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Essentials of Organizational Behavior

by
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780131445710

ISBN10:
0131445715
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $108.00
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Summary

Steve Robbins' Self-Assessment Library (S.A.L.) is a unique learning tool that allows you to assess your knowledge, beliefs, feelings, and actions in regard to a wide range of personal skills, abilities, and interests. Automatically graded self-scoring exercises generate immediate, individual analysis that allows you to compare your results to those of others taking the assessment, This single volume of fifty research-based instruments is organized into three parts-What About Me? Working with Others, and Life in Organizations-and offers you one source from which to learn more about yourself. Following are some examples of assessments included in S.A.L., 3.0.: What's My Basic Personality? What Are My Attitudes Toward Workplace Diversity? What's My Decision-Making Style? What's My Emotional Intelligence Score? Do I Trust Others? What's My Negotiating Style? Am I Experiencing Work-Family Conflict? What Motivates Me? NEW FEATURES additional research-based instruments are included in S.A.L. 3.0. New save feature allows students to easily create an assessment portfolio. When taking the self-assessments online, students can view their own results instantly, and also see how their results compare to their class and to students around the world. Instructors can access view them both textually and graphically, and compare their class to students around the world. A completely revamped Instructor's Manual guides instructors in interpreting students' results-facilitating class discussions of results.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
Part I PROLOGUE
1(16)
Introduction to Organizational Behavior
1(16)
The Field of Organizational Behavior
2(3)
Definition
2(1)
Contributing Disciplines
3(2)
Goals of Organizational Behavior
5(1)
Explanation
5(1)
Prediction
5(1)
Control
5(1)
Challenges and Opportunities for OB: A Managerial Perspective
6(9)
Responding to Globalization
6(1)
Managing Workforce Diversity
7(2)
Improving Quality and Productivity
9(1)
Improving People Skills
10(1)
Improving Customer Service
11(1)
Empowering People
11(1)
Working in Networked Organizations
12(1)
Stimulating Innovation and Change
12(1)
Coping with ``Temporariness''
13(1)
Helping Employees Balance Work/Life Conflicts
13(1)
Declining Employee Loyalty
14(1)
Improving Ethical Behavior
14(1)
The Plan of This Book
15(2)
Part II THE INDIVIDUAL IN THE ORGANIZATION
17(84)
Foundations of Individual Behavior
17(17)
Values
17(7)
Types of Values
18(2)
Values, Loyalty, and Ethical Behavior
20(1)
Values Across Cultures
21(3)
Attitudes
24(3)
Job Satisfaction
24(1)
Reducing Dissonance
25(2)
The Attitude/Behavior Relationship
27(1)
Perception
27(3)
Factors Influencing Perception
28(1)
Attribution Theory
28(1)
Shortcuts to Judging Others
29(1)
Learning
30(1)
Implications for Managers
31(3)
Personality and Emotions
34(13)
Personality
34(6)
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
35(1)
The Big-Five Model
35(1)
Other Key Personality Attributes
36(2)
Personality and National Culture
38(1)
Matching Personalities and Jobs
39(1)
Emotions
40(6)
What Are Emotions?
41(1)
Felt Versus Displayed Emotions
42(1)
The Six Universal Emotions
42(1)
Gender and Emotions
43(1)
Emotions and National Culture
43(1)
OB Applications
44(2)
Implications for Managers
46(1)
Basic Motivation Concepts
47(16)
What Is Motivation?
48(1)
Early Theories of Motivation
48(4)
Hierarchy of Needs Theory
48(2)
Theory X and Theory Y
50(1)
Two-Factor Theory
50(2)
Contemporary Theories of Motivation
52(9)
McClelland's Theory of Needs
52(1)
Goal-Setting Theory
53(2)
Reinforcement Theory
55(1)
Job Design Theory
55(3)
Equity Theory
58(2)
Expectancy Theory
60(1)
Don't Forget: Motivation Theories Are Culture-Bound!
61(1)
Implications for Managers
62(1)
Motivation: From Concepts to Applications
63(21)
Management by Objectives
64(2)
What Is MBO?
64(1)
Linking MBO and Goal-Setting Theory
65(1)
MBO in Practice
65(1)
Behavior Modification
66(2)
What Is OB Mod?
66(2)
Linking OB Mod and Reinforcement Theory
68(1)
OB Mod in Practice
68(1)
Employee Recognition Programs
68(2)
What Are Employee Recognition Programs?
