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Essentials of Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Criminology,9780205388493
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Essentials of Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Criminology

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Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780205388493

ISBN10:
0205388493
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $65.40
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Summary

This paperback and lower-priced essentials version of the best-selling Hagan text, Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Criminology 6/e (2003), teaches general research methods using standard and contemporary examples of both qualitative and quantitative research in criminal justice and criminology, while eliminating the chapters on Statistics and Evaluation Research. Students save more than $30.00 over competing texts.

Table of Contents

Introduction to Criminal Justice Research Methods: Theory and Method
1(32)
Scientific Research in Criminal Justice
2(1)
Common Sense and Nonsense
3(2)
Why Study Research Methods in Criminal Justice?
5(1)
The Emergence of Science and Criminal Justice
6(2)
The Probabilistic Nature of Science
8(1)
Proper Conduct of Critical Inquiry
8(1)
Approaches to Theory and Method in Criminal Justice
9(4)
Exhibit 1.1 Merton's ``Matthew Effect'' in Science
10(1)
Exhibit 1.2 The Paradigm Shift in Policing
11(2)
Pure Versus Applied Research
13(6)
Exhibit 1.3 The Project on Human Development
16(2)
Exhibit 1.4 Crime Analysis: Applied Criminal Justice Research
18(1)
Qualitative and Quantitative Research
19(1)
Researchese: The Language of Research
20(2)
Concepts
20(1)
Operationalization
21(1)
Variables
21(1)
Dependent and Independent Variables
21(1)
Theories/Hypotheses
21(1)
Examples of the Research Process
22(2)
Recidivism among Juvenile Offenders
24(1)
General Steps in Empirical Research in Criminal Justice
24(1)
Problem Formulation: Selection of Research Problem
25(1)
Problem Formulation: Specification of Research Problem
26(2)
Exhibit 1.5 Feminist Perspectives and Research Methods
27(3)
Exhibit 1.6 The World Wide Web (WWW)
30
Summary
28
Key Concepts
22(10)
Review Questions
32(1)
Ethics in Criminal Justice Research
33(27)
Ethical Horror Stories
34(8)
Biomedical Examples
34(1)
Social Science Examples
34(3)
Exhibit 2.1 AIDS Research in Africa and Asia: Is It Ethical?
37(3)
Researcher Fraud and Plagiarism
40(1)
Exhibit 2.2 Legendary Research Scams
41(1)
The Researcher's Role
42(1)
Research Targets in Criminal Justice
43(1)
Ethics and Professionalism
43(1)
Ethics in Criminal Justice Research
44(8)
History of Federal Regulation of Research
45(2)
The Belmont Report
47(1)
Institutional Review Boards
48(1)
Research Activities Exempt from HHS Review
49(2)
National Institute of Justice's Human Subject Protection Requirements
51(1)
Confidentiality of Criminal Justice Research
52(4)
Exhibit 2.3 Codes of Research Ethics of the ACJS and the ASC
53(3)
Ethical Issues in Criminology/Criminal Justice Research
56(4)
Avoid Research That May Harm Respondents
57(1)
Honor Commitments to Respondents and Respect Reciprocity
58(1)
Exercise Objectivity and Professional Integrity in Performing and Reporting Research
58(1)
Protect Confidentiality and Privacy of Respondents
59(1)
Ethical Problems
60(10)
The Brajuha Case (Weinstein Decision)
62(1)
The Of she Case
63(1)
The Hutchinson Case
64(2)
Additional Ethical Concerns
66(1)
Avoiding Ethical Problems
67(1)
Summary
68(1)
Key Concepts
69(1)
