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Ethics : Discovering Right and Wrong,9780534619367
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Ethics : Discovering Right and Wrong

by
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780534619367

ISBN10:
0534619363
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/25/2005
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
List Price: $129.95
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Summary

Preface. A Word to the Student: Why Study Moral Philosophy? 1. INTRODUCTION: WHAT IS ETHICS? Morality As Compared with Other Normative Subjects. Traits of Moral Principles. Domains of Ethical Assessment. Why Do We Need Morality? The Purposes of Morality. For Further Reflection. For Further Reading. 2. ETHICAL RELATIVISM: WHO'S TO JUDGE WHAT'S RIGHT AND WRONG? An Analysis of Relativism. Subjective Ethical Relativism (Subjectivism). Conventional Ethical Relativism (Conventionalism). A Critique of Ethical Relativism. For Further Reflection. For Further Reading. 3. THE CASE FOR MORAL OBJECTIVISM. Natural Law. Moderate Objectivism. An Explanation of the Attraction of Ethical Relativism. For Further Reflection. For Further Reading. 4. VALUE: THE QUEST FOR GOOD. What Types of Value Are There? What Things Are Good? Are Values Objective or Subjective? What is the Good Life? For Further Reflection. For Further Reading. 5. EGOISM, SELF-INTEREST, AND ALTRUISM. An Overview of the Problem. Psychological Egoism. Ethical Egoism. A Critique of Ethical Egoism. Attempted Refutations of Egoism. Evolution and Altruism. For Further Reflection. For Further Reading. 6. UTILITARIANISM. What is Utilitarianism? Two Types of Utilitarianism. The Strengths and Weaknesses of Utilitarianism. External Criticisms of Utilitarianism. Utilitarian Responses to Standard Objections. For Further Reflection. For Further Reading. 7. KANTIAN AND DEONTOLOGICAL SYSTEMS. Two Types of Deontological Systems. Kant's Rule-Deontological System. The Categorical Imperative. Kant's Other Formulations of the Categorical Imperative. Kant's Ethics and Religion. A Reconciliation Project. For Further Reflection. For Further Reading. 8. VIRTUE-BASED ETHICAL SYSTEMS. The Aretaic Critique of Action-Based (Deontic) Ethical Systems. The Nature of Virtue Ethics. Types of Relationships between Virtue Ethics and Action Ethics. For Further Reflection. For Further Reading. 9. WHY SHOULD I BE MORAL? The Paradox of Morality and Self-Interest. For Further Reflection. For Further Reading. 10. RELIGION AND ETHICS. Does Morality Depend on Religion? Is Religious Ethics Essentially Different from Secular Ethics? Is Religion Irrelevant or Even Inimical to Morality? Does Religion Enhance the Moral Life? For Further Reflection. For Further Reading. 11. THE FACT-VALUE PROBLEM: METAETHICS IN THE 20TH CENTURY. Nonnaturalism. Emotivism. Prescriptivism. The Renaissance of Naturalism. For Further Reflection. For Further Reading. 12. MORAL REALISM AND THE CHALLENGE OF SKEPTICISM. Mackie's Error Theory of Morality. Harman's Moral Nihilism. For Further Reading. A Concluding Reflection: Minimal Morality, Virtue Ethics, and the Development of Character. Appendix 1. An Analysis of the Modified Divine Command Theory. Appendix 2. How to Read and Write a Philosophy Paper. Glossary. Index.

