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Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology

by
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780805300123

ISBN10:
0805300120
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
6/1/2002
Publisher(s):
PRENTICE HALL SCHOOL GROUP
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This is the 7th edition with a publication date of 6/1/2002.
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Table of Contents

The Human Body: An Orientation
1(20)
An Overview of Anatomy and Physiology
2(1)
Anatomy
2(1)
Physiology
2(1)
Relationship between Anatomy and Physiology
2(1)
Levels of Structural Organization
2(5)
From Atoms to Organisms
2(1)
Organ System Overview
3(4)
Integumentary System
Skeletal System
Muscular System
Nervous System
Endocrine System
Cardiovascular System
Lymphatic System
Respiratory System
Digestive System
Urinary System
Reproductive System
Maintaining Life
7(2)
Necessary Life Functions
7(2)
Maintaining Boundaries
Movement
Responsiveness
Digestion
Metabolism
Excretion
Reproduction
Growth
Survival Needs
9(1)
Homeostasis
9(2)
Homeostatic Control Mechanisms
10(1)
Homeostatic Imbalance
11(1)
The Language of Anatomy
11(8)
Anatomical Position and Directional Terms
11(2)
Regional Terms
13(1)
Anterior Body Landmarks
Posterior Body Landmarks
Body Planes and Sections
14(2)
Body Cavities
16(3)
Dorsal Body Cavity
Ventral Body Cavity
Summary
19(1)
Review Questions
20(1)
At the Clinic
20(1)
Dental Hygienist
18(3)
Basic Chemistry
21(34)
Concepts of Matter and Energy
22(1)
Matter
22(1)
Energy
22(1)
Forms of Energy
Energy Form Conversions
Composition of Matter
23(4)
Elements and Atoms
23(1)
Atomic Structure
24(2)
Planetary and Orbital Models of an Atom
Identifying Elements
26(1)
Atomic Number
Atomic Mass Number
Atomic Weight and Isotopes
Molecules and Compounds
27(3)
Chemical Bonds and Chemical Reactions
30(6)
Bond Formation
31(4)
Role of Electrons
Types of Chemical Bonds
Patterns of Chemical Reactions
35(1)
Synthesis Reactions
Decomposition Reactions
Exchange Reactions
Biochemistry: The Chemical Composition of Living Matter
36(14)
Inorganic Compounds
36(3)
Water
Salts
Acids and Bases
Organic Compounds
39(10)
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic Acids
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
Food Technologist
49(1)
Summary
50(2)
Review Questions
52(2)
At the Clinic
54(1)
Medical Imaging: Illuminating the Body
28(27)
Cells and Tissues
55(40)
Cells
56(1)
Overview of the Cellular Basis of Life
56(1)
Anatomy of a Generalized Cell
56(10)
The Nucleus
57(1)
Nuclear Envelope
Nucleoli
Chromatin
The Plasma Membrane
58(1)
Specializations of the Plasma Membrane
The Cytoplasm
59(5)
Cytoplasmic Organelles
Cell Diversity
64(2)
Cell Physiology
66(11)
Membrane Transport
66(5)
Passive Transport Processes: Diffusion and Filtration
Active Transport Processes
Cell Division
71(4)
Preparations: DNA Replication
Events of Cell Division
Protein Synthesis
75(2)
Genes: The Blueprint for Protein Structure
The Role of RNA
Transcription
Translation
Body Tissues
77(1)
Epithelial Tissue
78(3)
Special Characteristics of Epithelium
78(1)
Classification of Epithelium
78(3)
Simple Epithelia
Stratified Epithelia
Glandular Epithelium
Connective Tissue
81(4)
Common Characteristics of Connective Tissue
82(1)
Types of Connective Tissue
82(3)
Bone
Cartilage
Dense Connective Tissue
Loose Connective Tissue
Blood
Muscle Tissues
85(1)
Types of Muscle Tissue
85(1)
