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Essentials of Meteorology : An Invitation to the Atmosphere,9780534372026
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Essentials of Meteorology : An Invitation to the Atmosphere

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780534372026

ISBN10:
0534372023
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/30/1999
Publisher(s):
Brooks Cole

Questions About This Book?

What version or edition is this?
This is the 2nd edition with a publication date of 8/30/1999.
What is included with this book?
  • The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any CDs, lab manuals, study guides, etc.

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Summary

An introduction to topics related to everyday experiences with weather: the atmosphere, temperature, clouds and precipitation, wind, storms, air pollution, and more.

Table of Contents

Preface
The Earth's Atmosphere
1(24)
Overview of the Earth's Atmosphere
2(5)
Composition of the Atmosphere
3(3)
The Early Atmosphere
6(1)
Vertical Structure of the Atmosphere
7(6)
A Brief Look at Air Pressure and Air Density
7(1)
Layers of the Atmosphere
8(2)
Focus on Instruments: The Radiosonde
10(1)
The Ionosphere
11(1)
The Ozone Dilemma in the Stratosphere
12(1)
Weather and Climate
13(9)
Focus on a Special Topic: The Ozone Hole
14(1)
A Satellite's View of the Weather
15(1)
Storms of all Sizes
15(1)
A Look at a Weather Map
16(2)
Weather and Climate in Our Lives
18(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: Meterology---A Brief History
19(3)
Summary
22(1)
Key Terms
22(1)
Review Questions
23(1)
World Wide Web Activities
24(1)
Warming the Earth and the Atmosphere
25(28)
Temperature and Heat Transfer
26(8)
Temperature Scales
26(1)
Latent Heat---the Hidden Warmth
27(1)
Conduction
28(1)
Convection
29(1)
Radiation
30(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: Rising Air Cools and Sinking Air Warms
31(3)
Balancing Act---Absorption, Emission, and Equilibrium
34(4)
Focus on a Special Topic: Sun Burning and UV Rays
33(2)
Selective Absorbers and the Atmospheric Greenhouse Effect
35(1)
Enhancement of the Greenhouse Effect
36(2)
Warming the Air from Below
38(1)
Incoming Solar Energy
38(11)
The Earth's Annual Energy Balance
39(2)
Why the Earth has Seasons
41(1)
Focus on an Observation: The Aurora---A Dazzling Light Show
42(1)
Seasons in the Northern Hemisphere
43(4)
Focus on an Issue: Is December 22 Really the First Day of Winter?
47(1)
Seasons in the Southern Hemisphere
48(1)
Local Seasonal Variations
48(1)
Summary
49(1)
Key Terms
50(1)
Review Questions
50(1)
World Wide Web Activities
51(2)
Air Temperature
53(20)
Daily Temperature Variations
54(6)
Daytime Warming
54(1)
Nighttime Cooling
55(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: Record High Temperatures
56
Cold Air Near the Surface
55(4)
Focus on a Special Topic: Record Low Temperatures
59
Protecting Crops from the Cold Night Air
57(3)
The Controls of Temperature
60(2)
Air Temperature Data
62(3)
Daily, Monthly, and Yearly Temperatures
62(1)
The Use of Temperature Data
63(2)
Air Temperature and Human Comfort
65(2)
Focus on an Observation: A Thousand Degrees and Freezing to Death
66(1)
Measuring Air Temperature
67(3)
Focus on Instruments: Thermometers Should be Read in the Shade
69(1)
Summary
70(1)
Key Terms
70(1)
Review Questions
70(1)
World Wide Web Activities
71(2)
Humidity, Condensation, and Clouds
73(32)
Circulation of Water in the Atmosphere
74(1)
