What is included with this book?
Introduction to Statistics | p. 1 |
Statistics, Science, and Observations | p. 2 |
Populations and Samples | p. 3 |
The Scientific Method and the Design of Research Studies | p. 8 |
Scales of Measurement | p. 14 |
Discrete and Continuous Variables | p. 17 |
Statistical Notation | p. 19 |
Summary | p. 24 |
Focus on Problem Solving | p. 25 |
Problems | p. 27 |
Frequency Distributions | p. 29 |
Introduction | p. 30 |
Frequency Distribution Tables | p. 30 |
Frequency Distribution Graphs | p. 36 |
The Shape of a Frequency Distribution | p. 40 |
Summary | p. 43 |
Focus on Problem Solving | p. 44 |
Problems | p. 46 |
Central Tendency | p. 50 |
Introduction | p. 51 |
The Mean | p. 52 |
The Median | p. 60 |
The Mode | p. 62 |
Selecting a Measure of Central Tendency | p. 64 |
In the Literature: Reporting Measures of Central Tendency | p. 67 |
Central Tendency and the Shape of the Distribution | p. 70 |
Summary | p. 72 |
Focus on Problem Solving | p. 73 |
Problems | p. 74 |
Variability | p. 76 |
Introduction | p. 77 |
The Range | p. 78 |
The Interquartile Range and Semi-interquartile Range | p. 79 |
Standard Deviation and Variance for a Population | p. 81 |
Standard Deviation and Variance for Samples | p. 88 |
More about Variance and Standard Deviation | p. 92 |
In the Literature: Reporting the Standard Deviation | p. 97 |
Summary | p. 98 |
Focus on Problem Solving | p. 99 |
Problems | p. 100 |
z-Scores: Location of Scores and Standardized Distributions | p. 103 |
Overview | p. 104 |
Introduction to z-Scores | p. 104 |
z-Scores and Location in a Distribution | p. 106 |
Using z-Scores to Standardize a Distribution | p. 110 |
Other Standardized Distributions Based on z-Scores | p. 113 |
Summary | p. 116 |
Focus on Problem Solving | p. 116 |
Problems | p. 119 |
Probability | p. 121 |
Introduction to Probability | p. 122 |
Probability and the Normal Distribution | p. 127 |
Summary | p. 139 |
Focus on Problem Solving | p. 139 |
Problems | p. 141 |
Probability and Samples: The Distribution of Sample Means | p. 144 |
Samples and Sampling Error | p. 145 |
The Distribution of Sample Means | p. 145 |
Probability and the Distribution of Sample Means | p. 152 |
More about Standard Error | p. 155 |
In the Literature: Reporting Standard Error | p. 158 |
Summary | p. 161 |
Focus on Problem Solving | p. 161 |
Problems | p. 163 |
Introduction to Hypothesis Testing | p. 166 |
The Logic of Hypothesis Testing | p. 167 |
Uncertainty and Errors in Hypothesis Testing | p. 176 |
An Example of a Hypothesis Test | p. 180 |
In the Literature: Reporting the Results of the Statistical Test | p. 182 |
Directional (One-Tailed) Hypothesis Tests | p. 186 |
The General Elements of Hypothesis Testing: A Review | p. 190 |
Summary | p. 193 |
Focus on Problem Solving | p. 194 |
Problems | p. 196 |
Introduction to the t Statistic | p. 200 |
Overview | p. 201 |
Hypothesis Tests with the t Statistic | p. 207 |
In the Literature: Reporting the Results of a t Test | p. 211 |
Summary | p. 216 |
Focus on Problem Solving | p. 217 |
Problems | p. 219 |
The t Test for Two Independent Samples | p. 222 |
Overview | p. 223 |
The t Statistic for an Independent-Measures Research Design | p. 224 |
Hypothesis Tests with the Independent-Measures t Statistic | p. 230 |
In the Literature: Reporting the Results of an Independent-Measures t Test | p. 234 |
Assumptions Underlying the Independent-Measures t Formula | p. 239 |
Summary | p. 241 |
Focus on Problem Solving | p. 242 |
Problems | p. 244 |
The t Test for Two Related Samples | p. 249 |
Overview | p. 250 |
The t Statistic for Related Samples | p. 251 |
Hypothesis Tests for the Repeated-Measures Design | p. 255 |
In the Literature: Reporting the Results of a Repeated-Measures t Test | p. 258 |
Uses and Assumptions for Related-Samples t Tests | p. 261 |
Summary | p. 264 |
Focus on Problem Solving | p. 265 |
Problems | p. 268 |
Estimation | p. 272 |
An Overview of Estimation | p. 273 |
Estimation with the t Statistic | p. 278 |
A Final Look at Estimation | p. 287 |
Summary | p. 289 |
Focus on Problem Solving | p. 290 |
Problems | p. 294 |
Introduction to Analysis of Variance | p. 298 |
Introduction | p. 299 |
The Logic of Analysis of Variance | p. 302 |
ANOVA Notation and Formulas | p. 306 |
The Distribution of F-Ratios | p. 314 |
Examples of Hypothesis Testing with ANOVA | p. 316 |
In the Literature: Reporting the Results of Analysis of Variance | p. 319 |
Post Hoc Tests | p. 327 |
Summary | p. 333 |
Focus on Problem Solving | p. 333 |
Problems | p. 336 |
More Advanced Analysis of Variance: Repeated-Measures and Two-Factor Designs | p. 341 |
Overview | p. 342 |
Repeated-Measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) | p. 342 |
In the Literature: Reporting the Results of a Repeated-Measure ANOVA | p. 353 |
Two-Factor Analysis of Variance (Independent Measures) | p. 355 |
In the Literature: Reporting the Results of a Two-Factor ANOVA | p. 369 |
Summary | p. 373 |
Focus on Problem Solving | p. 373 |
Problems | p. 379 |
Correlation and Regression | p. 384 |
Introduction | p. 385 |
The Pearson Correlation | p. 388 |
Using and Interpreting the Pearson Correlation | p. 393 |
Hypothesis Tests with the Pearson Correlation | p. 399 |
In the Literature: Reporting Correlations | p. 401 |
The Spearman Correlation | p. 404 |
Introduction to Regression | p. 410 |
Summary | p. 417 |
Focus on Problem Solving | p. 418 |
Problems | p. 421 |
The Chi-Square Statistic: Tests for Goodness of Fit and Independence | p. 426 |
Parametric and Nonparametric Statistical Tests | p. 427 |
The Chi-Square Test for Goodness of Fit | p. 428 |
In the Literature: Reporting the Results for Chi-Square | p. 436 |
The Chi-Square Test for Independence | p. 438 |
Assumptions and Restrictions for Chi-Square Tests | p. 448 |
Summary | p. 449 |
Focus on Problem Solving | p. 450 |
Problems | p. 453 |
Basic Mathematics Review | p. 1 |
Statistical Tables | p. 24 |
Solutions for Odd-Numbered Problems in the Text | p. 35 |
Statistics Organizer | p. 50 |
References | p. 61 |
Index | p. 62 |
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