Skeletal Muscle
Cardiac Muscle
Smooth Muscle
Nervous Tissue
86(1)
Tissue Repair (Wound Healing)
86(1)
Developmental Aspects of Cells and Tissues
87(3)
Summary
90(2)
Review Questions
92(2)
At the Clinic
94(1)
IV Therapy and Cellular ``Tonics''
69(19)
Cancer--The Intimate Enemy
88
Medical Transcriptionist
73(22)
Skin and Body Membranes
95(21)
Classification of Body Membranes
96(2)
Epithelial Membranes
96(2)
Cutaneous Membrane
Mucous Membranes
Serous Membranes
Connective Tissues Membranes
98(1)
Integumentary System (Skin)
98(13)
Basic Skin Functions
98(1)
Structure of the Skin
99(3)
Epidermis
Dermis
Skin Color
102(1)
Appendages of the Skin
103(4)
Cutaneous Glands
Hairs and Hair Follicles
Nails
Homeostatic Imbalances of Skin
107(4)
Infections and Allergies
Burns
Skin Cancer
Developmental Aspects of Skin and Body Membranes
111(2)
Summary
113(1)
Review Questions
113(1)
At the Clinic
114(2)
Tattoos
110(2)
Systems in Sync
112(4)
The Skeletal System
116(45)
Bones: An Overview
116(5)
Functions of the Bones
116(1)
Classification of Bones
117(1)
Structure of a Long Bone
118(3)
Gross Anatomy
Microscopic Anatomy
Bone Formation, Growth, and Remodeling
121(3)
Bone Fractures
123(1)
Axial Skeleton
124(1)
Skull
124(7)
Cranium
Facial Bones
The Hyoid Bone
Fetal Skull
Vertebral Column (Spine)
131(3)
Cervical Vertebrae
Thoracic Vertebrae
Lumbar Vertebrae
Sacrum
Coccyx
Bony Thorax
134(4)
Sternum
Ribs
Appendicular Skeleton
138(7)
Bones of the Shoulder Girdle
138(1)
Bones of the Upper Limbs
138(3)
Arm
Forearm
Hand
Bones of the Pelvic Girdle
141(2)
Bones of the Lower Limbs
143(2)
Thigh
Leg
Foot
Joints
145(8)
Fibrous Joints
149(1)
Cartilaginous Joints
149(1)
Synovial Joints
149(1)
Type of Synovial Joints Based on Shape
149(1)
Inflammatory Disorders of Joints
150(3)
Developmental Aspects of the Skeleton
153(2)
Summary
155(2)
Review Questions
157(1)
At the Clinic
158(3)
Protect Your Back---It's the Only One You've Got!
136(10)
Them Bones, Them Bones Goin' to Walk Around---Clinical Advances in Bone Repair
146(10)
Systems in Sync
156(5)
The Muscular System
161(40)
Overview of Muscle Tissues
162(4)
Muscle Types
162(3)
Skeletal Muscle
Smooth Muscle
Cardiac Muscle
Muscle Functions
165(1)
Producing Movement
Maintaining Posture
Stabilizing Joints
Generating Heat
Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle
166(2)
Skeletal Muscle Activity
168(7)
Stimulation and Contraction of Single Skeletal Muscle Cells
168(2)
The Nerve Stimulus and the Action Potential
Mechanism of Muscle Contraction: The Sliding Filament Theory
Contraction of a Skeletal Muscle as a Whole
170(5)
Graded Responses
Providing Energy for Muscle Contraction
Muscle Fatigue and Oxygen Debt
Types of Muscle Contractions---Isotonic and Isometric
Muscle Tone
Effect of Exercise on Muscles
Muscle Movements, Types, and Names
175(6)
Types of Body Movements
176(3)
Types of Muscles
179(2)
Naming Skeletal Muscles
181(1)
Gross Anatomy of Skeletal Muscles
181(13)
Head and Neck Muscles
181(2)
Facial Muscles
Chewing Muscles
Neck Muscles
Trunk Muscles
183(2)
Anterior Muscles
Posterior Muscles
Muscles of the Upper Limb
185(1)
Muscles of the Humerus That Act on the Forearm
Muscles of the Lower Limb
186(8)
Muscles Causing Movement at the Hip Joint
Muscles Causing Movement at the Knee Joint
Muscles Causing Movement at the Ankle and Foot
Developmental Aspects of the Muscular System
194(3)
Summary
197(1)
Review Questions
198(1)
At the Clinic
199(2)
Are Athletes Looking Good and Doing Better with Anabolic Steroids?
