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Ethics for the Information Age

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780321375261

ISBN10:
0321375262
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2009
Publisher(s):
Addison Wesley

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Summary

Widely praised for its balanced treatment of computer ethics, Ethics for the Information Age offers a modern presentation of the moral controversies surrounding information technology. Topics such as privacy and intellectual property are explored through multiple ethical theories, encouraging readers to think critically about these issues and to make their own ethical decisions.

Author Biography

Michael J. Quinn is a professor of computer science at Oregon State University.

Table of Contents

Preface xix
Catalysts for Change
1(52)
Introduction
2(4)
Milestones in Computing
6(16)
Mechanical Adding Machines
6(3)
The Analytical Engine
9(1)
Boolean Algebra
10(1)
Zuse's Z Series
11(1)
Harvard Mark 1
12(1)
Colossus
13(1)
The Atanasoff-Berry Computer
13(1)
ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer)
13(1)
Small-Scale Experimental Machine
14(1)
First Commercial Computers
15(2)
Transistor
17(1)
Integrated Circuit
18(1)
IBM System/360
19(1)
Microprocessor
20(2)
Milestones in Networking
22(9)
Electricity and Electromagnetism
22(1)
Telegraph
23(1)
Telephone
24(1)
Typewriter and Teletype
25(1)
Radio
26(1)
Television
27(1)
Remote Computing
28(1)
ARPANET
28(1)
Email
29(1)
Internet
29(2)
NSFNET
31(1)
Broadband
31(1)
Milestones in Information Storage and Retrieval
31(8)
Codex
31(1)
Gutenberg's Printing Press
32(1)
Newspapers
32(1)
Hypertext
33(1)
Personal Computers
34(2)
Single-Computer Hypertext Systems
36(1)
Networked Hypertext: World Wide Web
36(2)
Search Engines
38(1)
Information Technology Issues
39(14)
Summary
40(2)
Review Questions
42(4)
Discussion Questions
46(1)
In-Class Exercises
46(1)
Further Reading
47(1)
References
48(3)
An Interview with Douglas Engelbart
51(2)
Introduction to Ethics
53(54)
Introduction
53(7)
Defining Terms
54(1)
Four Scenarios
55(4)
Overview of Ethical Theories
59(1)
Subjective Relativism
60(2)
The Case for Subjective Relativism
60(1)
The Case against Subjective Relativism
61(1)
Cultural Relativism
62(4)
The Case for Cultural Relativism
63(1)
The Case against Cultural Relativism
64(2)
Divine Command Theory
66(3)
The Case for the Divine Command Theory
66(1)
The Case against the Divine Command Theory
67(2)
Kantianism
69(5)
Good Will and the Categorical Imperative
69(2)
Evaluating a Scenario Using Kantianism
71(1)
The Case for Kantianism
72(1)
The Case against Kantianism
73(1)
Act Utilitarianism
74(5)
Principle of Utility
74(1)
Evaluating a Scenario Using Act Utilitarianism
75(1)
The Case for Act Utilitarianism
76(1)
The Case against Act Utilitarianism
77(2)
Rule Utilitarianism
79(3)
Basis of Rule Utilitarianism
79(1)
Evaluating a Scenario Using Rule Utilitarianism
79(1)
The Case for Rule Utilitarianism
80(1)
The Case against Utilitarianism in General
81(1)
Social Contract Theory
82(8)
The Social Contract
82(2)
Rawls's Theory of Justice
84(3)
Evaluating a Scenario Using Social Contract Theory
87(1)
The Case for Social Contract Theory
87(2)
The Case against Social Contract Theory
89(1)
Comparing Workable Ethical Theories
90(1)
Morality of Breaking the Law
91(16)
