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The Essentials of Learning and Conditioning,9780534574345
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The Essentials of Learning and Conditioning

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780534574345

ISBN10:
0534574343
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
6/10/2004
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing

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This is the 3rd edition with a publication date of 6/10/2004.
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Summary

Want an accurate account of learning and conditioning--the "essentials"--without excessive detail? Michael Domjan's THE ESSENTIALS OF LEARNING AND CONDITIONING is a concise textbook that quickly guides you through key topics, summarizing contemporary perspectives and making research results understandable.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Basic Concepts and Definitions
1(14)
Fundamental Features of Learning
2(5)
Learning and Other Forms of Behavior Change
2(3)
Learning, Performance, and Levels of Analysis
5(1)
A Definition of Learning
6(1)
Naturalistic versus Experimental Observations
7(1)
The Fundamental Learning Experiment
8(5)
The Control Problem in Studies of Learning
10(1)
The General-Process Approach to the Study of Learning
11(1)
The Use of Nonhuman Subjects in Research on Learning
12(1)
Summary
13(1)
Practice Questions
14(1)
Technical Terms
14(1)
The Structure of Unconditioned Behavior
15(13)
Shaping and Homogeneous versus Heterogeneous Substrates of Behavior
16(1)
The Concept of the Reflex
17(2)
Complex Forms of Elicited Behavior
19(3)
Modal Action Patterns
19(2)
Sign Stimuli
21(1)
The Organization of Elicited Behavior
22(4)
Motivational Factors
23(1)
Appetitive and Consummatory Behavior
23(1)
Behavior Systems
24(2)
Summary
26(1)
Practice Questions
26(1)
Suggested Readings
27(1)
Technical Terms
27(1)
Habituation and Sensitization
28(17)
General Principles of Regulation
30(1)
Effects of the Repeated Presentation of an Eliciting Stimulus
31(7)
Characteristics of Habituation Effects
33(5)
Characteristics of Sensitization Effects
38(1)
The Dual-Process Theory of Habituation and Sensitization
38(4)
The S-R System and the State System
39(1)
Implications of the Dual-Process Theory
40(2)
Summary
42(1)
Practice Questions
42(1)
Suggested Readings
43(1)
Technical Terms
43(2)
Pavlovian Conditioning: Basic Concepts
45(21)
Pavlov's Proverbial Bell
46(1)
Contemporary Pavlovian Conditioning Preparations
47(2)
Appetitive Conditioning
47(1)
Aversive Conditioning
48(1)
The Nature of the Conditioned Response
49(3)
Skeletal versus Glandular Conditioned Responses
50(1)
Similarity of Conditioned and Unconditioned Responses
50(1)
The Behavior System Approach
51(1)
The Contents of Pavlovian Associations
52(4)
Effects of US Devaluation
53(1)
Effects of US Inflation
54(2)
Stimulus Factors in Classical Conditioning
56(2)
CS Novelty and the Latent Inhibition Effect
56(1)
CS-US Relevance and Selective Associations
56(2)
The Control Problem in Pavlovian Conditioning
58(3)
Prevalence of Pavlovian Conditioning
61(2)
Summary
63(1)
Practice Questions
64(1)
Suggested Readings
64(1)
Technical Terms
64(2)
Stimulus Relations in Pavlovian Conditioning
66(18)
Temporal Relation between CS and US
67(3)
Simultaneous Conditioning
67(1)
Delayed Conditioning
67(1)
Trace Conditioning
67(1)
Effects of the CS-US Interval
68(2)
Temporal Encoding of US Occurrence
