Introduction to Statistics | p. 1 |

Statistics, Science, and Observations | p. 2 |

Populations and Samples | p. 3 |

The Scientific Method and the Design of Research Studies | p. 8 |

Scales of Measurement | p. 14 |

Discrete and Continuous Variables | p. 17 |

Statistical Notation | p. 19 |

Summary | p. 24 |

Focus on Problem Solving | p. 25 |

Problems | p. 27 |

Frequency Distributions | p. 29 |

Introduction | p. 30 |

Frequency Distribution Tables | p. 30 |

Frequency Distribution Graphs | p. 36 |

The Shape of a Frequency Distribution | p. 40 |

Summary | p. 43 |

Focus on Problem Solving | p. 44 |

Problems | p. 46 |

Central Tendency | p. 50 |

Introduction | p. 51 |

The Mean | p. 52 |

The Median | p. 60 |

The Mode | p. 62 |

Selecting a Measure of Central Tendency | p. 64 |

In the Literature: Reporting Measures of Central Tendency | p. 67 |

Central Tendency and the Shape of the Distribution | p. 70 |

Summary | p. 72 |

Focus on Problem Solving | p. 73 |

Problems | p. 74 |

Variability | p. 76 |

Introduction | p. 77 |

The Range | p. 78 |

The Interquartile Range and Semi-interquartile Range | p. 79 |

Standard Deviation and Variance for a Population | p. 81 |

Standard Deviation and Variance for Samples | p. 88 |

More about Variance and Standard Deviation | p. 92 |

In the Literature: Reporting the Standard Deviation | p. 97 |

Summary | p. 98 |

Focus on Problem Solving | p. 99 |

Problems | p. 100 |

z-Scores: Location of Scores and Standardized Distributions | p. 103 |

Overview | p. 104 |

Introduction to z-Scores | p. 104 |

z-Scores and Location in a Distribution | p. 106 |

Using z-Scores to Standardize a Distribution | p. 110 |

Other Standardized Distributions Based on z-Scores | p. 113 |

Summary | p. 116 |

Focus on Problem Solving | p. 116 |

Problems | p. 119 |

Probability | p. 121 |

Introduction to Probability | p. 122 |

Probability and the Normal Distribution | p. 127 |

Summary | p. 139 |

Focus on Problem Solving | p. 139 |

Problems | p. 141 |

Probability and Samples: The Distribution of Sample Means | p. 144 |

Samples and Sampling Error | p. 145 |

The Distribution of Sample Means | p. 145 |

Probability and the Distribution of Sample Means | p. 152 |

More about Standard Error | p. 155 |

In the Literature: Reporting Standard Error | p. 158 |

Summary | p. 161 |

Focus on Problem Solving | p. 161 |

Problems | p. 163 |

Introduction to Hypothesis Testing | p. 166 |

The Logic of Hypothesis Testing | p. 167 |

Uncertainty and Errors in Hypothesis Testing | p. 176 |

An Example of a Hypothesis Test | p. 180 |

In the Literature: Reporting the Results of the Statistical Test | p. 182 |

Directional (One-Tailed) Hypothesis Tests | p. 186 |

The General Elements of Hypothesis Testing: A Review | p. 190 |

Summary | p. 193 |

Focus on Problem Solving | p. 194 |

Problems | p. 196 |

Introduction to the t Statistic | p. 200 |

Overview | p. 201 |

Hypothesis Tests with the t Statistic | p. 207 |

In the Literature: Reporting the Results of a t Test | p. 211 |

Summary | p. 216 |

Focus on Problem Solving | p. 217 |

Problems | p. 219 |

The t Test for Two Independent Samples | p. 222 |

Overview | p. 223 |

The t Statistic for an Independent-Measures Research Design | p. 224 |

Hypothesis Tests with the Independent-Measures t Statistic | p. 230 |

In the Literature: Reporting the Results of an Independent-Measures t Test | p. 234 |

Assumptions Underlying the Independent-Measures t Formula | p. 239 |

Summary | p. 241 |

Focus on Problem Solving | p. 242 |

Problems | p. 244 |

The t Test for Two Related Samples | p. 249 |

Overview | p. 250 |

The t Statistic for Related Samples | p. 251 |

Hypothesis Tests for the Repeated-Measures Design | p. 255 |

In the Literature: Reporting the Results of a Repeated-Measures t Test | p. 258 |

Uses and Assumptions for Related-Samples t Tests | p. 261 |

Summary | p. 264 |

Focus on Problem Solving | p. 265 |

Problems | p. 268 |

Estimation | p. 272 |

An Overview of Estimation | p. 273 |

Estimation with the t Statistic | p. 278 |

A Final Look at Estimation | p. 287 |

Summary | p. 289 |

Focus on Problem Solving | p. 290 |

Problems | p. 294 |

Introduction to Analysis of Variance | p. 298 |

Introduction | p. 299 |

The Logic of Analysis of Variance | p. 302 |

ANOVA Notation and Formulas | p. 306 |

The Distribution of F-Ratios | p. 314 |

Examples of Hypothesis Testing with ANOVA | p. 316 |

In the Literature: Reporting the Results of Analysis of Variance | p. 319 |

Post Hoc Tests | p. 327 |

Summary | p. 333 |

Focus on Problem Solving | p. 333 |

Problems | p. 336 |

More Advanced Analysis of Variance: Repeated-Measures and Two-Factor Designs | p. 341 |

Overview | p. 342 |

Repeated-Measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) | p. 342 |

In the Literature: Reporting the Results of a Repeated-Measure ANOVA | p. 353 |

Two-Factor Analysis of Variance (Independent Measures) | p. 355 |

In the Literature: Reporting the Results of a Two-Factor ANOVA | p. 369 |

Summary | p. 373 |

Focus on Problem Solving | p. 373 |

Problems | p. 379 |

Correlation and Regression | p. 384 |

Introduction | p. 385 |

The Pearson Correlation | p. 388 |

Using and Interpreting the Pearson Correlation | p. 393 |

Hypothesis Tests with the Pearson Correlation | p. 399 |

In the Literature: Reporting Correlations | p. 401 |

The Spearman Correlation | p. 404 |

Introduction to Regression | p. 410 |

Summary | p. 417 |

Focus on Problem Solving | p. 418 |

Problems | p. 421 |

The Chi-Square Statistic: Tests for Goodness of Fit and Independence | p. 426 |

Parametric and Nonparametric Statistical Tests | p. 427 |

The Chi-Square Test for Goodness of Fit | p. 428 |

In the Literature: Reporting the Results for Chi-Square | p. 436 |

The Chi-Square Test for Independence | p. 438 |

Assumptions and Restrictions for Chi-Square Tests | p. 448 |

Summary | p. 449 |

Focus on Problem Solving | p. 450 |

Problems | p. 453 |

Basic Mathematics Review | p. 1 |

Statistical Tables | p. 24 |

Solutions for Odd-Numbered Problems in the Text | p. 35 |

Statistics Organizer | p. 50 |

References | p. 61 |

Index | p. 62 |

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