180(15)
Massage Therapist
195(1)
Systems in Sync
196(5)
The Nervous System
201(50)
Organization of the Nervous System
203(1)
Structural Classification
203(1)
Functional Classification
203(1)
Nervous Tissue: Structure and Function
204(11)
Supporting Cells
204(3)
Neurons
207(8)
Anatomy
Classification
Physiology
Central Nervous System
215(14)
Functional Anatomy of the Brain
215(5)
Cerebral Hemispheres
Diencephalon
Brain Stem
Cerebellum
Protection of the Central Nervous System
220(6)
Meninges
Cerebrospinal Fluid
The Blood-Brain Barrier
Brain Dysfunctions
226(1)
Traumatic Brain Injuries
Spinal Cord
226(3)
Gray Matter of the Spinal Cord and Spinal Roots
White Matter of the Spinal Cord
Peripheral Nervous System
229(14)
Structure of a Nerve
229(1)
Cranial Nerves
229(4)
Spinal Nerves and Nerve Plexuses
233(3)
Autonomic Nervous System
236(7)
Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems Compared
Anatomy of the Parasympathetic Division
Anatomy of the Sympathetic Division
Autonomic Functioning
Developmental Aspects of the Nervous System
243(3)
Summary
246(2)
Review Questions
248(1)
At the Clinic
249(2)
Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's---The Terrible Three
224(18)
Tracking Down CNS Problems
242(3)
Systems in Sync
245(6)
Special Senses
251(25)
The Eye and Vision
252(12)
Anatomy of the Eye
252(8)
External and Accessory Structures
Internal Structures: The Eyeball
Pathway of Light through the Eye and Light Refraction
260(1)
Visual Fields and Visual Pathways to the Brain
261(2)
Eye Reflexes
263(1)
The Ear: Hearing and Balance
264(6)
Anatomy of the Ear
264(2)
Outer (External) Ear
Middle Ear
Inner (Internal) Ear
Mechanism of Hearing
266(2)
Mechanisms of Equilibrium
268(2)
Static Equilibrium
Dynamic Equilibrium
Hearing and Equilibrium Deficits
270(1)
Chemical Senses: Taste and Smell
270(3)
Olfactory Receptors and the Sense of Smell
270(1)
Taste Buds and the Sense of Taste
271(2)
Developmental Aspects of the Special Senses
273(2)
Summary
275(1)
Review Questions
276(1)
At the Clinic
277
Visual Pigments---The Actual Photoreceptors
258(4)
If I Can't See Things Far Away, Am I Nearsighted or Farsighted?
262(14)
The Endocrine System
276(31)
The Endocrine System and Hormone Function---An Overview
280(3)
The Chemistry of Hormones
280(1)
Mechanisms of Hormone Action
280(2)
Control of Hormone Release
282(1)
The Major Endocrine Organs
283(17)
Pituitary Gland
284(3)
Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary
Pituitary-Hypothalamus Relationship
Hormones of the Posterior Pituitary
Thyroid Gland
287(3)
Parathyroid Glands
290(1)
Adrenal Glands
291(3)
Hormones of the Adrenal Cortex
Hormones of the Adrenal Medulla
Pancreatic Islets
294(2)
Pineal Gland
296(3)
Thymus
299(1)
Gonads
299(1)
Hormones of the Ovaries
Hormones of the Testes
Other Hormone-Producing Tissues and Organs
300(1)
Placenta
300(1)
Developmental Aspects of the Endocrine System
300(3)
Summary
303(2)
Review Questions
305(1)
At the Clinic
306(1)
Potential Uses for Growth Hormone
286(16)
Systems in Sync
302(5)
Blood
307(20)
Composition and Functions of Blood
308(7)
Components
308(1)
Physical Characteristics and Volume
308(1)
Plasma
308(1)
Formed Elements
309(5)
Erythrocytes
Leukocytes
Platelets
Hematopoiesis (Blood Cell Formation)
314(1)
Hemostasis
315(3)
Disorders of Hemostasis
317(1)
Undesirable Clotting
Bleeding Disorders
Blood Groups and Transfusions
318(3)
Human Blood Groups
318(3)
Blood Typing
321(1)
Developmental Aspects of Blood
321(3)
Summary
324(1)
Review Questions
