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Ethics for the Information Age

by
ISBN13:

9780321194343

ISBN10:
0321194349
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Addison Wesley
List Price: $64.00
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Summary

Widely praised for its balanced treatment of computer ethics, Ethics for the Information Age offers a modern presentation of the moral controversies surrounding information technology. Topics such as privacy and intellectual property are explored through multiple ethical theories, encouraging readers to think critically about these issues and to make their own ethical decisions.

Author Biography

Michael J. Quinn is a professor of computer science at Oregon State University.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xix
Catalysts for Changep. 1
Introductionp. 2
Milestones in Computingp. 6
Mechanical Adding Machinesp. 6
The Analytical Enginep. 9
Boolean Algebrap. 10
Zuse's Z Seriesp. 11
Harvard Mark 1p. 12
Colossusp. 13
The Atanasoff-Berry Computerp. 13
ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer)p. 13
Small-Scale Experimental Machinep. 14
First Commerical Computersp. 15
Transistorp. 17
Integrated Circuitp. 18
IBM System/360p. 19
Microprocessorp. 20
Milestones in Networkingp. 22
Electricity and Electromagnetismp. 22
Telegraphp. 23
Telephonep. 24
Typewriter and Teletypep. 25
Radiop. 26
Televisionp. 27
Remote Computingp. 28
ARPANETp. 28
Emailp. 29
Internetp. 29
NSFNETp. 31
Broadbandp. 31
Milestones in Information Storage and Retrievalp. 31
Codexp. 31
Gutenberg's Printing Pressp. 32
Newspapersp. 32
Hypertextp. 33
Personal Computersp. 34
Single-Computer Hypertext Systemsp. 36
Networked Hypertext: World Wide Webp. 36
Search Enginesp. 38
Information Technology Issuesp. 39
Summaryp. 40
Review Questionsp. 42
Discussion Questionsp. 46
In-Class Exercisesp. 46
Further Readingp. 47
Referencesp. 48
An Interview with Douglas Engelbartp. 51
Introduction to Ethicsp. 53
Introductionp. 53
Defining Termsp. 54
Four Scenariosp. 55
Overview of Ethical Theoriesp. 59
Subjective Relativismp. 60
The Case for Subjective Relativismp. 60
The Case against Subjective Relativismp. 61
Cultural Relativismp. 62
The Case for Cultural Relativismp. 63
The Case against Cultural Relativismp. 64
Divine Command Theoryp. 66
The Case for the Divine Command Theoryp. 66
The Case against the Divine Command Theoryp. 67
Kantianismp. 69
Good Will and the Categorical Imperativep. 69
Evaluating a Scenario Using Kantianismp. 71
The Case for Kantianismp. 72
The Case against Kantianismp. 73
Act Utilitarianismp. 74
Principle of Utilityp. 74
Evaluating a Scenario Using Act Utilitarianismp. 75
The Case for Act Utilitarianismp. 76
The Case against Act Utilitarianismp. 77
Rule Utilitarianismp. 79
Basis of Rule Utilitarianismp. 79
Evaluating a Scenario Using Rule Utilitarianismp. 79
The Case for Rule Utilitarianismp. 80
The Case against Utilitarianism in Generalp. 81
Social Contract Theoryp. 82
The Social Contractp. 82
Rawls's Theory of Justicep. 84
Evaluating a Scenario Using Social Contract Theoryp. 87
The Case for Social Contract Theoryp. 87
The Case against Social Contract Theoryp. 89
Comparing Workable Ethical Theoriesp. 90
Morality of Breaking the Lawp. 91