Evaporation, Condensation, and Saturation
74(2)
Humidity
76(7)
Vapor Pressure
77(1)
Relative Humidity
77(2)
Relative Humidity and Dew Point
79(1)
Relative Humidity and Human Discomfort
80(1)
Measuring Humidity
81(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: Humid Air and Dry Air Do Not Weigh the Same
82(1)
Dew and Frost
83(2)
Fog
85(3)
Foggy Weather
88(1)
Clouds
89(13)
Classification of Clouds
89(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: Fog Dispersal
90(1)
Cloud Identification
91(1)
High Clouds
91(1)
Middle Clouds
91(2)
Low Clouds
93(3)
Clouds with Vertical Development
96(2)
Some Unusual Clouds
98(4)
Summary
102(1)
Key Terms
102(1)
Review Questions
102(1)
World Wide Web Activities
103(2)
Cloud Development and Precipitation
105(28)
Atmospheric Stability
106(1)
Determining Stability
107(3)
Stable Air
107(1)
Unstable Air
108(1)
Conditionally Unstable Air
109(1)
Cloud Development and Stability
110(4)
Convection and Clouds
110(3)
Topography and Clouds
113(1)
Precipitation Process
114(6)
Collision and Coalescence Process
115(1)
Ice---Crystal Process
116(2)
Cloud Seeding and Precipitation
118(1)
Precipitation in Clouds
119(1)
Focus on an Issue: Does Cloud Seeding Enhance Precipitation?
120(1)
Precipitation Types
120(7)
Rain
120(1)
Snow
120(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: Are Raindrops Tear---Shaped?
120(4)
Sleet and Freezing Rain
124(1)
Snow Grains and Snow Pellets
124(1)
Hail
125(1)
Focus on an Application: Aircraft Icing
126(1)
Measuring Precipitation
127(2)
Instruments
127(1)
Weather Radar and Precipitation
128(1)
Summary
129(1)
Key Terms
129(1)
Review Questions
130(1)
World Wide Web Activities
130(3)
Air Pressure and Winds
133(24)
Atmospheric Pressure
134(2)
Focus on a Special Topic: The Atmosphere Obeys the Gas Law
135(1)
Measuring Air Pressure
136(3)
Barometers
136(2)
Pressure Readings
138(1)
Surface and Upper-Air Charts
139(2)
Focus on a Special Topic: Isobaric Maps
141(1)
Why the Wind Blows
141(4)
Newton's Laws of Motion
141(1)
Forces That Influence the Wind
142(1)
Pressure Gradient Force
142(1)
Coriolis Force
142(3)
Wind Flow Aloft
145(3)
Geostrophic Wind
145(2)
Curved Winds Around Lows and Highs
147(1)
Focus on an Observation: Estimating Wind Direction and Pressure Patterns Aloft
147(1)
Surface Winds
148(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: Winds Aloft in the Southern Hemisphere
149(1)
Winds and Vertical Air Motions
149(2)
Measuring and Determining Winds
151(3)
The Influence of Prevailing Winds
151(2)
Focus on an Issue: Wind Power
153
Wind Instruments
152(2)
Summary
154(1)
Key Terms
154(1)
Review Questions
154(1)
World Wide Web Activities
155(2)
Atmospheric Circulations
157(30)
Scales of Atmospheric Motion
158(1)
Eddies---Big and Small
159(1)
Local Wind Systems
160(10)
Thermal Circulations
160(1)
Focus on an Application: Eddies and ``Air Pockets''
161(1)
Sea and Land Breezes
162(1)
Seasonally Changing Winds---the Monsoon
163(2)
Mountain and Valley Breezes
165(1)
Katabatic Winds
165(1)
Chinook (Foehn) Winds
166(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: Snow Eaters and Rapid Temperature Changes
167(1)
Santa Ana Winds
168(1)
Desert Winds
169(1)
Global Winds
170(7)
General Circulation of the Atmosphere
170(1)
Single-Cell Model
170(1)
Three-Cell Model
171(1)
Average Surface Winds and Pressure: The Real World
172(2)
The General Circulation and Precipitation Patterns
174(1)
Westerly Winds and the Jet Stream
175(2)
Global Wind Patterns and the Oceans
177(6)