Table of Contents

Preface vii
A Word to the Student: Why Study Moral Philosophy? xi
1 Introduction: What Is Ethics?
1(24)
Morality as Compared with Other Normative Subjects
2(4)
Traits of Moral Principles
6(3)
Domains of Ethical Assessment
9(3)
Why Do We Need Morality?
12(6)
Conclusion
18(2)
For Further Reflection
20(3)
For Further Reading
23(2)
2 Ethical Relativism: Who's to Judge What's Right and Wrong?
25(18)
Introduction
26(1)
An Analysis of Relativism
27(2)
Subjective Ethical Relativism (Subjectivism)
29(2)
Conventional Ethical Relativism (Conventionalism)
31(4)
A Critique of Ethical Relativism
35(3)
Conclusion
38(1)
For Further Reflection
39(2)
For Further Reading
41(2)
3 The Case for Moral Objectivism
43(17)
Natural Law
45(6)
Moderate Objectivism
51(5)
An Explanation of the Attraction of Ethical Relativism
56(1)
Conclusion
57(1)
For Further Reflection
58(1)
For Further Reading
59(1)
4 Value: The Quest for the Good
60(19)
What Types of Value Are There?
62(2)
What Things Are Good?
64(3)
Are Values Objective or Subjective?
67(2)
What Is the Relation of Value to Morality?
69(3)
What Is the Good Life?
72(4)
For Further Reflection
76(1)
For Further Reading
77(2)
5 Egoism, Self-Interest, and Altruism
79(24)
An Overview of the Problem
79(3)
Psychological Egoism
82(5)
Ethical Egoism
87(6)
Attempted Refutations of Egoism
93(2)
Evolution and Altruism
95(3)
Egoism and the Problem of Posterity
98(1)
Conclusion
99(1)
For Further Reflection
100(1)
For Further Reading
101(2)
6 Utilitarianism
103(28)
What Is Utilitarianism?
106(4)
Two Types of Utilitarianism
110(3)
The Strengths and Weaknesses of Utilitarianism
113(3)
External Criticisms of Utilitarianism
116(3)
Utilitarian Responses to Standard Objections
119(4)
The Problem of Posterity
123(2)
Conclusion
125(2)
For Further Reflection
127(2)
For Further Reading
129(2)
7 Kantian and Deontological Systems
131(24)
Two Types of Deontological Systems
131(4)
Kant's Rule-Deontological System
135(2)
The Categorical Imperative
137(8)
Kant's Other Formulations of the Categorical Imperative
145(3)
Kant's Ethics and Religion
148(2)
Conclusion: A Reconciliation Project
150(2)
For Further Reflection
152(1)
For Further Reading
153(2)
8 Virtue-Based Ethical Systems
155(26)
The Aretaic Critique of Action-Based (Deontic) Ethical Systems
156(4)
The Nature of Virtue Ethics
160(5)
Types of Relationships Between Virtue Ethics and Action Ethics
165(8)
Feminism and the Ethics of Care
173(1)
Care and Particularism
174(2)
Conclusion
176(2)
For Further Reflection
178(1)
For Further Reading'
179(2)
9 Why Should I Be Moral?
181(11)
The Paradox of Morality and Self-Interest
184(5)
Conclusion
189(1)
For Further Reflection
190(1)
For Further Reading
191(1)
10 Religion and Ethics 192(16)
Does Morality Depend on Religion?
193(4)
Are Religious Ethics Essentially Different from Secular Ethics?
197(7)
Conclusion
204(2)
For Further Reflection
206(1)
For Further Reading
207(1)
11 The Fact-Value Problem: Metaethics in the Twentieth Century 208(27)
Nonnaturalism
210(4)
Emotivism
214(4)
Prescriptivism
218(9)
The Renaissance of Naturalism
227(3)
Conclusion
230(2)
For Further Reflection
232(1)
For Further Reading
233(2)
12 Moral Realism and the Challenge of Skepticism 235(18)
Mackie's Error Theory of Morality
238(3)
Harman's Moral Nihilism
241(5)
Conclusion
246(2)
For Further Reflection
248(1)
For Further Reading
248(1)
A Concluding Reflection: Minimal Morality, Virtue Ethics, and the Development of Character
249(4)
Appendix 1 An Analysis of the Modified Divine Command Theory 253(6)
A Critique of the Modified Divine Command Theory
255(4)
Appendix 2 How to Read and Write a Philosophy Paper 259(4)
Suggestions for Reading a Philosophy Text
260(1)
Suggestions for Writing a Philosophy Paper
261(2)
Glossary 263(8)
Index 271


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