70(1)
Signal Relation between CS and US
70(4)
CS/US Contiguity and the Blocking Effect
71(1)
CS/US Contingency
72(2)
Higher-Order Relations in Pavlovian Conditioning: Conditioned Inhibition
74(5)
Inhibitory Conditioning Procedures
74(3)
Behavioral Manifestations of Conditioned Inhibition
77(2)
Higher-Order Relations in Pavlovian Conditioning: Conditioned Facilitation
79(2)
Stimulus Relations in Conditioned Facilitation
80(1)
Distinguishing between B-US and B(A-US) Relations
80(1)
Summary
81(1)
Practice Questions
82(1)
Suggested Readings
83(1)
Technical Terms
83(1)
Theories of Associative Learning
84(17)
The Rescorla-Wagner Model
86(5)
Application to the Blocking Effect
87(1)
Loss of Associative Value despite Pairings with the US
88(1)
Conditioned Inhibition
89(1)
Extinction of Excitation and Inhibition
90(1)
Problems with the Rescorla-Wagner Model
91(1)
Other Models of Classical Conditioning
91(7)
Attentional Models of Conditioning
92(1)
Temporal Factors and Conditioned Responding
93(2)
The Comparator Hypothesis
95(3)
Overview of Theoretical Alternatives
98(1)
Practice Questions
99(1)
Suggested Readings
99(1)
Technical Terms
100(1)
Instrumental or Operant Conditioning
101(18)
The Traditions of Thorndike and Skinner
103(4)
Methodological Considerations
104(3)
The Establishment of an Instrumental or Operant Response
107(4)
Learning Where and What to Run For
107(1)
Constructing New Responses from Familiar Components
108(1)
Shaping New Responses
108(3)
The Importance of Immediate Reinforcement
111(1)
Event Relations in Instrumental Conditioning
112(5)
The S-R Association: Thorndike's Law of Effect
113(1)
S-O and S(R-O) Relations
113(2)
Implications for Neural Mechanisms
115(1)
Implications for Constraints on Instrumental Conditioning
115(2)
Summary
117(1)
Practice Questions
117(1)
Suggested Readings
118(1)
Technical Terms
118(1)
Schedules of Reinforcement
119(17)
The Cumulative Record
120(1)
Simple Schedules of Reinforcement
121(5)
Ratio Schedules
122(1)
Interval Schedules
123(3)
Mechanisms of Schedule Performance
126(2)
Feedback Functions for Ratio Schedules
126(1)
Feedback Functions for Interval Schedules
127(1)
Feedback Functions and Schedule Performance
128(1)
Chained Schedules of Reinforcement
128(3)
Heterogeneous Chains
129(1)
Homogeneous Chains
129(2)
Training Response Chains
131(1)
Concurrent Schedules
131(2)
Summary
133(1)
Practice Questions
134(1)
Suggested Readings
134(1)
Technical Terms
134(2)
Theories of Reinforcement
136(16)
Thorndike and the Law of Effect
137(1)
Hull and Drive Reduction Theory
138(3)
Primary Reinforcers
139(1)
Secondary Reinforcers and Acquired Drives
140(1)
Sensory Reinforcement
140(1)
Reinforcers as Responses
141(3)
The Premack Principle
141(1)
The Premack Revolution
142(1)
Applications of the Premack Principle
142(1)
Theoretical Problems
143(1)
The Response Deprivation Hypothesis
144(2)
Response Deprivation and the Law of Effect
144(1)
Response Deprivation and Response Probability
145(1)
Response Deprivation and the Locus of Reinforcement Effects
145(1)
The Behavioral Regulation Approach
146(4)
The Behavioral Bliss Point
146(1)
Imposing an Instrumental Contingency
146(2)
Responding to Schedule Constraints
148(1)
Contributions of Behavioral Regulation
149(1)
Summary
150(1)
Practice Questions
150(1)
Suggested Readings
151(1)
Technical Terms
151(1)
Extinction of Conditioned Behavior
152(20)
Effects of Extinction Procedures
153(1)
Extinction and Original Learning
154(7)
Spontaneous Recovery
154(1)