Winds and Upwelling
179(1)
El Nino and the Southern Oscillation
180(3)
Summary
183(1)
Key Terms
184(1)
Review Questions
184(1)
World Wide Web Activities
184(3)
Air Masses, Fronts, and Middle Latitude Storms
187(32)
Air Masses
188(11)
Source Regions
189(1)
Classification
189(1)
Air Masses of North America
189(1)
cP (Continental Polar) and cA (Continental Arctic) Air Masses
189(2)
Focus on a Special Topic: Lake-effect Snows
191(4)
mP (Maritime Tropical) Air Masses
195(2)
cT (Continental Tropical) Air Masses
197(2)
Fronts
199(7)
Stationary Fronts
200(1)
Cold Fronts
200(3)
Warm Fronts
203(1)
Occluded Fronts
204(2)
Middle Latitude Cyclones
206(8)
Polar Front Theory
207(1)
Developing Cyclones and Anticyclones
208(2)
Focus on a Special Topic: Northeasters
210(1)
The Role of Convergence and Divergence
211(1)
Waves in the Westerlies
211(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: A Closer Look at Convergence and Divergence
212(1)
The Role of the Jet Stream
213(1)
Summary
214(1)
Key Terms
214(1)
Review Questions
215(1)
World Wide Web Activities
215(4)
Weather Forecasting
219(24)
Acquisition of Weather Information
218(1)
Weather Forecasting Tools
219(8)
Focus on a Special Topic: Watches and Warnings
219(1)
The Computer and Weather Forecasting
220(2)
The Use of Minicomputers
222(1)
Satellites and Weather Forecasting
223(4)
Methods of Weather Forecasting
227(5)
Accuracy and Skill in Weather Forecasting
230(1)
Predicting the Weather from Local Signs
231(1)
Weather Forecasting Using Surface Charts
232(7)
Focus on an Observation: TV Weathercasters---How Do They Do It?
232(2)
Determining the Movement of Weather Systems
234(1)
A Forecast for Six Cities
234(1)
Weather Forecast for Augusta, Georgia
235(2)
Rain or Snow for Washington, DC? Big Snow Storm for Chicago
237(1)
Mixed Bag of Weather for Memphis
237(1)
Cold Wave for Dallas
238(1)
Clear but Cold for Denver
238(1)
Summary
239(1)
Key Terms
239(1)
Review Questions
240(1)
World Wide Web Activities
240(3)
Thunderstorms and Tornadoes
243(36)
What are Thunderstorms?
244(1)
Ordinary (Air-mass) Thunderstorms
244(3)
Severe Thunderstorms
247(9)
The Gust Front and Microburst
248(3)
Supercell and Squall-line Thunderstorms
251(1)
The Dryline
252(1)
Floods and Flash Floods
253(1)
Focus on a special Topic: Terrifying Flash Flood in the Big Thompson Canyon
254(1)
Mesoscale Convective Complexes
255(1)
Distribution of Thunderstorms
256(1)
Lightning and Thunder
257(6)
Electrification of Clouds
258(1)
The Lightning Stroke
258(3)
Lightning Detection and Suppression
261(1)
Focus on an Observation: Don't Sit Under the Apple Tree
262(1)
Tornadoes
263(9)
Tornado Occurrence
264(1)
Tornado Winds
265(3)
Tornado Formation
268(2)
Observing Tornadoes
270(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: Thunderstorm Rotation
270(2)
Doppler Radar
272(2)
Waterspouts
274(1)
Summary
275(1)
Key Terms
275(1)
Review Questions
275(1)
World Wide Web Activities
276(3)
Hurricanes
279(22)
Tropical Weather
280(1)
Anatomy of a Hurricane
280(3)
Hurricane Formation and Dissipation
283(13)
Hurricane Stages of Development
285(1)
Hurricane Movement
286(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: How Do Hurricanes Compare with Middle Latitude Storms?
287(1)
Destruction and Warning
288(3)
Focus on a Special Topic: Modifying Hurricanes
291(5)
Naming Hurricanes
296(1)
Summary
297(1)
Key Terms
297(1)
Review Questions
297(1)
World Wide Web Activities
298(3)
Air Pollution
301(22)
A Brief History of Air Pollution
302(1)