325(1)
At the Clinic
326(1)
Concocting Blood: Artificial Blood Substitutes
322
Phlebotomy Technician
320(7)
The Cardiovascular System
327(40)
Cardiovascular System: The Heart
328(11)
Anatomy of the Heart
328(6)
Location and Size
Coverings and Wall
Chambers and Associated Great Vessels
Valves
Cardiac Circulation
Physiology of the Heart
334(5)
Conduction System of the Heart
Cardiac Cycle and Heart Sounds
Cardiac Output
Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels
339(21)
Microscopic Anatomy of Blood Vessels
341(1)
Tunics---Structural Differences between Arteries, Veins, and Capillaries
341(3)
Gross Anatomy of Blood Vessels
344(7)
Major Arteries of the Systemic Circulation
Major Veins of the Systemic Circulation
Special Circulations
Physiology of Circulation
351(9)
Arterial Pulse
Blood Pressure
Capillary Exchange
Developmental Aspects of the Cardiovascular System
360(2)
Summary
362(1)
Review Questions
363(2)
At the Clinic
365(2)
Electrocardiography: (Don't) Be Still My Heart
335(21)
Atherosclerosis? Get Out the Cardiovascular Drano
356
Certified Surgical Technologist (CST)
343(18)
Systems in Sync
361(6)
The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses
367(36)
Lymphatic System
368(1)
Lymphatic Vessels
368(1)
Lymph Nodes
369(2)
Other Lymphoid Organs
371(1)
Body Defenses
372(1)
Nonspecific Body Defenses
373(4)
Surface Membrane Barriers
373(1)
Cells and Chemicals
373(4)
Phagocytes
Natural Killer Cells
Inflammatory Response
Antimicrobial Chemicals
Fever
Specific Body Defenses: The Immune System
377(19)
Antigens
379(1)
Cells of the Immune System: An Overview
380(2)
Lymphocytes
Macrophages
Humoral (Antibody-Mediated) Immune Response
382(6)
Active and Passive Humoral Immunity
Antibodies
Cellular (Cell-Mediated) Immune Response
388(2)
Organ Transplants and Rejection
390(2)
Disorders of Immunity
392(4)
Allergies
Immunodeficiencies
Autoimmune Diseases
Developmental Aspects of the Lymphatic System and Body Defenses
396(2)
Summary
398(2)
Review Questions
400(1)
At the Clinic
401(2)
AIDS: The Modern Day Plague
394(3)
Systems in Sync
397(6)
The Respiratory System
403(28)
Functional Anatomy of the Respiratory System
404(7)
The Nose
404(1)
Pharynx
405(1)
Larynx
406(1)
Trachea
407(2)
Primary Bronchi
409(1)
Lungs
409(2)
The Respiratory Membrane
Respiratory Physiology
411(11)
Mechanics of Breathing
412(2)
Inspiration
Expiration
Nonrespiratory Air Movements
Respiratory Volumes and Capacities
414(1)
Respiratory Sounds
415(1)
External Respiration, Gas Transport, and Internal Respiration
415(3)
External Respiration
Gas Transport in the Blood
Internal Respiration
Control of Respiration
418(4)
Neural Regulation: Setting the Basic Rhythm
Factors Influencing Respiratory Rate and Depth
Respiratory Disorders
422(2)
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
422(2)
Developmental Aspects of the Respiratory System
424(2)
Summary
426(2)
Review Questions
428(1)
At the Clinic
429(2)
Lung Cancer: The Facts Behind the Smoke Screen
420(3)
Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN)
423(2)
Systems in Sync
425(6)
The Digestive System and Body Metabolism
431(48)
Anatomy and Physiology of the Digestive System
432(1)
Anatomy of the Digestive System
432(13)
Organs of the Alimentary Canal
433(9)
Mouth
Pharynx
Esophagus
Stomach
Small Intestine
Large Intestine
Accessory Digestive Organs
442(3)
Salivary Glands
Teeth
Pancreas
Liver and Gallbladder
Functions of the Digestive System
445(11)
Overview of Gastrointestinal Processes and Controls
445(3)