Review Questions
69(1)
Research Design: The Experimental Model and Its Variations
70(39)
The Experimental Model
71(1)
Research Design in a Nutshell
72(1)
Causality
72(2)
Resolution of the Causality Problem
72(2)
Rival Causal Factors
74(1)
Validity
75(1)
Internal Factors: Variables Related to Internal Validity
75(4)
History
75(1)
Maturation
76(1)
Testing
77(1)
Instrumentation
77(1)
Statistical Regression
77(1)
Selection Bias
78(1)
Experimental Mortality
78(1)
Selection---Maturation Interaction
79(1)
External Factors: Variables Related to External Validity
79(2)
Testing Effects
79(1)
Selection Bias
80(1)
Reactivity or Awareness of Being Studied
80(1)
Multiple-Treatment Interferences
80(1)
Related Rival Causal Factors
81(1)
Hawthorne Effect
81(1)
Halo Effect
81(1)
Post Hoc Error
81(1)
Placebo Effect
82(1)
Other Rival Causal Factors in Criminal Justice Field Experiments
82(2)
Diffusion of Treatment
83(1)
Compensatory Equalization of Treatment
83(1)
Local History
83(1)
Experimental Designs
84(2)
The Classic Experimental Design
86(1)
Some Criminal Justice Examples of the Classic Experimental Design
86(2)
Candid Camera
86(1)
Scared Straight
86(1)
Community Policing
87(2)
Exhibit 3.1 The Kansas City Gun Experiment
89
Other Experimental Designs
88(4)
Posttest-Only Control Group Design
88(3)
Solomon Four-Group Design
91(1)
Preexperimental Designs
92(2)
One-Group Ex Post Facto Design
92(1)
One-Group Before-After Design
93(1)
Two-Group Ex Post Facto Design
93(1)
Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Designs
94(2)
Exhibit 3.2 The Cycle of Violence and Victims of Child Abuse
95(1)
Quasi-Experimental Designs
96(3)
Time-Series Designs
96(1)
Multiple Interrupted Time-Series Designs
96(3)
Counterbalanced Designs
99(1)
Some Other Criminal Justice Examples of Variations of the Experimental Model
99(5)
The Provo and Silverlake Experiments
99(2)
Exhibit 3.3 Evaluations of Shock Incarceration
101(1)
The Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment
102(1)
The Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment
103(1)
The Experiment as a Data-Gathering Strategy
104(2)
Advantages of Experiments
105(1)
Disadvantages of Experiments
105(1)
Summary
106(1)
Key Concepts
107(1)
Review Questions
108(1)
An Introduction to Alternative Data-Gathering Strategies and the Special Case of Uniform Crime Reports
109(23)
Alternative Data-Gathering Strategies
110(1)
Social Surveys
111(1)
Participant Observation
112(1)
Life History and Case Studies
113(1)
Unobtrusive Measures
113(2)
Exhibit 4.1 Applied Research: Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
114(1)
The Special Case of Uniform Crime Reports
115(1)
The Crime Index
116(1)
Crime Rate
117(2)
Cautions in the Use of UCR Data
119(2)
Factors Affecting the UCR
119(2)
Related UCR Issues
121(3)
Exhibit 4.2 The Crime Dip
122(2)
UCR Redesign
124(6)
National Incident-Based Reporting System
124(1)
Exhibit 4.3 The National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS)
125(2)
NIBRS versus UCR
127(3)
Summary
130(1)
Key Concepts
130(1)
Review Questions
131(1)
Sampling and Survey Research: Questionnaires
132(39)
Types of Sampling
133(11)
Probability Samples
133(5)
Nonprobability Samples
138(4)
Exhibit 5.1 Crime Profiling
142(2)
Sample Size
144(1)
Survey Research
144(2)
Some Guidelines for Questionnaire Construction
146(5)
Questionnaire Wording
147(4)
Pretest
151(1)
Organization of the Questionnaire
151(1)
Mail Surveys
152(1)
Advantages of Mail Surveys
153(1)
Disadvantages of Mail Surveys
154(1)
Ways of Eliminating Disadvantages in Mail Surveys
154(5)
Follow-up
155(1)
