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Essentials of Physical Geography

by ; ; ; ;
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780495011941

ISBN10:
0495011940
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
2/22/2006
Publisher(s):
Brooks Cole
List Price: $255.66

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Summary

ESSENTIALS OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY uses the combined expertise of three respected geographers to help bridge the gap between scientific theory, practical application, and the human-environmental interface. The text emphasizes three essential themes to demonstrate the major roles for the discipline--Geography as a Physical Science, Geography as the Spatial Science, and Geography as Environmental Science. With a renewed focus on examining relationships and processes among systems, the text helps students understand how the various systems interrelate like never before. The eighth edition features Physical GeographyNow? the first assessment-driven and student-centered online learning solution created specifically for this course. Physical GeographyNow? uses a series of chapter-specific diagnostic tests to build a personalized learning plan for each student, allowing students to focus their study time on specific areas of weaknesses. Each personalized learning plan directs students to specific chapter sections and concept-driven multimedia tutorials designed to augment their understanding.

Table of Contents

Physical Geography: Earth Environments and Systems
2(28)
The Study of Geography
4(3)
Physical Geography
5(1)
Technology, Tools, and Methods
6(1)
Major Perspectives in Physical Geography
7(1)
Geography's Spatial Science Perspective: The Regional Concept: Natural and Environmental Regions
8(4)
The Spatial Science Perspective
8(4)
Geography's Physical Science Perspective: The Scientific Method
12(4)
The Physical Science Perspective
13(1)
The Environmental Science Perspective
14(2)
Geography's Environmental Science Perspective: Human-Environment Interactions
16(5)
Models and Systems
21(6)
Systems Theory
22(1)
How Systems Work
22(2)
Equilibrium in Earth Systems
24(3)
Physical Geography and You
27(1)
Define & Recall
28(1)
Discuss & Review
28(1)
Consider & Respond
29(1)
Representations of Earth
30(36)
Location on Earth
32(4)
Maps and Mapmaking
32(1)
Size and Shape of Earth
32(1)
Globes and Great Circles
33(1)
Latitude and Longitude
34(2)
The Geographic Grid
36(3)
Parallels and Meridians
36(1)
Longitude and Time
36(1)
The International Date Line
37(1)
The U.S. Public Lands Survey System
38(1)
The Global Positioning System
39(1)
Maps and Map Projections
39(9)
Advantages of Maps
40(1)
Limitations of Maps
41(1)
Properties of Map Projections
41(2)
Examples of Map Projections
43(2)
Map Basics
45(3)
Career Vision: Robert Iantria
48(1)
Displaying Spatial Data and Information on Maps
49(2)
Discrete and Continuous Data
49(1)
Topographic Maps
50(1)
Modern Mapping Technology
51(1)
Geography's Spatial Science Perspective: Using Vertical Exaggeration to Portray Topography
52(4)
Digital Mapmaking
52(1)
Geographic Information Systems
53(3)
Remote Sensing of the Environment
56(4)
Aerial Photography
57(1)
Specialized Remote Sensing Techniques
57(2)
Multispectral Remote Sensing Applications
59(1)
Geography's Physical Science Perspective: Polar versus Geostationary Satellite Orbits
60(4)
Define & Recall
62(1)
Discuss & Review
62(1)
Consider & Respond
63(1)
Map Interpretation: Topographic Maps
64(2)
Earth in Space and Solar Energy
66(20)
The Solar System and Beyond
68(1)
The Solar System
68(1)
Geography's Environmental Science Perspective: Solar Energy
69(5)
The Sun and Its Energy
69(2)
The Planets
71(1)
Life beyond Earth?
72(2)
The Earth-Sun System
74(4)
Solar Energy and Atmospheric Dynamics
75(1)
Movements of Earth
76(2)
Sun Angle, Duration, and Insolation
78(3)
The Seasons
80(1)
Geography's Physical Science Perspective: Using the Sun's Rays to Measure the Spherical Earth---2200 Years Ago
81(4)
Lines on Earth Delimiting Solar Energy
82(1)
The Analemma
83(1)
Variations of Insolation with Latitude
83(2)
Define & Recall
85(1)
Discuss & Review
85(1)
Consider & Respond
85(1)
The Atmosphere, Temperature, and the Heat Budget
86(28)
Characteristics of the Atmosphere
88(4)
Composition of the Atmosphere
88(1)
Atmospheric Environmental Issues
89(3)
Geography's Spatial Science Perspective: Why Are Ozone Holes Located at the Poles?
