9781439840863

Ethics in Science: Ethical Misconduct in Scientific Research

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9781439840863

  • ISBN10:

    1439840865

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Nonspecific Binding
  • Copyright: 2012-03-27
  • Publisher: CRC Press

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Summary

Providing the tools necessary for a robust debate, this book explains various forms of scientific misconduct and describes real ethical controversies that have occurred in science. The first part of the book includes a description of a variety of ethical violations, why they occur, how they are handled, and what can be done to prevent them along with a discussion of the peer-review process. The second part of the book presents real-life case studies that review the known facts and allows readers to decide for themselves whether an ethical violation has occurred and what should be done.

Table of Contents

Introductionp. xiii
About the authorp. xvii
Irresponsible conduct in research: What is it, why does it happen, and how do we identify it when it happens?p. 1
What constitutes scientific misconduct?p. 2
Intentional negligence in acknowledgment of previous workp. 3
What is it?p. 3
Why does it happen?p. 4
How is it caught?p. 4
Deliberate fabrication of data you have collectedp. 5
What is it?p. 5
Why does it happen?p. 6
How is it caught?p. 6
Deliberate omission of known data that does not agree with hypothesesp. 7
What is it?p. 7
Why does it happen?p. 8
How is it caught?p. 8
Passing another researcher's data as one's ownp. 8
What is it?p. 8
Why does it happen?p. 12
How is it caught?p. 12
Publication of results without consent of all the researchersp. 13
What is it?p. 13
Why does it happen?p. 14
How is it caught?p. 15
Failure to acknowledge all the researchers who performed the workp. 16
What is it?p. 16
Why does it happen?p. 17
How is it caught?p. 18
Authorship and intellectual propertyp. 18
Conflict of interest issuesp. 19
What is it?p. 19
Why does it happen?p. 21
How is it caught?p. 22
Repeated publication of too-similar resultsp. 23
What is it?p. 23
Why does it happen?p. 24
How is it caught?p. 24
Breach of confidentialityp. 25
What is it?p. 25
Why does it happen?p. 26
How is it caught?p. 27
Misrepresenting others' previous workp. 27
What is it?p. 27
Why does it happen?p. 28
How is it caught?p. 28
Bad ethics vs. bad sciencep. 28
Scenario 1p. 28
Scenario 2p. 29
New results that prove old results wrongp. 30
The whistle-blower's dilemmap. 32
Wrapping upp. 33
What happens to those who violate responsible conduct?p. 35
Human and animal subjectsp. 44
Wrapping upp. 45
What is peer review's role in responsible conduct in research?p. 47
Revisiting Vlad and Frankiep. 49
Can peer reviewers be unethical?p. 50
Wrapping upp. 51
What effect on the public does scientific misconduct have?p. 53
MMR and autismp. 53
Climategatep. 54
HTV vaccinep. 54
Animal rights groupsp. 55
Cold fusionp. 55
Bernard Kettlewellp. 56
Electromagnetic field and high-tension power linesp. 56
Fracking and pollutionp. 57
Wrapping upp. 57
What constitutes responsible conduct from the point of view of human/animal subjects in research?p. 59
Wrapping upp. 66
Can intervention or interference by the federal government result in research misconduct?p. 67
Wrapping upp. 69
Can we prevent misconduct in research?p. 71
Intentional negligence in acknowledgment of previous workp. 71
Deliberate fabrication of datap. 72
Deliberate omission of known data that doesn't agree with hypothesesp. 72
Passing another researcher's data as one's ownp. 73
Publication of results without consent of all the researchersp. 74
Failure to acknowledge all the researchers who performed the workp. 74
Conflict-of-interest issuesp. 75
Repeated publication of too-similar resultsp. 76
Breach of confidentialityp. 76
Misrepresenting others' workp. 76
Wrapping upp. 76
Case Studiesp. 77
Darwin and Wallacep. 77
Summaryp. 77
What happened?p. 77
Resolutionp. 78
Questions to ponderp. 79
Sourcesp. 79
Rangaswamy Srinivasan-VISX patent disputep. 79
Summaryp. 79
The storyp. 79
Questions to ponderp. 80
Sourcesp. 80
Schwartz and Mirkinp. 80
Summaryp. 80
How did it start?p. 81
Mirkin saysp. 81
Schwartz saysp. 81
Mirkin respondsp. 82
Villa-Komaroff's rolep. 82
Resolutionp. 82
Questions to ponderp. 83
Sourcesp. 83
Corey and Woodwardp. 83
Summaryp. 83
Corey saysp. 84
Hoffmann saysp. 84
L.J. Oosterhoffp. 85
Resolutionp. 85
Questions to ponderp. 85
Sourcesp. 85
Córdova, Scripps Research Institute, and Stockholm Universityp. 86
Summaryp. 86
What happened?p. 86
Resolutionp. 88
Questions to ponderp. 88
Sourcesp. 88
La Clair and hexacyclinolp. 88
Summaryp. 88
What happened?p. 89
Resolutionp. 89
Questions to ponderp. 90
Sourcesp. 90
Woodward and quininep. 90
Summaryp. 90
What happened?p. 90
Resolutionp. 91
Questions to ponderp. 92
Sourcesp. 92
DNAp. 92
Summaryp. 92
What happened?p. 93
Resolutionp. 95
Questions to ponderp. 96
Sourcesp. 96
David Baltimore and Teresa Imanishi-Karip. 96
Summaryp. 96
O'Toole's sidep. 97
Charles Maplethorpep. 98
Teresa Imanishi-Karip. 99
David Baltimorep. 100
The public perceptionp. 100
Conclusionsp. 101
Questions to ponderp. 101
Sourcesp. 101
John Fenn-Yale patent disputep. 101
Summaryp. 101
The storyp. 101
Questions to ponderp. 102
Sourcesp. 102
VIOXX®p. 103
Summaryp. 103
Question to ponderp. 103
Sourcesp. 104
Indexp. 105
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