Social Contract Theory Perspectivep. 91
Kantian Perspectivep. 91
Rule Utilitarian Perspectivep. 92
Act Utilitarian Perspectivep. 93
Conclusionp. 93
Summaryp. 94
Review Questionsp. 95
Discussion Questionsp. 97
In-Class Exercisesp. 98
Further Readingp. 99
Referencesp. 99
An Interview with James Moorp. 103
Networkingp. 107
Introductionp. 107
Email and Spamp. 109
How Email Worksp. 109
The Spam Epidemicp. 110
Ethical Evaluations of Spammingp. 112
Fighting Spamp. 115
Mail Abuse Prevention Systemp. 115
Ethical Evaluations of Blacklisting by MAPSp. 116
Proposed Solutions to the Spam Epidemicp. 117
CAN SPAM Act of 2003p. 118
Emergence of "Spim"p. 120
The World Wide Webp. 120
Attributes of the Webp. 120
How We Use the Webp. 121
Too Much Control or Too Little?p. 123
Ethical Perspectives on Pornographyp. 124
Analyses Concluding Pornography Is Immoralp. 124
Analyses Concluding Adult Pornography Is Moralp. 125
Commentaryp. 125
Summaryp. 125
Censorshipp. 126
Direct Censorshipp. 126
Self-Censorshipp. 127
Challenges Posed by the Internetp. 127
Ethical Perspectives on Censorshipp. 128
Freedom of Expressionp. 129
Historyp. 129
Freedom of Expression Not an Absolute Rightp. 130
FCC v. Pacifica Foundation et al.p. 131
Children and the Webp. 132
Web Filtersp. 132
Child Internet Protection Actp. 133
Ethical Evaluations of CIPAp. 133
Breaking Trust on the Internetp. 135
Identity Theftp. 135
Chat-Room Predatorsp. 137
Ethical Evaluations of Police "Sting" Operationsp. 138
False Informationp. 139
Internet Addictionp. 140
Is Internet Addiction Real?p. 140
Contributing Factorsp. 142
Ethical Evaluation of Internet Addictionp. 143
Summaryp. 144
Review Questionsp. 145
Discussion Questionsp. 146
In-Class Exercisesp. 147
Further Readingp. 148
Referencesp. 148
An Interview with Jennifer Preecep. 153
Intellectual Propertyp. 155
Introductionp. 155
Intellectual Property Rightsp. 157
What Is Intellectual Property?p. 157
Property Rightsp. 157
Extending the Argument to Intellectual Propertyp. 159
Benefits of Intellectual Property Protectionp. 161
Limits to Intellectual Property Protectionp. 161
Protecting Intellectual Propertyp. 163
Trade Secretsp. 163
Trademarks and Service Marksp. 164
Patentsp. 165
Copyrightsp. 165
Fair Usep. 169
Sony v. Universal City Studiosp. 170
RIAA v. Diamond Multimedia Systems Inc.p. 171
Digital Technology and Fair Usep. 173
New Restrictions on Usep. 174
Digital Millennium Copyright Actp. 174
Digital Rights Managementp. 175
Secure Digital Music Initiativep. 175
Encrypting DVDsp. 176
Making CDs Copyproofp. 177
Criticisms of Digital Rights Managementp. 177
Peer-to-Peer Networksp. 178
Napsterp. 179
FastTrackp. 179
BitTorrentp. 180
RIAA Lawsuitsp. 180
MP3 Spoofingp. 181
Universities Caught in the Middlep. 182
MGM v. Groksterp. 183
Legal Music Services on the Internetp. 184
Protections for Softwarep. 184
Software Copyrightsp. 185
Violations of Software Copyrightsp. 185
Software Patentsp. 186
Safe Software Developmentp. 187
Open-Source Softwarep. 188
Consequences of Proprietary Softwarep. 188
Open-Source Definitionp. 189
Beneficial Consequences of Open-Source Softwarep. 189
Examples of Open-Source Softwarep. 190
The GNU Project and Linuxp. 191
Impact of Open-Source Softwarep. 192
Critique of the Open-Source Software Movementp. 192