69(1)
Linking Recognition Programs and Reinforcement Theory
69(1)
Employee Recognition Programs in Practice
69(1)
Employee Involvement Programs
70(3)
What Is Employee Involvement?
70(1)
Examples of Employee Involvement Programs
70(2)
Linking Employee Involvement Programs and Motivation Theories
72(1)
Employee Involvement Programs in Practice
72(1)
Job Redesign and Scheduling Programs
73(6)
What Is Job Redesign and Scheduling?
73(5)
Linking Job Redesign and Scheduling to Motivation Theories
78(1)
Job Redesign and Scheduling in Practice
78(1)
Variable-Pay Programs
79(2)
What Are Variable-Pay Programs?
79(1)
Linking Variable-Pay Programs and Expectancy Theory
80(1)
Variable-Pay Programs in Practice
81(1)
Skill-Based Pay Plans
81(2)
What Are Skill-Based Pay Plans?
81(1)
Linking Skill-Based Pay Plans to Motivation Theories
82(1)
Skill-Based Pay in Practice
82(1)
A Final Thought: Motivating the Diversified Workforce
83(1)
Implications for Managers
83(1)
Individual Decision Making
84(17)
How Should Decisions Be Made?
85(3)
The Rational Decision-Making Process
85(1)
Improving Creativity in Decision Making
86(2)
How Decisions Are Actually Made in Organizations
88(11)
Bounded Rationality
88(1)
Common Biases and Errors
89(3)
Intuition
92(1)
Individual Differences
93(4)
Organizational Constraints
97(1)
Cultural Differences
98(1)
Ethics in Decision Making
99(1)
Implications for Managers
100(1)
Part III GROUPS IN THE ORGANIZATION
101(109)
Foundations of Group Behavior
101(18)
Defining and Classifying Groups
101(1)
Basic Group Concepts
102(10)
Roles
103(1)
Norms
104(3)
Status
107(2)
Cohesiveness
109(1)
Size
110(1)
Composition
111(1)
Group Decision Making
112(4)
The Individual Versus the Group
113(1)
Groupthink and Groupshift
113(2)
Selecting the Best Group Decision-Making Technique
115(1)
Implications for Managers
116(3)
Understanding Work Teams
119(17)
Why Have Teams Become So Popular?
120(1)
Teams Versus Groups: What's the Difference?
120(1)
Types of Teams
121(4)
Problem-Solving Teams
122(1)
Self-Managed Work Teams
122(1)
Cross-Functional Teams
123(1)
Virtual Teams
124(1)
Creating Effective Teams
125(5)
Context
126(1)
Composition
127(2)
Work Design
129(1)
Process
129(1)
Turning Individuals into Team Players
130(3)
The Challenge
131(1)
Shaping Team Players
131(1)
The Ethics of Forced Team Participation
132(1)
Teams and Quality Management
133(1)
Beware! Teams Aren't Always the Answer
134(1)
Implications for Managers
134(2)
Communication
136(20)
Functions of Communication
137(1)
The Communication Process
137(1)
Direction of Communication
138(1)
Downward
138(1)
Upward
139(1)
Lateral
139(1)
Interpersonal Communication
139(3)
Oral Communication
139(1)
Written Communication
140(1)
Nonverbal Communication
140(2)
Organizational Communication
142(6)
Formal Small-Group Networks
142(1)
The Grapevine
142(2)
Computer-Aided Communication
144(3)
Knowledge Management
147(1)
Barriers to Effective Communication
148(2)
Filtering
148(1)
Selective Perception
149(1)
Information Overload
149(1)
Gender Styles
149(1)
Emotions
149(1)
Language
150(1)
Cross-Cultural Communication
150(2)
Cultural Context
150(1)
A Cultural Guide
151(1)
Ethics in Communication: Is It Wrong To Tell a Lie?
152(1)
Implications for Managers
152(4)
Leadership and Creating Trust
156(20)
What Is Leadership?
156(1)
Trait Theories
157(1)
Behavioral Theories
158(3)
Ohio State Studies
158(1)
University of Michigan Studies
159(1)
The Managerial Grid
159(1)
Summary of Behavioral Theories
160(1)
Contingency Theories
161(5)
The Fiedler Model
161(2)
Leader-Member Exchange Theory
163(1)
Path-Goal Theory
163(2)
Leader-Participation Model
165(1)
Charismatic Leadership
166(2)
What Is Charismatic Leadership?