Types and Sources of Air Pollutants
303(7)
Principal Air Pollutants
304(3)
Air Pollution: Trends and Patterns
307(3)
Focus on a Special Topic: The Formation of Tropospheric Ozone
310(1)
Factors That Affect Air Pollution
310(4)
The Role of the Wind
310(1)
The Role of Stability and Inversions
311(1)
Focus on an Observation: Smoke Stack Plumes
312(2)
The Role of Topography
314(1)
Severe Air Pollution Potential
314(1)
Air Pollution and the Urban Environment
314(3)
Focus on an Observation: Five Days in Donora---An Air Pollution Episode
315(2)
Acid Deposition
317(2)
Summary
319(1)
Key Terms
320(1)
Review Questions
320(1)
World Wide Web Activities
320(3)
Climate Change
323(24)
The Earth's Changing Climate
324(4)
Determining Past Climates
324(2)
Climate through the Ages
326(1)
Climate during the Last 1000 Years
327(1)
Possible Causes of Climatic Change
328(10)
Climate Change and Feedback Mechanisms
328(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: A Runaway Greenhouse Effect on Venus
329(1)
Climate Change, Plate Tectonics, and Mountain Building
330(2)
Climate Change and Variations in the Earth's Orbit
332(2)
Climate Change and Atmospheric Particles
334(1)
Aerosols in the Troposphere
334(1)
Volcanic Eruptions and Aerosols in the Stratosphere
335(1)
Climate Change and Variations in Solar Output
336(2)
Carbon Dioxide, the Greenhouse Effect, and Recent Global Warming
338(5)
Oceans, Clouds, and Global Warming
338(1)
Possible Consequences of Global Warming
339(2)
Is the Warming Real?
341(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: The Sahel---An Example of Climatic Variability and Human Experience
342(1)
In Perspective
343(1)
Summary
343(1)
Key Terms
344(1)
Review Questions
344(1)
World Wide Web Activities
345(2)
Global Climate
347(32)
A World with Many Climates
348(5)
Global Temperatures
348(1)
Global Precipitation
349(4)
Climatic Classfication---The Koppen System
353(2)
Focus on a Special Topic: Precipitation Extremes
354(1)
The Global Pattern of Climate
355(20)
Tropical Moist Climates (Group A)
358(3)
Dry Climates (Group B)
361(4)
Moist Subtropical Mid-Latitude Climates (Group C)
365(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: A Desert with Clouds and Drizzle
366(3)
Moist Continental Climates (Group D)
369(3)
Polar Climates (Group E)
372(2)
Highland Climates (Group H)
374(1)
Summary
375(1)
Key Terms
376(1)
Review Questions
376(1)
World Wide Web Activities
376(3)
Light, Color, and Atmospheric Optics
379(22)
White and Colors
380(1)
White Clouds and Scattered Light
380(1)
Blue Skies and Hazy Days
381(2)
Red Suns and Blue Moons
383(2)
Twinkling, Twilight, and the Green Flash
385(2)
The Mirage: Seeing Is Not Believing
387(4)
Halos, Sundogs, and Sun Pillars
389(1)
Focus on an Observation: The Fata Morgana
390(1)
Rainbows
391(4)
Coronas and Cloud Iridescence
395(1)
Focus on an Observation: Glories and the Heilgenschein
397
Summary
396(2)
Key Terms
398(1)
Review Questions
398(1)
World Wide Web Activities
398(3)
Appendix A Units, Conversions, Abbreviations, and Equations 401(3)
Appendix B Equations and Constants 404(3)
Appendix C Weather Symbols and the Station Model 407(2)
Appendix D Humidity and Dew-Point Tables 409(4)
Appendix E Koppen's Climatic Classification System 413(1)
Appendix F Heat Index (HI) Table 414(1)
Appendix G Beaufort Wind Scale 415(1)
Appendix H Standard Atmosphere 416(1)
Additional Reading Material 417(4)
Glossary 421(14)
Index 435(9)
Credits 444


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