Social Contract Theory Perspective
91(1)
Kantian Perspective
91(1)
Rule Utilitarian Perspective
92(1)
Act Utilitarian Perspective
93(1)
Conclusion
93(1)
Summary
94(1)
Review Questions
95(2)
Discussion Questions
97(1)
In-Class Exercises
98(1)
Further Reading
99(1)
References
99(4)
An Interview with James Moor
103(4)
Networking
107(48)
Introduction
107(2)
Email and Spam
109(6)
How Email Works
109(1)
The Spam Epidemic
110(2)
Ethical Evaluations of Spamming
112(3)
Fighting Spam
115(5)
Mail Abuse Prevention System
115(1)
Ethical Evaluations of Blacklisting by MAPS
116(1)
Proposed Solutions to the Spam Epidemic
117(1)
CAN SPAM Act of 2003
118(2)
Emergence of ``Spim''
120(1)
The World Wide Web
120(4)
Attributes of the Web
120(1)
How We Use the Web
121(2)
Too Much Control or Too Little?
123(1)
Ethical Perspectives on Pornography
124(2)
Analyses Concluding Pornography Is Immoral
124(1)
Analyses Concluding Adult Pornography Is Moral
125(1)
Commentary
125(1)
Summary
125(1)
Censorship
126(3)
Direct Censorship
126(1)
Self-Censorship
127(1)
Challenges Posed by the Internet
127(1)
Ethical Perspectives on Censorship
128(1)
Freedom of Expression
129(3)
History
129(1)
Freedom of Expression Not an Absolute Right
130(1)
FCC v. Pacifica Foundation et al.
131(1)
Children and the Web
132(3)
Web Filters
132(1)
Child Internet Protection Act
133(1)
Ethical Evaluations of CIPA
133(2)
Breaking Trust on the Internet
135(5)
Identity Theft
135(2)
Chat-Room Predators
137(1)
Ethical Evaluations of Police ``Sting'' Operations
138(1)
False Information
139(1)
Internet Addiction
140(15)
Is Internet Addiction Real?
140(2)
Contributing Factors
142(1)
Ethical Evaluation of Internet Addiction
143(1)
Summary
144(1)
Review Questions
145(1)
Discussion Questions
146(1)
In-Class Exercises
147(1)
Further Reading
148(1)
References
148(5)
An Interview with Jennifer Preece
153(2)
Intellectual Property
155(56)
Introduction
155(2)
Intellectual Property Rights
157(6)
What Is Intellectual Property?
157(1)
Property Rights
157(2)
Extending the Argument to Intellectual Property
159(2)
Benefits of Intellectual Property Protection
161(1)
Limits to Intellectual Property Protection
161(2)
Protecting Intellectual Property
163(6)
Trade Secrets
163(1)
Trademarks and Service Marks
164(1)
Patents
165(1)
Copyrights
165(4)
Fair Use
169(5)
Sony v. Universal City Studios
170(1)
RIAA v. Diamond Multimedia Systems Inc.
171(2)
Digital Technology and Fair Use
173(1)
New Restrictions on Use
174(4)
Digital Millennium Copyright Act
174(1)
Digital Rights Management
175(1)
Secure Digital Music Initiative
175(1)
Encrypting DVDs
176(1)
Making CDs Copyproof
177(1)
Criticisms of Digital Rights Management
177(1)
Peer-to-Peer Networks
178(6)
Napster
179(1)
FastTrack
179(1)
BitTorrent
180(1)
RIAA Lawsuits
180(1)
MP3 Spoofing
181(1)
Universities Caught in the Middle
182(1)
MGM v. Grokster
183(1)
Legal Music Services on the Internet
184(1)
Protections for Software
184(4)
Software Copyrights
185(1)
Violations of Software Copyrights
185(1)
Software Patents
186(1)
Safe Software Development
187(1)
Open-Source Software
188(5)
Consequences of Proprietary Software
188(1)
Open-Source Definition
189(1)
Beneficial Consequences of Open-Source Software
189(1)
Examples of Open-Source Software
190(1)
The GNU Project and Linux
191(1)
Impact of Open-Source Software
192(1)
Critique of the Open-Source Software Movement
192(1)