Activities Occurring in the Mouth, Pharynx, and Esophagus
448(1)
Food Ingestion and Breakdown
Food Propulsion---Swallowing and Peristalsis
Activities of the Stomach
448(4)
Food Breakdown
Food Propulsion
Activities of the Small Intestine
452(3)
Food Breakdown and Absorption
Food Propulsion
Activities of the Large Intestine
455(1)
Food Breakdown and Absorption
Propulsion of the Residue and Defecation
Nutrition and Metabolism
456(1)
Nutrition
456(12)
Dietary Sources of the Major Nutrients
456(2)
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Vitamins
Minerals
Metabolism
458(1)
Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein Metabolism in Body Cells
458(4)
Carbohydrate Metabolism
Fat Metabolism
Protein Metabolism
The Central Role of the Liver in Metabolism
462(2)
General Metabolic Functions
Cholesterol Metabolism and Transport
Body Energy Balance
464(4)
Regulation of Food Intake
Metabolic Rate and Body Heat Production
Body Temperature Regulation
Developmental Aspects of the Digestive System and Metabolism
468(6)
Summary
474(2)
Review Questions
476(2)
At the Clinic
478(1)
Peptic Ulcers: ``Something Is Eating Me''
450(20)
Obesity: Magical Solution Wanted
470(3)
Systems in Sync
473(6)
The Urinary System
479(24)
Kidneys
480(9)
Location and Structure
480(4)
Blood Supply
Nephrons and Urine Formation
484(5)
Nephrons
Urine Formation
Characteristics of Urine
Ureters, Urinary Bladder, and Urethra
489(2)
Ureters
489(1)
Urinary Bladder
489(1)
Urethra
490(1)
Micturition
490(1)
Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
491(6)
Maintaining Water and Electrolyte Balance of Blood
491(4)
Body Fluids and Fluid Compartments
The Link Between Water and Salt
Maintaining Acid-Base Balance of Blood
495(2)
Blood Buffers
Respiratory System Controls
Renal Mechanisms
Developmental Aspects of the Urinary System
497(2)
Summary
499(1)
Review Questions
500(1)
At the Clinic
501(2)
Renal Failure and the Artificial Kidney
483(15)
Systems in Sync
498(5)
The Reproductive System
503(48)
Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System
504(4)
Testes
505(1)
Duct System
505(1)
Epididymis
Ductus Deferens
Urethra
Accessory Glands and Semen
506(1)
Seminal Vesicles
Prostate Gland
Bulbourethral Glands
Semen
External Genitalia
507(1)
Male Reproductive Functions
508(3)
Spermatogenesis
508(2)
Testosterone Production
510(1)
Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System
511(5)
Ovaries
511(1)
Duct System
512(2)
Uterine (Fallopian) Tubes
Uterus
Vagina
External Genitalia
514(2)
Female Reproductive Functions and Cycles
516(4)
Oogenesis and the Ovarian Cycle
516(2)
Menstrual Cycle
518(2)
Hormone Production by the Ovaries
520(1)
Mammary Glands
520(2)
Survey of Pregnancy and Embryonic Development
522(7)
Accomplishing Fertilization
522(1)
Events of Embryonic and Fetal Development
522(2)
Effects of Pregnancy on the Mother
524(3)
Anatomical Changes
Physiological Changes
Childbirth
527(2)
Initiation of Labor
Stages of Labor
Developmental Aspects of the Reproductive System
529(5)
Summary
534(2)
Review Questions
536(1)
At the Clinic
537(2)
Contraception: To Be or Not To Be
530
Doula
515(18)
Systems in Sync
533(6)
Appendixes
Appendix A: Word Roots, Prefixes, and Suffixes
539(3)
Appendix B: Periodic Table of the Elements
542(1)
Appendix C: Key Information about Vitamins and Many Essential Minerals
543(2)
Appendix D: A.D.A.M.® Correlations
545(6)
Photography and Art Credits 551(2)
Glossary 553(11)
Index 564


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