92(5)
Vertical Layers of the Atmosphere
92(3)
Effects of the Atmosphere on Solar Radiation
95(1)
Water as Heat Energy
95(2)
Geography's Physical Science Perspective: Colors of the Atmosphere
97(1)
Heating the Atmosphere
97(2)
Processes of Heat Energy Transfer
98(1)
The Heat Energy Budget
98(1)
Air Temperature
99(11)
Temperature and Heat
99(1)
Temperature Scales
99(1)
Short-Term Variations in Temperature
100(2)
Vertical Distribution of Temperature
102(2)
Controls of Earth's Surface Temperatures
104(4)
Temperature Distribution at Earth's Surface
108(1)
Annual March of Temperature
109(1)
Weather and Climate
110(1)
Complexity of Earth's Energy Systems
111(1)
Define & Recall
112(1)
Discuss & Review
112(1)
Consider & Respond
113(1)
Atmospheric Pressure, Winds, and Circulation Patterns
114(30)
Variations in Atmospheric Pressure
117(1)
Vertical Variations in Pressure
117(1)
Horizontal Variations in Pressure
117(1)
Basic Pressure Systems
117(1)
Convergent and Divergent Circulation
117(1)
Mapping Pressure Distribution
118(1)
Wind
118(1)
Pressure Gradients and Winds
118(1)
Geography's Environmental Science Perspective: Harnessing the Wind
119(3)
The Coriolis Effect and Wind
120(1)
Friction and Wind
121(1)
Wind Terminology
121(1)
Cyclones, Anticyclones, and Winds
122(1)
Subglobal Surface Wind Systems
122(3)
Local Winds
122(2)
Monsoon Winds
124(1)
Geography's Spatial Science Perspective: The Santa Ana Winds and Fire
125(1)
Global Pressure Belts
126(3)
Idealized Global Pressure Belts
126(1)
The Global Pattern of Atmospheric Pressure
127(1)
Seasonal Variations in the Pattern
127(2)
Global Surface Wind Systems
129(3)
Idealized Model of Atmospheric Circulation
130(1)
Conditions within Latitudinal Zones
131(1)
Career Vision: Sandra Diaz
132(2)
The Effects of Seasonal Migration
133(1)
Longitudinal Differences in Winds
134(1)
Upper Air Winds
134(5)
Ocean Currents
136(3)
El Nino
139(3)
El Nino and the Southern Oscillation
139(2)
El Nino and Global Weather
141(1)
Define & Recall
142(1)
Discuss & Review
142(1)
Consider & Respond
143(1)
Moisture, Condensation, and Precipitation
144(30)
The Hydrologic Cycle
146(1)
Water in the Atmosphere
147(4)
The Water Budget and Its Relation to the Heat Budget
147(1)
Saturation and Dew Point
148(1)
Humidity
149(2)
Sources of Atmospheric Moisture
151(1)
Rate of Evaporation
151(1)
Potential Evapotranspiration
152(1)
Condensation
152(5)
Condensation Nuclei
153(1)
Fog
153(2)
Other Minor Forms of Condensation
155(1)
Clouds
156(1)
Geography's Environmental Science Perspective: Cumulus Congestus: An Aspiring Thunderstorm
157(4)
Precipitation Processes
161(3)
Major Forms of Precipitation
162(1)
Factors Necessary for Precipitation
163(1)
Geography's Physical Science Perspective: The Lifting Condensation Level (LCL)
164(6)
Distribution of Precipitation
166(4)
Variability of Precipitation
170(2)
Define & Recall
172(1)
Discuss & Review
172(1)
Consider & Respond
173(1)
Air Masses and Weather Systems
174(30)
Air Masses
176(3)
Modification and Stability of Air Masses
176(1)
North American Air Masses
176(3)
Fronts
179(1)
Cold Front
179(1)
Warm Front
179(1)
Stationary and Occluded Fronts
180(1)
Atmospheric Disturbances
180(5)
Cyclones and Anticyclones
181(4)
Career Vision: Thomas G. Novak
185(9)
Thunderstorms
188(1)
Snowstorms and Blizzards
189(1)
Tornadoes
190(3)
Weak Tropical Disturbances
193(1)
Geography's Physical Science Perspective: Storm Chasers and Storm Spotters
194(4)
Hurricanes
196(2)
Geography's Spatial Science Perspective: Hurricane Paths and Landfall Probability Maps
198(2)
Define & Recall
200(1)
Discuss & Review
201(1)
Consider & Respond
201(1)
Map Interpretation: Weather Maps
202(2)
Global Climates and Climate Change
204(30)