Legitimacy of Intellectual Property Protection for Softwarep. 193
Rights-Based Analysisp. 193
Utilitarian Analysisp. 194
Conclusionp. 196
Creative Commonsp. 196
Summaryp. 198
Review Questionsp. 202
Discussion Questionsp. 203
In-Class Exercisesp. 204
Further Readingp. 204
Referencesp. 205
An Interview with Wendy Seltzerp. 209
Privacyp. 211
Introductionp. 211
Perspectives on Privacyp. 213
Defining Privacyp. 213
Harms and Benefits of Privacyp. 214
Is There a Natural Right to Privacy?p. 217
Privacy and Trustp. 220
Disclosing Informationp. 221
Public Informationp. 223
Rewards or Loyalty Programsp. 223
Body Scannersp. 224
Digital Video Recordersp. 224
Automobile "Black Boxes"p. 225
Enhanced 911 Servicep. 225
RFIDsp. 226
Implanted Chipsp. 227
Cookiesp. 227
Spywarep. 228
U.S. Legislationp. 228
Fair Credit Reporting Actp. 228
The Family Education Rights and Privacy Actp. 229
Video Privacy Protection Actp. 229
Financial Services Modernization Actp. 229
Children's Online Privacy Protection Actp. 229
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Actp. 230
Public Recordsp. 230
Census Recordsp. 230
Internal Revenue Service Recordsp. 231
FBI National Crime Information Center 2000p. 231
Privacy Act of 1974p. 232
Covert Government Surveillancep. 234
Wiretaps and Bugsp. 235
Operation Shamrockp. 237
U.S. Legislation Authorizing Wiretappingp. 238
Title IIIp. 239
Electronic Communications Privacy Actp. 239
Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Actp. 239
USA PATRIOT Actp. 240
Data Miningp. 244
Marketplace: Householdsp. 246
IRS Auditsp. 246
Syndromic Surveillance Systemp. 246
Total Information Awarenessp. 247
Criticisms of the TIA Programp. 247
Who Should Own Information about a Transaction?p. 248
Opt-in Versus Opt-outp. 248
Platform for Privacy Preferences (P3P)p. 249
Identity Theftp. 249
Backgroundp. 249
History and Role of the Social Security Numberp. 251
Debate over a National ID Cardp. 252
The REAL ID Actp. 253
Encryptionp. 254
Symmetric Encryptionp. 254
Public-Key Cryptographyp. 255
Pretty Good Privacyp. 255
Clipper Chipp. 258
Effects of U.S. Export Restrictionsp. 258
Digital Cashp. 259
Summaryp. 262
Review Questionsp. 264
Discussion Questionsp. 266
In-class Exercisesp. 268
Further Readingp. 269
Referencesp. 269
An Interview with Ann Cavoukianp. 275
Computer and Network Securityp. 279
Introductionp. 279
Viruses, Worms, and Trojan Horsesp. 280
Virusesp. 280
Wormsp. 283
The Internet Wormp. 286
Trojan Horsesp. 290
Defensive Measuresp. 291
Phreaks and Hackersp. 292
Hackersp. 292
Phone Phreakingp. 296
The Cuckoo's Eggp. 297
Legion of Doomp. 297
Fry Guyp. 298
U.S. v. Riggsp. 299
Steve Jackson Gamesp. 300
Retrospectivep. 301
Penalties for Hackingp. 302
Recent Incidentsp. 303
Denial-of-Service Attacksp. 304
Attacks that Consume Scarce Resourcesp. 304
Defensive Measuresp. 307
Distributed Denial-of-Service Attacksp. 307
SATANp. 308
Online Votingp. 308
Motivation for Online Votingp. 308
Proposalsp. 309
Ethical Evaluationp. 310
Summaryp. 313
Review Questionsp. 314
Discussion Questionsp. 315
In-Class Exercisesp. 316
Further Readingp. 317
Referencesp. 318
An Interview with Matt Bishopp. 321
Computer Reliabilityp. 325
Introductionp. 325
Data-Entry or Data-Retrieval Errorsp. 326
Disfranchised Votersp. 326
False Arrestsp. 327