Renewal of Original Excitatory Conditioning
154(3)
Reinstatement of Conditioned Excitation
157(1)
Sensitivity to US or Reinforcer Devaluation
158(3)
What Is Learned in Extinction?
161(3)
Inhibitory S-R Associations
161(3)
``Paradoxical'' Reward Effects
164(6)
Overtraining Extinction Effect
164(1)
Magnitude of Reinforcement Extinction Effect
164(2)
Partial-Reinforcement Extinction Effect
166(1)
Mechanisms of the Partial-Reinforcement Extinction Effect
167(3)
Summary
170(1)
Practice Questions
170(1)
Suggested Readings
171(1)
Technical Terms
171(1)
Punishment
172(15)
Effective and Ineffective Punishment
173(3)
When Punishment Fails
174(1)
When Punishment Succeeds
175(1)
Research Evidence on Punishment
176(6)
Response-Reinforcer Contingency
176(1)
Response-Reinforcer Contiguity
177(1)
Intensity of the Aversive Stimulus
177(2)
Signaled Punishment
179(1)
Punishment and Mechanisms Maintaining the Punished Response
179(1)
Punishment and Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior
180(1)
Paradoxical Effects of Punishment
180(2)
Can and Should We Create a Society Free of Punishment?
182(1)
Alternatives to Punishment
183(2)
Time-Out
183(1)
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior
184(1)
Summary
185(1)
Practice Questions
186(1)
Suggested Readings
186(1)
Technical Terms
186(1)
Avoidance Learning
187(19)
Dominant Questions in the Analysis of Avoidance Learning
188(1)
Origins of the Study of Avoidance Learning
189(1)
Contemporary Avoidance Conditioning Procedures
190(4)
Discriminated Avoidance
190(2)
Nondiscriminated or Free-Operant Avoidance
192(2)
Theoretical Approaches to Avoidance Learning
194(9)
Test of the Role of the Instrumental Contingency
194(2)
The Two-Factor Theory of Avoidance
196(2)
Conditioned Temporal Cues
198(1)
Safety Signals in Avoidance Learning
199(1)
Avoidance Learning and Unconditioned Defensive Behavior
200(3)
Summary
203(1)
Practice Questions
204(1)
Suggested Readings
205(1)
Technical Terms
205(1)
Stimulus Control of Behavior
206(21)
Measurement of Stimulus Control
207(5)
Identifying Relevant Stimuli
208(1)
Identifying Relevant Stimulus Features
209(1)
Measurement of the Degree of Stimulus Control
209(3)
Determinants of Stimulus Control: Stimulus and Organismic Factors
212(3)
Sensory Capacity
212(1)
Sensory Orientation
213(1)
Stimulus Intensity or Salience
213(1)
Motivational Factors
214(1)
Determinants of Stimulus Control: Learning Factors
215(10)
Pavlovian and Instrumental Conditioning
215(1)
Stimulus Discrimination Training
216(2)
Multiple Schedules of Reinforcement
218(1)
Differential Reinforcement and Stimulus Control
219(1)
Interdimensional versus Intradimensional Discriminations
220(2)
Stimulus Equivalence Training
222(2)
Shaping of Discriminations and Perceptual-Concept Learning
224(1)
Summary
225(1)
Practice Questions
225(1)
Suggested Readings
226(1)
Technical Terms
226(1)
Memory Mechanisms
227(17)
Stages of Information Processing
228(1)
The Matching-to-Sample Procedure
229(2)
Simultaneous and Delayed Matching to Sample
230(1)
Procedural Controls for Memory
231(1)
Types of Memory
231(6)
Reference Memory and Working Memory
232(1)
Active Memory and Passive Memory
233(1)
Retrospective Memory and Prospective Memory
234(3)
Sources of Memory Failure
237(4)
Interference
237(3)
Retrieval Failure
240(1)
Summary
241(1)
Practice Questions
242(1)
Suggested Readings
242(1)
Technical Terms
243(1)
Glossary 244(11)
References 255(16)
Index 271


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