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Essentials of Testing and Assessment : A Practical Guide for Counselors, Social Workers, and Psychologists,9780534633202
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Essentials of Testing and Assessment : A Practical Guide for Counselors, Social Workers, and Psychologists

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780534633202

ISBN10:
053463320X
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/9/2005
Publisher(s):
Brooks Cole
List Price: $107.66
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  • Essentials of Testing and Assessment : A Practical Guide for Counselors, Social Workers, and Psychologists
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  • Essentials of Testing and Assessment A Practical Guide for Counselors, Social Workers, and Psychologists
    Essentials of Testing and Assessment A Practical Guide for Counselors, Social Workers, and Psychologists




Summary

INTRODUCTION TO SECTION I: HISTORY AND CURRENT PROFESSIONAL ISSUES. 1. History Of Testing And Assessment. 2. Ethical, Legal, And Professional Issues In Assessment. INTRODUCTION TO SECTION II: TEST WORTHINESS AND TEST STATISTICS. 3. Test Worthiness: Validity, Reliability, Practicality, And Cross-Cultural Fairness. 4. Statistical Concepts: Making Meaning Out Of Raw Scores Raw Scores. 5. Deriving Meaning From Test Scores. INTRODUCTION TO SECTION III: COMMONLY USED ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUES. 6. Educational Assessment Of Ability: Survey Battery, Diagnostic, Readiness, And Cognitive Ability Tests. 7. Assessment of Intelligence. 8. Career And Occupational Assessment: Interest Inventories, Special Aptitude And Multiple Aptitude Tests. 9. Clinical Assessment: Objective And Projective Personality Tests, Defining Clinical Assessment. 10. Informal Assessment: Observation, Rating Scales, Classification Methods, and Records and Personal Documents. INTRODUCTION TO SECTION IV: DIAGNOSIS AND WRITING THE ASSESSMENT REPORT. 11. Diagnosis In The Assessment Process Importance Of A Diagnosis. 12. The Assessment Report Process: The Interview, Assessment Techniques, Environmental Assessment, The Report. References. Appendices.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
SECTION ONE History and Current Professional Issues
1(40)
History of Testing and Assessment
3(16)
Distinguishing Between Testing and Assessment
3(2)
The History of Assessment
5(9)
Ancient History
5(1)
Precursors to Modern-Day Test Development
5(1)
The Emergence of Ability Tests (Testing in the Cognitive Domain)
6(5)
The Emergence of Personality Tests (Testing in the Affective Realm)
11(2)
The Emergence of Informal Assessment Procedures
13(1)
Modern-Day Use of Assessment Procedures
13(1)
Questions to Consider When Assessing Individuals
14(2)
Summary
16(1)
Chapter Review
17(2)
Ethical, Legal, and Professional Issues in Assessment
19(22)
Ethical Issues in Assessment
20(10)
Ethical Codes
20(6)
Standards for Responsible Testing Practices
26(4)
Making Ethical Decisions
30(1)
Legal Issues in Assessment
30(4)
Americans with Disabilities Act (PL 101-336)
31(1)
The Buckley Amendment (FERPA)
31(1)
Carl Perkins Act (PL 98-524)
31(1)
Civil Rights Acts (1964 and Amendments)
32(1)
The Freedom of Information Act
32(1)
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)
32(1)
Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (Expansion of PL 94-142)
32(1)
Privileged Communication
33(1)
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act
33(1)
Professional Issues
34(3)
Professional Associations
34(1)
Accreditation Standards of Professional Associations
35(1)
Testing as a Holistic Process
35(1)
Using Tests Wisely: The Marriage Between Counseling and Assessment
36(1)
Cross-Cultural Issues in Assessment
