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Ethics: History, Theory, and Contemporary Issues,Fifth Edition, features sixty-three selections organized into three parts, providing instructors with great flexibility in designing and teaching a variety of courses in moral philosophy. Spanning 2,500 years of ethical theory, the first part,Historical Sources,ranges from ancient Greece to the twentieth century. It moves from classical thought through medieval views to modern theories, culminating with leading nineteenth- and twentieth-century thinkers. The second part,Modern Ethical Theory,includes many of the most important essays of the past century. The discussion of utilitarianism, Kantianism, egoism, and relativism continues in the work of major contemporary philosophers, while landmark selections reflect concern with moral language and the justification of morality. The concepts of duty, justice, and rights are explored, as well as recent views on cultural relativism and an ethic influenced by feminist concerns. In the third part,Contemporary Moral Problems,the readings present the current debates over abortion, euthanasia, famine relief, animal rights, environmentalism, and the use of torture in interrogations, as well as essays on death and the meaning of life. Wherever possible, each reading is printed in its entirety. The fifth edition features new readings from Cicero, Barbara Herman, and Judith Jarvis Thomson; an expanded selection from Joseph Butler's Fifteen Sermons; and a new translation of Kant's Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals. In addition,the book is supplemented for the first time by a robustsupport package.AnInstructor's Resource CDcontains reading summaries, essay questions, multiple-choice and true/false questions, PowerPoint-based lecture outlines, and relevant website links. ACompanion Website at www.oup/us/cahnprovides most of the material from the Instructor's Resource CD along with student resources including interactive self-quizzes, questions for discussion, and helpful links.
Steven M. Cahn is Professor of Philosophy at The City University of New York Graduate Center.
Peter Markie is Curators' Teaching Professor of Philosophy at the University of Missouri-Columbia.
Table of Contents
*= New to this edition Preface Introduction I. HISTORICAL SOURCES Introduction, Alasdair MacIntyre 1. Plato Euthyphro Defence of Socrates Crito Phaedo (115d-118) Republic (selections) 2. Aristotle Nicomachean Ethics (selections) 3. Epicurus Letter to Menoeceus Leading Doctrines 4. Cicero * On Duties (selections) 5. Epictetus Enchiridion 6. Augustine Enchiridion on Faith, Hope, and Love (selections) 7. Thomas Aquinas Summa Contra Gentiles (selections) 8. Thomas Hobbes Leviathan (selections) 9. Joseph Butler * Fifteen Sermons (selections) [expanded] 10. David Hume A Treatise of Human Nature (selections) An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals (selections) 11. Immanuel Kant Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals 12. Jeremy Bentham An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (selections) 13. John Stuart Mill Utilitarianism 14. Friedrich Nietzsche On the Genealogy of Morals (selections) 15. Albert Camus The Myth of Sisyphus (selections) 16. Jean-Paul Sartre Existentialism Is a Humanism II. MODERN ETHICAL THEORY Introduction, James Rachels 17. G.E. Moore Principia Ethica (selections) 18. H.A. Prichard Does Moral Philosophy Rest on a Mistake? 19. W.D. Ross The Right and the Good (selections) 20. A.J. Ayer Language, Truth, and Logic (selections) 21. C.L. Stevenson The Emotive Meaning of Ethical Terms 22. R.M. Hare Freedom and Reason (selections) 23. Kurt Baier The Point of View of Morality 24. G.E.M. Anscombe Modern Moral Philosophy 25. J. L. Mackie Ethics: Inventing Right and Wrong 26. John Rawls A Theory of Justice (selections) 27. David Gauthier Why Contractarianism? 28. Joel Feinberg Psychological Egoism 29. Barbara Herman * On the Value of Acting from the Motive of Duty 30. Philippa Foot Morality as a System of Hypothetical Imperatives 31. Onora O'Neill Consistency in Action 32. Ruth Barcan Marcus Moral Dilemmas and Consistency 33. Richard B. Brandt Some Merits of One Form of Rule Utilitarianism 34. Bernard Williams A Critique of Utilitarianism 35. Joel Feinberg The Nature and Value of Rights 36. Gilbert Harman The Nature of Morality (selections) 37. Nicholas L. Sturgeon Moral Explanations 38. Allan Gibbard Moral Judgment and the Acceptance of Norms 39. John McDowell Values and Secondary Qualities 40. Christine Korsgaard Skepticism about Practical Reason 41. James Rachels The Challenge of Cultural Relativism 42. Martha Nussbaum Non-Relative Virtues: An Aristotelian Approach 43. Virginia Held Feminist Transformations of Moral Theory 44. Susan Wolf Moral Saints 45. Thomas Nagel Moral Luck III. CONTEMPORARY MORAL PROBLEMS Introduction, Peter Singer 46. Judith Jarvis Thomson A Defense of Abortion 47. Mary Anne Warren On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion 48. Don Marquis An Argument That Abortion is Wrong 49. Rosalind Hursthouse Virtue Theory and Abortion 50. James Rachels Active and Passive Euthanasia 51. Philippa Foot Killing and Letting Die 52. Peter Singer Famine, Affluence, and Morality 53. John Arthur Famine Relief and the Ideal Moral Code 54. Tom Regan The Case for Animal Rights 55. Carl Cohen The Case for the Use of Animals in Biomedical Research 56. Elliot Sober Philosophical Problems for Environmentalism 57. Henry Shue Torture 58. Daniel J. Hill Ticking Bombs, Torture, and the Analogy with Self-Defense 59. John M. Taurek Should the Numbers Count? 60. Derek Parfit Innumerate Ethics 61. Judith Jarvis Thomson * Turning the Trolley 62. Thomas Nagel Death 63. Richard Taylor The Meaning of Life