Classifying Climates
206(11)
The Thornthwaite System
206(2)
The Koppen System
208(7)
Climate Regions
215(1)
Climographs
216(1)
Scale and Climate
216(1)
Climates of the Past
217(2)
The Ice Ages
217(1)
Modern Research
217(2)
Rates of Climate Change
219(1)
Geography's Physical Science Perspective: Determining Past Climates
220(1)
Causes of Climate Change
220(5)
Orbital Variations
221(1)
Changes in Earth's Atmosphere
222(1)
Changes in the Ocean
223(1)
Changes in Landmasses
223(2)
Geography's Spatial Science Perspective: Climate Change and Its Impact on Coastlines
225(1)
Future Climates
226(2)
Define & Recall
228(1)
Discuss & Review
228(1)
Consider & Respond
229(1)
Graph Interpretation
230(4)
Low-Latitude and Arid Climate Regions
234(22)
Humid Tropical Climate Regions
236(5)
Tropical Rainforest Climate
238(3)
Geography's Environmental Science Perspective: The Amazon Rainforest
241(5)
Tropical Monsoon Climate
242(2)
Tropical Savanna Climate
244(2)
Arid Climate Regions
246(4)
Desert Climates
248(2)
Geography's Spatial Science Perspective: Desertification
250(4)
Steppe Climates
252(2)
Define & Recall
254(1)
Discuss & Review
254(1)
Consider & Respond
255(1)
Middle-Latitude, Polar, and Highland Climate Regions
256(36)
Middle-Latitude Climates
258(1)
Humid Mesothermal Climate Regions
258(10)
Mediterranean Climate
258(4)
Humid Subtropical Climate
262(2)
Marine West Coast Climate
264(4)
Humid Microthermal Climate Regions
268(8)
Humid Continental, Hot Summer Climate
270(3)
Humid Continental, Mild Summer Climate
273(2)
Subarctic Climate
275(1)
Geography's Physical Science Perspective: Effective Temperatures
276(3)
Polar Climate Regions
279(5)
Tundra Climate
280(1)
Ice-Sheet Climate
281(2)
Human Activity in Polar Regions
283(1)
Highland Climate Regions
284(2)
Geography's Environmental Science Perspective: The Effects of Altitude on the Human Body
286(3)
Peculiarities of Mountain Climates
287(1)
Highland Climates and Human Activity
288(1)
Define & Recall
289(1)
Discuss & Review
289(1)
Consider & Respond
290(2)
Biogeography
292(38)
Organization within Ecosystems
294(6)
Major Components
294(1)
Trophic Structure
295(1)
Nutrient Cycles
295(1)
Energy Flow
296(2)
Productivity
298(2)
Ecological Niche
300(1)
Succession and Climax Communities
300(2)
Succession
301(1)
Geography's Environmental Science Perspective: The Theory of Island Biogeography
302(4)
The Climax Community
304(2)
Environmental Controls
306(5)
Climatic Factors
306(2)
Soil and Topography
308(1)
Natural Catastrophes
309(1)
Biotic Factors
309(1)
Human Impact on Ecosystems
310(1)
Geography's Spatial Science Perspective: Introduction and Diffusion of an Exotic Species: Fire Ants
311(1)
Classification of Terrestrial Ecosystems
312(1)
Forest Biomes
312(5)
Tropical Forests
316(1)
Career Vision: Roxie Anderson
317(4)
Middle-Latitude Forests
318(3)
Grassland Biomes
321(2)
Tropical Savanna Grasslands
321(1)
Middle-Latitude Grasslands
322(1)
Desert
323(1)
Arctic and Alpine Tundra
324(1)
Marine Ecosystems
325(3)
Define & Recall
328(1)
Discuss & Review
328(1)
Consider & Respond
329(1)
Soils and Soil Development
330(30)
Major Soil Components
332(3)
Inorganic Materials
333(1)
Soil Water
333(1)
Soil Air
334(1)
Organic Matter
335(1)
Characteristics of Soil
335(1)
Color
335(1)
Geography's Physical Science Perspective: Basic Soil Analysis
336(3)
Texture
336(1)
Structure
337(1)
Acidity and Alkalinity
338(1)
Development of Soil Horizons
339(1)
Soil Horizons
340(1)
Factors Affecting Soil Formation
340(3)
Parent Material
341(1)
Organic Activity
341(1)
Climate
342(1)
Career Vision: Amy Jo Steffen
343(4)
Land Surface Configuration
344(1)
Time
344(3)
Soil-Forming Regimes
347(1)
Laterization
347(1)
Podzolization
347(1)
Calcification