37(1)
Summary
37(2)
Chapter Review
39(2)
SECTION TWO Test Worthiness and Test Statistics
41(62)
Test Worthiness: Validity, Reliability, Practicality, and Cross-Cultural Fairness
43(22)
Correlation Coefficient
44(2)
Coefficient of Determination (Shared Variance)
45(1)
Validity
46(6)
Content Validity
47(1)
Criterion-Related Validity
48(1)
Construct Validity
49(2)
Convergence with Other Instruments (Convergent Validity)
51(1)
Discrimination with Other Measures (Discriminant Validity)
51(1)
Reliability
52(4)
Test-Retest Reliability
53(1)
Alternate, Parallel, or Equivalent Forms Reliability
54(1)
Internal Consistency
54(2)
Visual Representation of Types of Reliability
56(1)
Cross-Cultural Fairness
56(2)
Practicality
58(2)
Time
59(1)
Cost
59(1)
Format
59(1)
Readability
59(1)
Ease of Administration, Scoring, and Interpretation
60(1)
Selecting and Administering a Good Test
60(3)
Step 1: Determine the Goals of Your Client
60(1)
Step 2: Choose Instruments to Reach Client Goals
60(1)
Step 3: Access Information About Possible Instruments
61(1)
Step 4: Examine Validity, Reliability, Cross-Cultural Fairness, and Practicality of the Possible Instruments
62(1)
Step 5: Choose an Instrument Wisely
62(1)
Summary
63(1)
Chapter Review
64(1)
Statistical Concepts: Making Meaning Out of Raw Scores
65(16)
Raw Scores
66(1)
Frequency Distributions
67(1)
Histograms and Frequency Polygons
67(3)
Normal Curves and Skewed Curves
70(2)
The Normal Curve
70(1)
Skewed Curves
71(1)
Measures of Central Tendency
72(2)
Mean
72(1)
Median
72(1)
Mode
73(1)
Measures of Variability
74(4)
Range
74(1)
Interquartile Range
74(2)
Standard Deviation
76(2)
Remembering the Person
78(1)
Summary
79(1)
Chapter Review
80(1)
Statistical Concepts: Creating New Scores to Interpret Test Data
81(22)
Norm Referencing Versus Criterion Referencing
82(1)
Normative Comparisons and Derived Scores
83(12)
Percentiles
84(1)
Standard Scores
85(8)
Developmental Norms
93(2)
Putting It All Together
95(1)
Standard Error of Measurement
95(2)
Scales of Measurement
97(3)
Nominal Scale
99(1)
Ordinal Scale
99(1)
Interval Scale
99(1)
Ratio Scale
99(1)
Summary
100(1)
Chapter Review
101(2)
SECTION THREE Commonly Used Assessment Techniques
103(112)
Assessment of Educational Ability: Survey Battery, Diagnostic, Readiness, and Cognitive Ability Tests
106(22)
Defining Assessment of Educational Ability
107(1)
Survey Battery Achievement Testing
108(4)
Stanford Achievement Test
109(2)
Iowa Test of Basic Skills
111(1)
Metropolitan Achievement Test
112(1)
Diagnostic Testing
112(3)
The Wide Range Achievement Test
113(1)
Key Math Diagnostic Arithmetic Test
113(1)
Peabody Individual Achievement Test
114(1)
Other Diagnostic Tests
114(1)
Readiness Testing
115(2)
Metropolitan Readiness Test
116(1)
Gesell School Readiness Test
116(1)
Kindergarten Readiness Test
117(1)
Common Cognitive Ability Tests
117(6)
The Cognitive Ability Test
118(1)
Otis-Lennon School Ability Test
119(1)
College Admission Exams
120(3)
The Role of Helpers in the Assessment of Educational Ability
123(1)
Final Thoughts About the Assessment of Educational Ability
124(1)
Summary
125(2)
Chapter Review
127(1)
Assessment of Intelligence
128(19)
Defining intelligence Testing
129(1)
Models of Intelligence
129(6)
Spearman's Two-Factor Approach
129(1)
Thurstone's Multifactor Approach
130(1)
Vernon's Hierarchical Model of Intelligence
130(1)
Guilford's Multifactor/Multi-Dimensional Model
130(1)
Cattell's Fluid and Crystal Intelligence
131(2)
Piaget's Cognitive Development Theory
133(1)
Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences
134(1)
Theories of Intelligence Summarized
135(1)
Intelligence Testing
135(7)
Stanford-Binet
137(1)
Wechsler Scales
138(4)
Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children
142(1)