Offering Remuneration
156(1)
Attractive Format
156(1)
Sponsorship and Endorsements
157(1)
Personalization
157(1)
Shortened Format
158(1)
Good Timing
158(1)
Self-Reported Measures of Crime
159(3)
Some Problems with Self-Report Surveys
162(1)
Strengths of Self-Report Surveys
163(3)
Reliability
163(1)
Validity
163(1)
Use of Other Data
164(1)
Use of Other Observers
164(1)
Use of Polygraph
164(1)
``Known Group'' Validation
164(1)
Use of Lie Scales
165(1)
Measures of Internal Consistency
166(1)
Use of Interviews
166(1)
Internet Surveys
166(3)
Advantages of Internet Surveys
167(1)
Disadvantages of Internet Surveys
167(1)
Procedures in Internet Surveys
167(2)
Summary
169(1)
Key Concepts
170(1)
Review Questions
170(1)
Survey Research: Interviews and Telephone Surveys
171(35)
Types of Interviews
172(2)
Advantages of Interviews
174(1)
Disadvantages of Interviews
175(1)
Interviewing Aids and Variations
175(3)
Exhibit 6.1 Public Opinion Polls
176(2)
General Procedures in Interviews
178(1)
Training and Orientation Session
178(1)
Arranging the Interview
178(1)
Demeanor of Interviewer
179(1)
Administration of the Structured Interview
179(1)
Probing
180(1)
The Exit
180(1)
Recording the Interview
181(1)
Telephone Surveys
182(1)
Advantages and Prospects of Telephone Surveys
182(1)
Disadvantages of Telephone Surveys
183(1)
Computers in Survey Research
184(1)
Random Digit Dialing
185(1)
Techniques Employed in Telephone Surveys
186(1)
Victim Surveys in Criminal Justice
187(1)
National Crime Victimization Survey
188(2)
Sampling
188(1)
Panel Design
189(1)
A Comparison of UCR, NCVS, and Self-Report Data
190(2)
Some Problems in Victim Surveys
192(4)
Cost of Large Samples
192(1)
False Reports
192(1)
Mistaken Reporting
193(1)
Poor Memory
193(1)
Telescoping
193(1)
Sampling Bias
193(1)
Overreporting and Underreporting
194(1)
Interviewer Effects
194(1)
Coding Unreliability and Mechanical Error
195(1)
Problems Measuring Certain Crimes
195(1)
Benefits of Victim Surveys
195(1)
A Defense of Victim Surveys
196(1)
Controlling for Error in Victim Surveys
196(1)
Bounding
196(1)
Reverse Record Checks
197(1)
Victim Surveys: A Balanced View
197(1)
Community Crime Victimization Survey Software
198(1)
Redesign of the National Crime Victimization Survey
198(5)
Exhibit 6.2 The Redesigned National Crime Victimization Survey
199(4)
Summary
203(1)
Key Concepts
204(1)
Review Questions
204(2)
Participant Observation and Case Studies
206(27)
A Critique of Experiments and Surveys
207(2)
Verbal Reports versus Behavior
207(2)
A Defense of Quantitative Research
209(1)
Participant Observation
209(2)
Types of Participant Observation
211(1)
Characteristics of Participant Observation
212(3)
Objectivity in Research
213(1)
``Going Native''
214(1)
General Procedures in Participant Observation
215(2)
Field Notes
215(1)
Mnemonics
216(1)
Caution in Use of Other Recording Methods
216(1)
Tips on Participant Observation
217(5)
Gaining Access
217(2)
Exhibit 7.1 American Skinheads
219(1)
Gatekeepers
220(1)
Announcement of Intentions
220(1)
Sampling
220(1)
Reciprocity and Protection of Identity
221(1)
Concern for Accuracy
222(1)
Examples of Participant Observation
222(3)
Exhibit 7.2 Islands in the Streets
223(2)
Exhibit 7.3 This Thing of Darkness: A Participant Observation Study of Idaho Christian Patriots
225(1)
Advantages of Participant Observation
225(1)
Disadvantages of Participant Observation
226(1)
Case Studies
227(1)
Life History/Oral History
227(1)
Some Examples of Case Studies
228(1)
Journalistic Field Studies
228(1)
Single-Subject Designs
229(2)
Summary
231(1)
Key Concepts
232(1)
Review Questions