347(1)
Geography's Environmental Science Perspective: Slash-and-Burn Agriculture Adds Nutrients to Tropical Soils
348(2)
Regimes of Local Importance
349(1)
Soil Classification
350(6)
The NRCS Soil Classification System
350(1)
NRCS Soil Orders
351(5)
Soils as a Critical Natural Resource
356(2)
Define & Recall
358(1)
Discuss & Review
358(1)
Consider & Respond
359(1)
Earth Materials, the Lithosphere, and Plate Tectonics
360(32)
Minerals and Rocks
362(9)
Minerals
362(1)
Rocks
363(8)
Earth's Planetary Structure
371(3)
Earth's Core
371(1)
Earth's Mantle
372(1)
Earth's Crust
373(1)
Continents in Motion: The Search for a Unifying Theory
374(2)
Continental Drift
374(1)
Supporting Evidence for Continental Drift
375(1)
Geography's Spatial Science Perspective: Paleomagnetism: Evidence of Earth's Ancient Geography
376(1)
Plate Tectonics
377(7)
Seafloor Spreading and Convection Currents
378(1)
Tectonic Plate Movement
379(5)
Hot Spots in the Mantle
384(1)
Growth of Continents
384(1)
Geography's Physical Science Perspective: Isostasy: Balancing the Earth's Lithosphere
385(1)
Paleogeography
386(4)
Define & Recall
390(1)
Discuss & Review
390(1)
Consider & Respond
391(1)
Volcanoes, Earthquakes, and Tectonic Landforms
392(30)
Landforms and Geomorphology
394(2)
Igneous Processes and Landforms
396(8)
Volcanoes and Eruptions
396(1)
Lava Flows
397(1)
Types of Volcanoes
397(4)
Intrusive Activity and Intrusions
401(3)
Tectonic Processes, Rock Structure, and Landforms
404(2)
Warping of Earth's Crust
405(1)
Geography's Spatial Science Perspective: Spatial Relationships between Plate Boundaries, Volcanoes, and Earthquakes
406(6)
Folding
406(2)
Faulting
408(4)
Earthquakes
412(2)
Measuring the Size of Earthquakes
413(1)
Earthquake Hazards
413(1)
Geography's Environmental Science Perspective: Mapping the Distribution of Earthquake Intensity
414(3)
Relationships between Rock Structure and Topography
417(1)
Define & Recall
418(1)
Discuss & Review
419(1)
Consider & Respond
419(1)
Map Interpretation: Volcanic Landforms
420(2)
Gradation, Weathering, and Mass Wasting
422(24)
Gradation and Tectonism
424(1)
Weathering
425(7)
Physical Weathering
425(6)
Chemical Weathering
431(1)
Geography's Physical Science Perspective: Expanding and Contracting Soils
432(2)
Differential Weathering and Erosion
434(2)
Topography Related to Differential Weathering and Erosion
435(1)
The Importance of Weathering
436(1)
Mass Wasting
436(6)
Classification of Mass Wasting Processes
437(1)
Rapid Mass Movement
438(3)
Slow Mass Movement
441(1)
Geography's Environmental Science Perspective: Hazard Potential in the Cascades
442(2)
Weathering, Mass Wasting, and the Landscape
444(1)
Define & Recall
445(1)
Discuss & Review
445(1)
Consider & Respond
445(1)
Underground Water and Karst Landforms
446(22)
Occurrence and Supply of Groundwater
448(3)
Groundwater Zones and the Water Table
448(2)
Factors Affecting the Distribution of Groundwater
450(1)
Career Vision: Carmen Yelle
451(1)
Availability of Groundwater
452(2)
Wells
453(1)
Geography's Physical Science Perspective: Monitoring Groundwater Flow
454(1)
Artesian Wells
454(1)
Landform Development by Solution
455(3)
Karst Landscapes and Landforms
455(3)
Geography's Environmental Science Perspective: Sinkhole Formation
458(6)
Limestone Caverns and Cave Features
460(3)
Geothermal Water
463(1)
Define & Recall
464(1)
Discuss & Review
464(1)
Consider & Respond
465(1)
Map Interpretation: Karst Topography
466(2)
Fluvial Processes and Landforms
468(34)
Surface Runoff
470(1)
The Stream System
471(3)
Drainage Basins
473(1)
Geography's Spatial Science Perspective: Watersheds as Critical Natural Regions
474(3)
Drainage Density and Pattern
475(2)
Stream Discharge
477(2)
Stream Energy