166(1)
How Charismatic Leaders Influence Followers
167(1)
The Case For and Against Charismatic Leadership
167(1)
Contemporary Issues in Leadership
168(2)
Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Effectiveness
169(1)
Ethical Leadership
169(1)
Cross-Cultural Leadership
170(1)
Is Leadership Always Relevant?
170(1)
Trust and Leadership
171(4)
What Is Trust?
171(1)
Linking Trust to Leadership
172(1)
Three Types of Trust
173(1)
How Do You Build Trust?
174(1)
Implications for Managers
175(1)
Power and Politics
176(17)
A Definition of Power
176(1)
Contrasting Leadership and Power
177(1)
Bases of Power
177(2)
Formal Power
177(1)
Personal Power
178(1)
Dependency: The Key to Power
179(2)
The General Dependency Postulate
179(1)
What Creates Dependency?
180(1)
Power in Groups: Coalitions
181(1)
Sexual Harassment: Unequal Power in the Workplace
182(1)
Politics: Power in Action
183(8)
A Definition of Political Behavior
183(1)
The Importance of a Political Perspective
184(1)
Factors Contributing to Political Behavior
184(2)
How Do People Respond to Organizational Politics?
186(3)
Impression Management
189(1)
The Ethics of Behaving Politically
190(1)
Implications for Managers
191(2)
Conflict and Negotiation
193(17)
A Definition of Conflict
193(1)
Transitions in Conflict Thought
194(1)
The Traditional View
194(1)
The Human Relations View
194(1)
The Interactionist View
195(1)
Functional Versus Dysfunctional Conflict
195(1)
The Conflict Process
195(7)
Stage I: Potential Opposition
195(2)
Stage II: Cognition and Personalization
197(1)
Stage III: Behavior
198(1)
Stage IV: Outcomes
199(2)
Creating Functional Conflict
201(1)
Negotiation
202(6)
Bargaining Strategies
202(2)
Issues in Negotiation
204(3)
The Ethics of Lying and Deceiving in Negotiations
207(1)
Implications for Managers
208(2)
Part IV THE ORGANIZATION SYSTEM
210(73)
Foundations of Organization Structure
210(19)
What Is Organization Structure?
211(6)
Work Specialization
211(2)
Departmentalization
213(1)
Chain of Command
214(1)
Span of Control
215(1)
Centralization and Decentralization
216(1)
Formalization
216(1)
Common Organizational Designs
217(3)
The Simple Structure
217(1)
The Bureaucracy
218(1)
The Matrix Structure
218(2)
New Options
220(4)
The Team Structure
220(1)
The Virtual Organization
221(1)
The Boundaryless Organization
222(2)
Why Do Structures Differ?
224(2)
Strategy
224(1)
Organization Size
225(1)
Technology
225(1)
Environmental Uncertainty
226(1)
Organization Structure and Employee Behavior
226(2)
Implications for Managers
228(1)
Organizational Culture
229(18)
Defining Organizational Culture
230(2)
Culture Is a Descriptive Term
230(1)
Do Organizations Have Uniform Cultures?
231(1)
Strong Versus Weak Cultures
231(1)
What Does Culture Do?
232(1)
Culture's Functions
232(1)
Culture as a Liability
232(1)
Creating and Sustaining Culture
233(4)
How a Culture Begins
233(1)
Keeping a Culture Alive
233(4)
Summary: How Cultures Form
237(1)
How Employees Learn Culture
237(2)
Stories
237(1)
Rituals
238(1)
Material Symbols
238(1)
Language
238(1)
Managing Cultural Change
239(1)
Creating an Ethical Organizational Culture
240(1)
Creating a Customer-Responsive Culture
241(1)
Key Variables Shaping Customer-Responsive Cultures
241(1)
Managerial Action
242(1)
Spirituality and Organizational Culture
242(3)
What Is Spirituality?
243(1)
Why Spirituality Now?
243(1)
Characteristics of a Spiritual Organization
243(1)
Criticisms of Spirituality
244(1)
Organizational Culture Versus National Culture
245(1)
Organizational Culture and the Paradox of Diversity
245(1)
Implications for Managers
246(1)
Human Resource Policies and Practices
247(17)
Employee Selection
247(3)
Interviews
248(1)
Written Tests
249(1)
Performance-Simulation Tests
249(1)
Training and Development Programs
250(4)
Types of Training
250(2)
Training Methods
252(1)
Career Development
253(1)
Performance Appraisal
254(9)
Performance Appraisal and Motivation
254(1)
What Do We Evaluate?