232(1)
Unobtrusive Measures, Secondary Analysis, and the Uses of Official Statistics
233(38)
Major Types of Unobtrusive Methods
234(1)
Physical Trace Analysis
235(1)
Use of Available Data and Archives
236(18)
Secondary Analysis
237(1)
Personal Documents and Biographies
237(3)
Examples of Secondary Analysis
240(2)
Exhibit 8.1 Automated Pin Mapping: Applied Criminal Justice Research Using GIS for Crime Analysis
242(2)
Exhibit 8.2 Street Gang Crime in Chicago
244(2)
Limitations of Official Data
246(1)
Measuring Hidden Populations
246(1)
Historical and Archival Data
247(1)
Content Analysis
248(3)
Content Analysis by Computer
251(1)
Meta-Analysis
251(2)
Exhibit 8.3 Applied Criminal Justice Research: Hotspot Analysis
253(1)
Sources of Existing Data
254(5)
Exhibit 8.4 X-Files at the Federal Bureau of Investigation
256(2)
Exhibit 8.5 National Archive of Criminal Justice Data
258(1)
Observation
259(3)
Disguised Observation
262(3)
Simulations
265(2)
Advantages of Unobtrusive Measures
267(1)
Disadvantages of Unobtrusive Measures
268(1)
Summary
269(1)
Key Concepts
270(1)
Review Questions
270(1)
Validity, Reliability, and Triangulated Strategies
271(19)
Error in Research
271(2)
Reasons for Lack of Validation Studies in Criminal Justice
273(1)
Ways of Determining Validity
274(6)
Face Validity
274(1)
Content Validity
275(1)
Construct Validity
276(1)
Pragmatic Validity
276(1)
Convergent-Discriminant Validation/Triangulation
277(3)
Reliability
280(2)
Test-Retest
281(1)
Multiple Forms
281(1)
Split-Half Technique
282(1)
Mythical Numbers
282(1)
Phantom Army of Addicts
282(1)
Adam (Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program)
283(3)
Exhibit 9.1 Adam
284(2)
Other Examples of Research Validation
286(1)
Summary
287(1)
Key Concepts
288(1)
Review Questions
288(2)
Scaling and Index Construction
290(28)
Levels of Measurement
290(4)
Exhibit 10.1 Score Yourself General Attitude/Knowledge Survey
293(1)
Scaling Procedures
294(1)
Arbitrary Scales
295(1)
The Uniform Crime Report as an Arbitrary Scale
296(1)
Attitude Scales
297(8)
Thurstone Scales
297(1)
Likert Scales
298(3)
Guttman Scales
301(4)
Other Scaling Procedures
305(3)
Q Sort
305(1)
Semantic Differential
305(2)
Other Variations
307(1)
Crime Seriousness Scales
308(3)
Sellin-Wolfgang Index
309(1)
Types of Crime Seriousness Scales
309(2)
Prediction Scales
311(4)
The Salient Factor Score
312(1)
Greenwood's ``Rand Seven-Factor Index''
312(2)
Career Criminal Programs
314(1)
Advantages of Scales
315(1)
Disadvantages of Scales
315(1)
Summary
316(1)
Key Concepts
317(1)
Review Questions
317(1)
Data Analysis: Coding, Tabulation, and Simple Data Presentation
318(35)
Variables List
319(1)
Computers
320(1)
Data Management
321(5)
Editing
321(1)
Coding
322(3)
Coder Monitoring
325(1)
Keyboard Entry
326(1)
Data Verification
326(1)
Simple Data Presentation
326(4)
Rates
328(1)
Proportions
329(1)
Percentages
329(1)
Ratios
330(1)
The Frequency Distribution
330(1)
Graphic Presentations
331(7)
Pie Charts
332(1)
Bar Graphs
333(1)
Frequency Polygons (Line Charts)
334(1)
Crime Clocks
335(3)
Table Reading
338(1)
Why Bother with Tables?
338(1)
What to Look for in a Table
338(1)
Steps in Reading a Table
338(4)
Summary of Table 11.3
339(3)
How to Construct Tables
342(1)
Presentation of Complex Data
342(1)
General Rules for Percentaging a Table
342(5)
Improper Percentaging
347(1)
Elaboration
347(2)
Lying with Statistics
349(1)
Summary
350(2)
Key Concepts
352(1)
Review Questions
352(1)
References 353(34)
Glossary 387(5)
Name Index 392(4)
Subject Index 396


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