479(2)
Career Vision: Andy Wohlsperger
481(1)
Fluvial Gradational Processes
482(3)
Erosion by Streams
482(1)
Stream Transportation
483(1)
Stream Deposition
484(1)
Channel Patterns
485(1)
Land Sculpture by Streams
486(4)
Features of the Upper Course
487(1)
Features of the Middle Course
487(1)
Features of the Lower Course
488(2)
Deltas
490(2)
Base Level Changes and Tectonism
492(1)
Stream Hazards
492(2)
Geography's Environmental Science Perspective: Restoring the Everglades
494(1)
The Importance of Surface Waters
495(2)
Streams
495(1)
Lakes
496(1)
Quantitative Fluvial Geomorphology
497(1)
Define & Recall
498(1)
Discuss & Review
498(1)
Consider & Respond
499(1)
Map Interpretation: Fluvial Landforms
500(2)
Arid Landforms and Eolian Processes
502(32)
Surface Runoff in the Desert
504(2)
Water as a Gradational Agent in Arid Lands
506(8)
Arid Region Landforms of Fluvial Erosion
507(3)
Arid Region Landforms of Fluvial Deposition
510(4)
Wind as a Gradational Agent
514(5)
Wind Erosion and Transportation
515(2)
Wind Deposition
517(2)
Geography's Enviromental Science Perspective: Invasions by Sand Dunes
519(5)
Landscape Development in Deserts
524(4)
Define & Recall
528(1)
Discuss & Review
529(1)
Consider & Respond
529(1)
Map Interpretation: Desert Landforms
530(2)
Map Interpretation: Eolian Landforms
532(2)
Glacial Systems and Landforms
534(32)
Glacier Formation and the Hydrologic Cycle
536(1)
Geography's Physical Science Perspective: Glacial Ice Is Blue!
537(1)
Types of Glaciers
538(1)
Features of an Alpine Glacier
539(9)
Equilibrium and the Glacial Budget
540(1)
How Does a Glacier Flow?
541(2)
Glaciers as Agents of Gradation
543(1)
Erosional Landforms Produced by Alpine Glaciation
544(2)
Depositional Landforms Produced by Alpine Glaciation
546(2)
Continental Ice Sheets
548(3)
Existing Ice Sheets
548(2)
Pleistocene Ice Sheets
550(1)
Movement of Continental Ice Sheets
551(1)
Geography's Spatial Science Perspective: The Driftless Area---A Natural Region
552(8)
Ice Sheets and Erosional Landforms
553(1)
Ice Sheets and Depositional Landforms
554(4)
Glacial Lakes and Periglacial Landscapes
558(2)
Define & Recall
560(1)
Discuss & Review
561(1)
Consider & Respond
561(1)
Map Interpretation: Alpine Glaciation
562(2)
Map Interpretation: Continental Glaciation
564(2)
The Global Ocean
566(26)
Introduction to the Oceans
568(2)
Characteristics of Ocean Waters
568(1)
Surface Variations
569(1)
Variations with Depth
570(1)
The Ocean Floor
570(9)
Features of the Continental Margins
571(4)
Features of the Deep-Ocean Floor
575(3)
Islands and Coral Reefs
578(1)
Tides and Waves
579(6)
Tides
579(5)
Waves
584(1)
Geography's Environmental Science Perspective: Rogue Waves
585(1)
Geography's Physical Science Perspective: Tsunami Forecasts and Warnings
586(4)
Catastrophic Waves
587(3)
Define & Recall
590(1)
Discuss & Review
590(1)
Consider & Respond
591(1)
Coastal Landforms
592(25)
Coastal Landforms and Processes
594(2)
The Breaking of Waves
594(1)
Wave Refraction
595(1)
Career Vision: Aaron Young
596(1)
Erosional Coastal Landforms
596(3)
Beaches and Coastal Deposition
599(1)
Geography's Environmental Science Perspective: Beach Building
600(5)
Coastal Currents
601(2)
Depositional Coastal Landforms
603(2)
Geography's Physical Science Perspective: Beach Erosion and Protection
605(2)
Types of Coasts
607(3)
Define & Recall
610(1)
Discuss & Review
610(1)
Consider & Respond
611(1)
Map Interpretation: Active-Margin Coastlines
612(2)
Map Interpretation: Passive-Margin Coastline
614(3)
Appendix A SI Units
617(2)
Appendix B Topographic Maps
619(2)
Appendix C Understanding and Recognizing Some Common Rocks
621(4)
Glossary 625(18)
Index 643


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