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Ethics : History, Theory, and Contemporary Issues,9780195178401
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Ethics : History, Theory, and Contemporary Issues

by ;
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780195178401

ISBN10:
0195178408
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/21/2005
Publisher(s):
Oxford University Press

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Summary

The most comprehensive collection of its kind, Ethics: History, Theory, and Contemporary Issues, Third Edition, is organized into three parts, providing instructors with flexibility in designing and teaching a variety of courses in moral philosophy. The first part, Historical Sources, movesfrom classical thought (Plato, Aristotle, Epicurus, and Epictetus) through medieval views (Augustine and Aquinas) to modern theories (Hobbes, Butler, Hume, Kant, Bentham, and Mill), culminating with leading nineteenth- and twentieth-century thinkers (Nietzsche, James, Dewey, Camus, and Sartre). Thesecond part, Modern Ethical Theory, includes many of the most important essays of the past century. The discussion of utilitarianism, Kantianism, egoism, and relativism continues in the work of major contemporary philosophers (Foot, Brandt, Williams, Wolf, and Nagel). Landmark selections (Moore,Prichard, Ross, Ayer, Stevenson, Hare, Baier, Anscombe, Gauthier, and Harman) reflect concern with moral language and the justification of morality. The concepts of justice (Rawls) and rights (Feinberg) are explored, as well as recent views on the importance of virtue ethics (Rachels) and an ethicinfluenced by feminist concerns (Held). In the third part, Contemporary Moral Problems, the readings present the current debates over abortion, euthanasia, famine relief, animal rights, the death penalty, and whether numbers should play a role in making moral decisions. The third edition expands Part II, Modern Ethical Theory, adding essays by Onora O'Neill, Ruth Barcan Marcus, Allan Gibbard, Nicholas L. Sturgeon, and Martha Nussbaum. Part III, Contemporary Moral Problems, features new essays on abortion by Mary Anne Warren, Don Marquis, and RosalindHursthouse; an essay on the death penalty by Stephen Nathanson; and a debate between John M. Taurek and Derek Parfit on when and why one should save from harm a greater rather than a lesser number of people. The book concludes with an essay by Judith Jarvis Thomson on the trolley problem. Whereverpossible, each reading is printed in its entirety.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
Introduction xiii
I. HISTORICAL SOURCES
Introduction
1(4)
Alasdair MacIntyre
Plato
5(119)
Euthyphro
5(11)
Defence of Socrates
16(17)
Crito
33(9)
Phaedo (115d--118)
42(2)
Republic (selections)
44(80)
Aristotle
124(54)
Nicomachean Ethics (selections)
124(54)
Epicurus
178(5)
Letter to Menoeceus
178(2)
Leading Doctrines
180(3)
Epictetus
183(12)
Enchiridion
183(12)
Augustine
195(7)
Enchiridion on Faith, Hope, and Love (selections)
195(7)
Thomas Aquinas
202(16)
Summa Contra Gentiles (selections)
202(16)
Thomas Hobbes
218(11)
Leviathan (selections)
218(11)
Joseph Butler
229(15)
Fifteen Sermons (selections)
229(15)
David Hume
244(26)
An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals (selections)
244(26)
Immanuel Kant
270(39)
Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals
270(39)
Jeremy Bentham
309(8)
An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (selections)
309(8)
John Stuart Mill
317(35)
Utilitarianism
317(35)
Friedrich Nietzsche
352(9)
Beyond Good and Evil (selections)
352(3)
On the Genealogy of Morals (selections)
355(3)
Twilight of the Idols (selections)
358(3)
William James
361(12)
The Moral Philosopher and the Moral Life
361(12)
John Dewey
373(14)
The Quest for Certainty (selections)
373(14)
Albert Camus
387(9)
The Myth of Sisyphus (selections)
387(9)
Jean-Paul Sartre
396(17)
Existentialism Is a Humanism
396(7)
II. MODERN ETHICAL THEORY
Introduction
403(10)
James Rachels
G. E. Moore
413(6)
Principia Ethica (selections)
413(6)
H. A. Prichard
419(10)
Does Moral Philosophy Rest on a Mistake?
419(10)
W. D. Ross
429(10)
The Right and the Good (selections)
429(10)
A. J. Ayer
439(6)
Language, Truth, and Logic (selections)
439(6)
C. L. Stevenson
445(11)
The Emotive Meaning of Ethical Terms
445(11)
R. M. Hare
456(10)
Freedom and Reason (selections)
456(10)
Kurt Baier
466(15)
The Point of View of Morality
466(15)
G. E. M. Anscombe
481(12)
Modern Moral Philosophy
481(12)
John Rawls
493(23)
A Theory of Justice (selections)
493(23)
David Gauthier
516(11)
Why Contractarianism?
516(11)
Joel Feinberg
527(8)
Psychological Egoism
527(8)
Philippa Foot
535(6)
Morality as a System of Hypothetical Imperatives
535(6)
Onora O'Neill
541(17)
Consistency in Action
541(17)
Ruth Barcan Marcus
558(10)
Moral Dilemmas and Consistency
558(10)
Richard B. Brandt
568(17)
Some Merits of One Form of Rule Utilitarianism
568(17)
Bernard Williams
585(16)
A Critique of Utilitarianism
585(16)
Allan Gibbard
601(13)
Moral Judgment and the Acceptance of Norms
601(13)
Joel Feinberg
614(11)
The Nature and Value of Rights
614(11)
Gilbert Harman
625(11)
The Nature of Morality (selections)
625(11)
Nicholas L. Sturgeon
636(15)
Moral Explanations
636(15)
James Rachels
651(8)
The Challenge of Cultural Relativism
651(8)
Martha Nussbaum
659(20)
Non-Relative Virtues: An Aristotelian Approach
659(20)
Virginia Held
679(16)
Reason, Gender, and Moral Theory
679(16)
James Rachels
695(11)
The Ethics of Virtue
695(11)
Susan Wolf
706(13)
Moral Saints
706(13)
Thomas Nagel
719(14)
Moral Luck
719(10)
III. CONTEMPORARY MORAL PROBLEMS
Introduction
729(4)
Peter Singer
Judith Jarvis Thomson
733(11)
A Defense of Abortion
733(11)
Mary Ann Warren
744(10)
On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion
744(10)
Don Marquis
754(11)
An Argument That Abortion Is Wrong
754(11)
Rosalind Hursthouse
765(14)
Virtue Theory and Abortion
765(14)
James Rachels
779(4)
Active and Passive Euthanasia
779(4)
Philippa Foot
783(6)
Killing and Letting Die
783(6)
Peter Singer
789(8)
Famine, Affluence, and Morality
789(8)
John Arthur
797(12)
Famine Relief and the Ideal Moral Code
797(12)
Tom Regan
809(8)
The Case for Animal Rights
809(8)
Carl Cohen
817(7)
The Case for the Use of Animals in Biomedical Research
817(7)
Ernest van den Haag
824(10)
In Defense of the Death Penalty
824(10)
Stephen Nathanson
834(10)
An Eye for an Eye: The Morality of Punishing by Death
834(10)
John M. Taurek
844(13)
Should the Numbers Count?
844(13)
Derek Parfit
857(9)
Innumerate Ethics
857(9)
Judith Jarvis Thomson
866(1)
The Trolley Problem
866


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