255(1)
Who Should Do the Evaluating?
256(2)
Performance-Appraisal Methods
258(1)
Suggestions for Improving Performance Appraisals
259(2)
Don't Forget Performance Feedback!
261(1)
What About Team-Performance Appraisals?
262(1)
Performance Appraisal in a Global Context
262(1)
Implications for Managers
263(1)
Organizational Change and Development
264(19)
Forces for Change
265(1)
Change Agents
266(1)
Two Views of Change
267(2)
The ``Calm Waters'' Simile
267(1)
The ``White-Water Rapids'' Simile
268(1)
Putting the Two Views in Perspective
268(1)
Resistance to Change
269(4)
Individual Resistance
269(1)
Organizational Resistance
270(1)
Overcoming Resistance to Change
271(2)
Managing Change Through Organizational Development
273(4)
Sensitivity Training
273(1)
Survey Feedback
274(1)
Process Consultation
274(1)
Team Building
275(1)
Intergroup Development
276(1)
Appreciative Inquiry
276(1)
Contemporary Issues in Organizational Change
277(5)
Technology in the Workplace
277(2)
Work Stress
279(1)
Stimulating Innovation
280(2)
Implications for Managers
282(1)
Epilogue 283(2)
Endnotes 285(22)
Index/Glossary 307

Excerpts

This book was created as an alternative to the 600- or 700-page comprehensive textbook in organizational behavior (OB). It attempts to provide balanced coverage of all the key elements comprising the discipline of OB, in a style that readers will find both informative and interesting. I'm pleased to say that this text has achieved a wide following in short courses and executive programs, and in traditional courses as a companion volume with experiential, skill development, case, and readings books. It is currently used at more than 500 colleges and universities in the United States, Canada, Latin America, Europe, Australia, and Asia. It's also been translated into Spanish, Portuguese, Japanese, Chinese, Dutch, Polish, Turkish, Danish, and Bahasa Indonesian. RETAINED FROM THE PREVIOUS EDITION What do people like about this book? Surveys of users have found general agreement about the following features. Needless to say, they've all been retained in this edition. Length.Since its inception in 1984, I've tried diligently to keep this book in the range of 325-350 pages. Users tell me this length allows them considerable flexibility in assigning supporting materials and projects. Balanced topic coverage.Although short in length, this book continues to provide balanced coverage of all the key concepts in OB. This includes not only traditional topics such as personality, motivation, and leadership; but also cutting-edge issues such as emotions, trust, work/life balance, workplace spirituality, and knowledge management. Writing style.This book is frequently singled out for the fluid writing style and extensive use of examples. Users regularly tell me that they find this book "conversational," "interesting," "student friendly," and "very clear and understandable." Practicality.This book has never been solely about theory. It's about using theory to better explain and predict the behavior of people in organizations. In each edition of this book, I have focused on making sure that readers see the link between OB theories, research, and implications for practice. Absence of pedagogy.Part of the reason I've been able to keep this book short in length is that it doesn't include review questions, cases, exercises, or similar teaching/learning aids. This book continues to provide only the basic core of OB knowledge, allowing instructors the maximum flexibility in designing and shaping their courses. Integration of globalization, diversity, and ethics.As shown in Exhibit A, the topics of globalization and cross-cultural differences, diversity, and ethics are discussed throughout this book. Rather than being presented in stand-alone chapters, these topics have been woven into the context of relevant issues. Users tell me they find that this integrative approach makes these topics more fully part of OB and reinforces their importance. Comprehensive supplements.While this book may be short in length, it's not short on supplements. It comes with a complete, high-tech support package for both faculty and students. This includes a comprehensive instructor's manual and Test Item File; a dedicated Web site ( www.prenhall.com/robbins ); an Instructor's Resource CD-ROM, including the computerized Test Item File, instructor's manual, and PowerPoint slides; and the Robbins' Self-Assessment Library, which provides students with insights into their skills, abilities, and interests. These supplements are described in detail later in this Preface. NEW TO THE EIGHTH EDITION This eighth edition has been updated in terms of research, examples, and topic coverage. It is also one chapter shorter than the previous edition. New material in this edition includes: Expanded coverage of globalization and workforce diversity (Chapter 1) Working in networked or


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