Legitimacy of Intellectual Property Protection for Software
193(3)
Rights-Based Analysis
193(1)
Utilitarian Analysis
194(2)
Conclusion
196(1)
Creative Commons
196(15)
Summary
198(4)
Review Questions
202(1)
Discussion Questions
203(1)
In-Class Exercises
204(1)
Further Reading
204(1)
References
205(4)
An Interview with Wendy Seltzer
209(2)
Privacy
211(68)
Introduction
211(2)
Perspectives on Privacy
213(8)
Defining Privacy
213(1)
Harms and Benefits of Privacy
214(3)
Is There a Natural Right to Privacy?
217(3)
Privacy and Trust
220(1)
Disclosing Information
221(2)
Public Information
223(5)
Rewards or Loyalty Programs
223(1)
Body Scanners
224(1)
Digital Video Recorders
224(1)
Automobile ``Black Boxes''
225(1)
Enhanced 911 Service
225(1)
RFIDs
226(1)
Implanted Chips
227(1)
Cookies
227(1)
Spyware
228(1)
U.S. Legislation
228(2)
Fair Credit Reporting Act
228(1)
The Family Education Rights and Privacy Act
229(1)
Video Privacy Protection Act
229(1)
Financial Services Modernization Act
229(1)
Children's Online Privacy Protection Act
229(1)
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
230(1)
Public Records
230(4)
Census Records
230(1)
Internal Revenue Service Records
231(1)
FBI National Crime Information Center 2000
231(1)
Privacy Act of 1974
232(2)
Covert Government Surveillance
234(4)
Wiretaps and Bugs
235(2)
Operation Shamrock
237(1)
U.S. Legislation Authorizing Wiretapping
238(6)
Title III
239(1)
Electronic Communications Privacy Act
239(1)
Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act
239(1)
USA Patriot Act
240(4)
Data Mining
244(5)
Marketplace: Households
246(1)
IRS Audits
246(1)
Syndromic Surveillance System
246(1)
Total Information Awareness
247(1)
Criticisms of the TIA Program
247(1)
Who Should Own Information about a Transaction?
248(1)
Opt-in Versus Opt-out
248(1)
Platform for Privacy Preferences (P3P)
249(1)
Identity Theft
249(5)
Background
249(2)
History and Role of the Social Security Number
251(1)
Debate over a National ID Card
252(1)
The REAL ID Act
253(1)
Encryption
254(25)
Symmetric Encryption
254(1)
Public-Key Cryptography
255(1)
Pretty Good Privacy
255(3)
Clipper Chip
258(1)
Effects of U.S. Export Restrictions
258(1)
Digital Cash
259(3)
Summary
262(2)
Review Questions
264(2)
Discussion Questions
266(2)
In-class Exercises
268(1)
Further Reading
269(1)
References
269(6)
An Interview with Ann Cavoukian
275(4)
Computer and Network Security
279(46)
Introduction
279(1)
Viruses, Worms, and Trojan Horses
280(12)
Viruses
280(3)
Worms
283(3)
The Internet Worm
286(4)
Trojan Horses
290(1)
Defensive Measures
291(1)
Phreaks and Hackers
292(12)
Hackers
292(4)
Phone Phreaking
296(1)
The Cuckoo's Egg
297(1)
Legion of Doom
297(1)
Fry Guy
298(1)
U.S. v. Riggs
299(1)
Steve Jackson Games
300(1)
Retrospective
301(1)
Penalties for Hacking
302(1)
Recent Incidents
303(1)
Denial-of-Service Attacks
304(4)
Attacks that Consume Scarce Resources
304(3)
Defensive Measures
307(1)
Distributed Denial-of-Service Attacks
307(1)
SATAN
308(1)
Online Voting
308(17)
Motivation for Online Voting
308(1)
Proposals
309(1)
Ethical Evaluation
310(3)
Summary
313(1)
Review Questions
314(1)
Discussion Questions
315(1)
In-Class Exercises
316(1)
Further Reading
317(1)
References
318(3)
An Interview with Matt Bishop
321(4)
Computer Reliability
325(44)
Introduction
325(1)
Data-Entry or Data-Retrieval Errors
326(2)
Disfranchised Voters
326(1)