The Role of Helpers in the Assessment of Intelligence
142(2)
Final Thoughts on Intelligence Testing
144(1)
Summary
144(1)
Chapter Review
145(2)
Career and Occupational Assessment: Interest Inventories, Multiple Aptitude, and Special Aptitude Tests
147(21)
Defining Career and Occupational Assessment
148(1)
Interest Inventories
149(8)
Strong Interest Inventory®
149(5)
Self-Directed Search
154(1)
COPSystem
155(1)
Other Common Interest Inventories
156(1)
Multiple Aptitude Testing
157(4)
Factor Analysis and Multiple Aptitude Testing
157(4)
Special Aptitude Testing Defined
161(3)
Clerical Aptitude Tests
161(1)
Mechanical Aptitude Tests
162(1)
Artistic Aptitude Tests
163(1)
Musical Aptitude Tests
163(1)
The Role of Helpers in Occupational and Career Assessment
164(1)
Final Thoughts Concerning Occupational and Career Assessment
164(1)
Summary
165(2)
Chapter Review
167(1)
Clinical Assessment: Objective and Projective Personality Tests
168(27)
Defining Clinical Assessment
169(1)
Objective Personality Testing
169(14)
Common Objective Personality Tests
170(13)
Projective Testing
183(8)
Common Projective Tests
184(7)
The Role of Helpers in Clinical Assessment
191(1)
Final Thoughts on Clinical Assessment
191(1)
Summary
192(2)
Chapter Review
194(1)
Informal Assessment: Observation, Rating Scales, Classification Methods, and Records and Personal Documents
195(20)
Defining Informal Assessment
196(1)
Types of Informal Assessment
197(12)
Observation
197(1)
Rating Scales
198(3)
Classification Systems
201(1)
Records and Personal Documents
202(7)
Test Worthiness of Informal Assessment
209(3)
Validity
209(1)
Reliability
210(1)
Cross-Cultural Fairness
211(1)
Practicality
212(1)
Final Thoughts on Informal Assessment
212(1)
Summary
212(2)
Chapter Review
214(1)
SECTION FOUR Diagnosis and Writing the Assessment Report
215(40)
Diagnosis in the Assessment Process
217(16)
The Importance of a Diagnosis
218(1)
What Is DSM-IV-TR?
219(1)
Axes I and II: The Mental Disorders
220(6)
Understanding the Mental Disorders
220(1)
Cultural Issues and the Mental Disorders
221(1)
Axis I Disorders: Clinical Disorders and Other Conditions That May Be a Focus of Clinical Attention
222(3)
Axis II Disorders: Personality Disorders and Mental Retardation
225(1)
Axis III: General Medical Conditions
226(1)
Axis IV: Psychosocial and Environmental Problems
227(1)
Axis V: Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF)
227(1)
Making a Diagnosis
227(3)
Final Thoughts on DSM-IV-TR in the Assessment Process
230(1)
Summary
230(1)
Chapter Review
231(2)
The Assessment Report Process: The Interview, Assessment Techniques, Environmental Assessment, and the Report
233(22)
Purpose of the Assessment Report
234(1)
Gathering Information for the Report: Garbage In, Garbage Out
234(6)
Conducting the Clinical Interview
235(3)
Choosing an Appropriate Assessment Instrument
238(1)
Conducting an Environmental Assessment
238(2)
Writing the Report
240(10)
Demographic Information
241(1)
Presenting Problem or Reason for Referral
242(1)
Family Background
242(1)
Significant Medical/Counseling History
243(1)
Substance Use and Abuse
243(1)
Educational and Vocational History
244(1)
Other Pertinent Information
244(1)
Mental Status
244(2)
Assessment Results
246(1)
Diagnosis
247(1)
Summary and Conclusions
248(2)
Recommendations
250(1)
Summarizing the Writing of an Assessment Report
250(1)
Summary
250(3)
Chapter Review
253(2)
Appendix A Websites of Codes of Ethics of Select Mental Health Professional Associations 255(2)
Appendix B Code of Fair Testing Practices in Education 257(7)
Appendix C Supplemental Statistical Equations 264(2)
Appendix D Converting Percentiles from Z Scores 266(2)
Appendix E Assessment Report 268(6)
Glossary 274(10)
References 284(11)
Index 295


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