Essentials of Pharmaceutical Preformulation

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 12/26/2012
  • Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
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Essentials of Pharmaceutical Preformulation: A study guide for students and researchers in pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences describes basic principles of pharmaceutical preformulation for undergraduate level pharmacy students and newly employed workers in the pharmaceutical field who do not have a pharmaceutical background. Successful preformulation requires knowledge of a number of concepts (solubility, partition coefficient, acid dissociation), familiarity with a range of analytical techniques and their application to dosage form design. This text takes these concepts and explains them in the context of pharmaceutical development .Special focus is given to the principles and use of analytical apparatus, providing a core set of transferable knowledge skills. The material is presented in the order that would be followed when developing a medicine and maps onto the indicative syllabus of pharmacy from the Royal Pharmaceutical Society It is divided into three sections: Basic concepts, Solid-state properties and Macroscopic properties and includes easy to follow text highlighted with relevant pharmaceutical examples

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Basic Principles of Preformulation Studies

1.1. Introduction

1.2. Assay design

1.2.1. Assay development

1.3. Concentrations

1.3.1. Units of concentration

1.4. UV spectrophotometry

1.4.1. Method development for UV assays

1.5. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC)

1.5.1. TLC method development

1.5.2. High-performance TLC

1.6. High-performance liquid chromatography

1.6.1. Normal and reverse phase HPLC

1.6.2. HPLC Method development

1.7. Differential scanning calorimetry

1.7.1. Interpreting DSC data

1.7.2. Modulated-temperature DSC

1.7.3. DSC Method development

1.8. Dynamic vapour sorption

1.8.1. DVS method development

1.9 Summary

Chapter 2. Ionisation constants

2.1. Introduction

2.2. Ionisation

2.3. Buffers

2.4. Determination of pKa

2.4.1. Determination of pKa by potentiometric titration

2.4.2. Determination of pKa in non-aqueous solvents

2.4.3. Other factors affecting measurement of pKa

2.5. Summary

Chapter 3. Partitioning affinity

3.1. Introduction

3.2. Partitioning

3.2.1. Effect of partitioning

3.2.2. Determination of log P Shake-flask method Chromatographic methods

3.2.3. Effect of salt formation on partitioning

3.3. Summary

Chapter 4. Solubility

4.1. Introduction

4.2 Intrinsic solubility

4.2.1. Ideal solubility

4.2.2. Solubility as a function of temperature

4.2.3. Solubility and physical form

4.2.4. Measurement of intrinsic solubility

4.2.5. Calculation of pKa from solubility data

4.4. Summary

Chapter 5. Dissolution

5.1. Introduction

5.2. Models of dissolution

5.2.1. Intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR)

5.2.2. IDR as a function of pH

5.2.3. IDR and the common ion effect

5.3. Summary

Chapter 6. Salt selection

6.1. Introduction

6.2. Salt formation

6.2.1. Selection of a salt-forming acid or base

6.2.2. Salt screening

6.3. Salt solubility

6.3.1. Solubility of basic salts

6.3.2. Solubility of acidic salts

6.3.3. The importance of pHmax

6.4. Dissolution of salts

6.4.1. Modification of pHm

6.5. Partitioning of salts

6.6. Summary

Chapter 7. Physical form I ? Crystalline materials

7.1. Introduction

7.2. Crystal formation

7.2.1 Crystal formation from the melt

7.2.2. Crystal growth from solution

7.3. Crystal structure

7.4. Polymorphism

7.4.1. Thermodynamics of polymorphism

7.4.2. Physicochemical properties of polymorphs

7.5. Pseudopolymorphism

7.6 Polymorph screening

7.7 Characterisation of physical form

7.7.1. Characterisation of polymorphs

7.7.2. Characterisation of pseudopolymorphs

7.8. Summary

Chapter 8. Physical form II ? Amorphous materials

8.1. Introduction

8.2. Formation of amorphous materials

8.3. Aging of amorphous materials

8.4. Characterisation of amorphous materials

8.4.1. Measurement of aging

8.5. Processing and formation of amorphous material

8.5.1. Spray-drying

8.5.2. Freeze-drying

8.5.3. Quench-cooling

8.5.4. Milling

8.5.5. Compaction

8.6. Amorphous content quantification

8.6.1. Calibration standards

8.6.2. DSC for amorphous content quantification

8.6.3. DVS for amorphous content quantification

8.7. Summary

Chapter 9. Stability assessment

9.1. Introduction

9.2. Degradation mechanisms

9.2.1. Hydrolysis

9.2.2. Solvolysis

9.2.3. Oxidation

9.2.4. Photolysis

9.3. Reaction kinetics

9.3.1. Solution-phase kinetics

9.3.2. Zero-order reactions

9.3.3. First-order kinetics

9.3.4. Second-order reactions

9.3.5. Solid-state kinetics

9.4. The temperature dependence of reaction kinetics

9.5. Stress testing

9.5.1. Stress testing in solution

9.5.2. Stress testing in the solid-state

9.5.3. Drug-excipient compatibility testing

9.6. Summary

Chapter 10. Particle properties

10.1. Introduction

10.2. Microscopy

10.2.1. Light microscopy

10.2.2. Hot-stage microscopy

10.2.3. Electron microscopy

10.3.4. Atomic force microscopy

10.4. Particle shape

10.4.1. Habit

10.4.2. Particle sizing

10.4.3. Particle size distributions

10.5. Summary

Chapter 11. Powder properties

11.1. Introduction

11.2. Powder flow and consolidation

11.2.1. Carr?s Index

11.2.2. Hausner ratio

11.2.3. Angle of repose

11.2.4. Mohr diagrams Mohr diagrams and consolidation Determination of the yield locus

11.3. Compaction properties

11.3.1. Compaction simulators

11.4 Summary

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