Analysis: Accuracy of NCIC Recordsp. 327
Software and Billing Errorsp. 328
Errors Leading to System Malfunctionsp. 328
Errors Leading to System Failuresp. 329
Analysis: E-Retailer Posts Wrong Price, Refuses to Deliverp. 329
Notable Software System Failuresp. 330
Patriot Missilep. 331
Ariane 5p. 332
AT&T Long-Distance Networkp. 333
Robot Missions to Marsp. 333
Denver International Airportp. 335
Therac-25p. 336
Genesis of the Therac-25p. 337
Chronology of Accidents and AECL Responsesp. 337
Software Errorsp. 340
Post Mortemp. 342
Moral Responsibility of the Therac-25 Teamp. 343
Computer Simulationsp. 344
Uses of Simulationp. 344
Validating Simulationsp. 345
Software Engineeringp. 347
Specificationp. 347
Developmentp. 348
Validationp. 349
Software Quality Is Improvingp. 350
Software Warrantiesp. 350
Shrinkwrap Warrantiesp. 351
Are Software Warranties Enforceable?p. 352
Uniform Computer Information Transaction Actp. 355
Moral Responsibility of Software Manufacturersp. 357
Summaryp. 359
Review Questionsp. 361
Discussion Questionsp. 363
In-class Exercisesp. 364
Further Readingp. 365
Referencesp. 365
Work and Wealthp. 369
Introductionp. 369
Automation and Unemploymentp. 370
Automation and Job Destructionp. 371
Automation and Job Creationp. 372
Effects of Increase in Productivityp. 375
Rise of the Robots?p. 376
Workplace Changesp. 379
Organizational Changesp. 379
Teleworkp. 381
Temporary Workp. 383
Monitoringp. 383
Multinational Teamsp. 384
Globalizationp. 385
Arguments for Globalizationp. 385
Arguments against Globalizationp. 387
Dot-Com Bust Increases IT Sector Unemploymentp. 387
Foreign Workers in the American IT Industryp. 388
Foreign Competitionp. 389
The Digital Dividep. 389
Evidence of the Digital Dividep. 390
Models of Technological Diffusionp. 391
Critiques of the Digital Dividep. 392
The "Winner-Take-All Society"p. 394
The Winner-Take-All Phenomenonp. 394
Harmful Effects of Winner-Take-Allp. 395
Reducing Winner-Take-All Effectsp. 397
Access to Public Collegesp. 397
Effects of Tuition Increasesp. 397
Ethical Analysisp. 398
Summaryp. 401
Review Questionsp. 403
Discussion Questionsp. 403
In-class Exercisesp. 404
Further Readingp. 406
Referencesp. 406
An Interview with Jerry Bermanp. 411
Professional Ethicsp. 415
Introductionp. 415
Is Software Engineering a Profession?p. 416
Characteristics of a Professionp. 416
Certified Public Accountantsp. 417
Software Engineersp. 418
Software Engineering Code of Ethicsp. 419
Preamblep. 420
Principlesp. 421
Analysis of the Codep. 428
Preamblep. 428
Virtue Ethicsp. 429
Alternative List of Fundamental Principlesp. 432
Case Studiesp. 433
Software Recommendationp. 434
Child Pornographyp. 435
Anti-Wormp. 436
Whistleblowingp. 438
Morton Thiokol/NASAp. 439
Hughes Aircraftp. 441
Morality of Whistleblowingp. 443
Summaryp. 446
Review Questionsp. 448
Discussion Questionsp. 449
In-class Exercisesp. 450
Further Readingp. 451
Referencesp. 451
An Interview with Paul Axtellp. 455
Plagiarismp. 459
Consequences of Plagiarismp. 459
Types of Plagiarismp. 459
Guidelines for Citing Sourcesp. 460
How to Avoid Plagiarismp. 460
Misuse of Sourcesp. 460
Additional Informationp. 461
Referencesp. 461
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.


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