False Arrests
327(1)
Analysis: Accuracy of NCIC Records
327(1)
Software and Billing Errors
328(2)
Errors Leading to System Malfunctions
328(1)
Errors Leading to System Failures
329(1)
Analysis: E-Retailer Posts Wrong Price, Refuses to Deliver
329(1)
Notable Software System Failures
330(6)
Patriot Missile
331(1)
Ariane 5
332(1)
AT&T Long-Distance Network
333(1)
Robot Missions to Mars
333(2)
Denver International Airport
335(1)
Therac-25
336(8)
Genesis of the Therac-25
337(1)
Chronology of Accidents and AECL Responses
337(3)
Software Errors
340(2)
Post Mortem
342(1)
Moral Responsibility of the Therac-25 Team
343(1)
Computer Simulations
344(3)
Uses of Simulation
344(1)
Validating Simulations
345(2)
Software Engineering
347(3)
Specification
347(1)
Development
348(1)
Validation
349(1)
Software Quality Is Improving
350(1)
Software Warranties
350(19)
Shrinkwrap Warranties
351(1)
Are Software Warranties Enforceable?
352(3)
Uniform Computer Information Transaction Act
355(2)
Moral Responsibility of Software Manufacturers
357(2)
Summary
359(2)
Review Questions
361(2)
Discussion Questions
363(1)
In-class Exercises
364(1)
Further Reading
365(1)
References
365(4)
Work and Wealth
369(46)
Introduction
369(1)
Automation and Unemployment
370(9)
Automation and Job Destruction
371(1)
Automation and Job Creation
372(3)
Effects of Increase in Productivity
375(1)
Rise of the Robots?
376(3)
Workplace Changes
379(6)
Organizational Changes
379(2)
Telework
381(2)
Temporary Work
383(1)
Monitoring
383(1)
Multinational Teams
384(1)
Globalization
385(4)
Arguments for Globalization
385(2)
Arguments against Globalization
387(1)
Dot-Com Bust Increases IT Sector Unemployment
387(1)
Foreign Workers in the American IT Industry
388(1)
Foreign Competition
389(1)
The Digital Divide
389(5)
Evidence of the Digital Divide
390(1)
Models of Technological Diffusion
391(1)
Critiques of the Digital Divide
392(2)
The ``Winner-Take-All Society''
394(3)
The Winner-Take-All Phenomenon
394(1)
Harmful Effects of Winner-Take-All
395(2)
Reducing Winner-Take-All Effects
397(1)
Access to Public Colleges
397(18)
Effects of Tuition Increases
397(1)
Ethical Analysis
398(3)
Summary
401(2)
Review Questions
403(1)
Discussion Questions
403(1)
In-class Exercises
404(2)
Further Reading
406(1)
References
406(5)
An Interview with Jerry Berman
411(4)
Professional Ethics
415(44)
Introduction
415(1)
Is Software Engineering a Profession?
416(3)
Characteristics of a Profession
416(1)
Certified Public Accountants
417(1)
Software Engineers
418(1)
Software Engineering Code of Ethics
419(9)
Preamble
420(1)
Principles
421(7)
Analysis of the Code
428(5)
Preamble
428(1)
Virtue Ethics
429(3)
Alternative List of Fundamental Principles
432(1)
Case Studies
433(5)
Software Recommendation
434(1)
Child Pornography
435(1)
Anti-Worm
436(2)
Whistleblowing
438(21)
Morton Thiokol/NASA
439(2)
Hughes Aircraft
441(2)
Morality of Whistleblowing
443(3)
Summary
446(2)
Review Questions
448(1)
Discussion Questions
449(1)
In-class Exercises
450(1)
Further Reading
451(1)
References
451(4)
An Interview with Paul Axtell
455(4)
Appendix A: Plagiarism
459(4)
Consequences of Plagiarism
459(1)
Types of Plagiarism
459(1)
Guidelines for Citing Sources
460(1)
How to Avoid Plagiarism
460(1)
Misuse of Sources
460(1)
Additional Information
461(1)
References
461(2)
Index 463


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