
A Closer Look Contraception: To Be or Not to Be
502
Focus on Careers: Doula
490(16)
Systems in Sync
506(5)
Appendixes
Appendix A: Word Roots, Prefixes, and Suffixes
511(3)
Appendix B: Periodic Table
514(1)
Appendix C: Key Information about Vitamins and Many Essential Minerals
515(2)
Appendix D: A.D.A.M.(R) Correlations
517(6)
Photography and Art Credits 523(2)
Glossary 525(18)
Index 543


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