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Ethics : Theory and Practice,9780132302135
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Ethics : Theory and Practice

by ;
Edition:
10th
ISBN13:

9780132302135

ISBN10:
0132302136
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2009
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $77.60
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Summary

Well renowned and highly acclaimed,Ethics: Theory and Practiceintroduces readers with little or no background in philosophy or ethics to traditional and contemporary ethical theory using a clear, jargon-free style and a flexible organization.Discussing theories that readers can relate to their own life experiences, this Ninth Edition applies its material to various fields in the real world such as business, medicine, the environment, and the media. A host of examples and case studies illustrates for readers how to set up their own systematic, rational ethics and how to apply ethical theories to traditional and contemporary moral issues.For professionals with a career or interest in philosophy, ethics, psychology, and education.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Chapter 1 What is Morality? 1(32)
Objectives
1(1)
What is Philosophy and Ethics' Relationship to It?
1(1)
Key Terms
2(4)
Approaches to the Study of Morality
6(1)
Morality and Its Applications
7(6)
Where Does Morality Come From?
13(4)
Customary or Traditional and Reflective Morality
17(1)
Morality, Law, and Religion
18(6)
Why Should Human Beings Be Moral?
24(3)
Chapter Summary
27(3)
Exercises for Review
30(1)
Discussion Questions
31(1)
Notes
31(1)
Research Navigator™
32(1)
Chapter 2 Consequentialist (Teleological) Theories of Morality 33(20)
Objectives
33(1)
Psychological Egoism
34(2)
Ethical Egoism
36(5)
Utilitarianism
41(5)
Difficulty with Consequentialist Theories in General
46(1)
Care Ethics
47(1)
Chapter Summary
48(2)
Exercises for Review
50(1)
Discussion Questions
50(1)
Notes
51(1)
Research Navigator™
52(1)
Chapter 3 Nonconsequentialist (Deontological) Theories of Morality 53(18)
Objectives
53(1)
Act Nonconsequentialist Theories
54(3)
Rule Nonconsequentialist Theories
57(7)
General Criticisms of Nonconsequentialist Theories
64(1)
Conclusions
65(1)
Chapter Summary
66(2)
Exercises for Review
68(1)
Discussion Questions
69(1)
Notes
70(1)
Research Navigator™
70(1)
Chapter 4 Virtue Ethics 71(18)
Objectives
71(1)
Definition of Terms
72(1)
Aristotle's Nichomachean Ethics
72(2)
Confucian Moral Self-Cultivation
74(3)
Contemporary Analysis of Virtue Ethics
77(4)
Who Is The Ideal Virtuous Person?
81(1)
Vice and Virtue
82(2)
Conclusions
84(1)
Chapter Summary
85(2)
Excersices for Review
87(1)
Discussion Questions
87(1)
Notes
87(1)
Research Navigator™
88(1)
Chapter 5 Absolutism versus Relativism 89(16)
Objectives
89(1)
The Meanings of Absolute
90(1)
The Meaning of Relative
90(1)
Cultural Relativism and Cultural Absolutism
91(2)
Propositions and Truth
93(7)
Conclusion
100(1)
Chapter Summary
101(2)
Exercises for Review
103(1)
Discussion Questions
103(1)
Notes
104(1)
Research Navigator™
104(1)
Chapter 6 Freedom versus Determinism 105(18)
Objectives
105(1)
The Meaning of Determinism
106(1)
Types and Theories of Determinism
106(5)
Fatalism and Hard and Soft Determinism
111(3)
Indeterminism
114(1)
Criticisms of Hard Determinism and Arguments for Freedom
115(3)
Conclusion: Soft Determinism
118(1)
Chapter Summary
119(2)
Exercises for Review
121(1)
Discussion Questions
121(1)
Notes
122(1)
Research Navigator™
122(1)
Chapter 7 Reward and Punishment 123(32)
Objectives
123(1)
Definition of Key Terms
123(1)
Reward and Punishment in Relationship to Justice
124(1)
Elements of Justice
124(1)
Reward
125(6)
Theories of How to Reward
131(2)
John Rawls and His Theory of Justice
133(2)
Punishment
135(1)
Theories of Punishment
136(10)
Is a Synthesis Possible?
146(2)
Chapter Summary
148(4)
Exercises for Review
152(1)
Discussion Questions
153(1)
Notes
153(1)
Research Navigator™
154(1)
Chapter 8 Setting Up a Moral System: Basic Assumptions and Basic Principles 155(27)
Objectives
155(1)
Conflicting General Moral Issues
156(1)
Basic Assumptions
157(5)
Basic Principles, Individual Freedom, and Their Justification
162(9)
Priority of the Basic Principles
171(1)
A General Way of Determining Priority—Two Categories
172(3)
How the System of Humanitarian Ethics Works
175(2)
Conclusion
177(1)
Chapter Summary
178(2)
Exercises for Review
180(1)
Discussion Questions
180(1)
Note
181(1)
Research Navigator™
181(1)
Chapter 9 The Taking of Human Life 182(29)
Objectives
182(1)
The Taking of Human Life
183(1)
Suicide
183(4)
Defense of the Innocent (the Self Included)
187(1)
Cases for Study and Discussion
188(1)
War
188(3)
Terrorism
191(3)
Cases for Study and Discussion
194(1)
Capital Punishment
195(4)
Cases for Study and Discussion
199(1)
Chapter Summary
200(3)
Exercises for Review
203(1)
Views of Major Ethical Theories on the Taking of Human Life
203(1)
Suicide
203(2)
Defense of the Innocent
205(1)
War and Terrorism
206(2)
Capital Punishment
208(1)
Reader Reactions
209(1)
Notes
209(1)
Research Navigator™
210(1)
Chapter 10 Allowing Someone to Die, Mercy Death, and Mercy Killing 211(46)
Objectives
211(1)
Definition of Terms
212(1)
Current Legal Status of Mercy Death and Mercy Killing
213(2)
Allowing Someone to Die
215(21)
Cases for Study and Discussion
236(2)
Mercy Death
238(8)
Cases for Study and Discussion
246(1)
Mercy Killing
247(3)
Cases for Study and Discussion
250(1)
Chapter Summary
251(4)
Exercises for Review
255(1)
Views of the Major Ethical Theories on Allowing Someone to Die, Mercy Death, and Mercy Killing
255(1)
Notes
256(1)
Research Navigator™
256(1)
Chapter 11 Abortion 257(24)
Objectives
257(1)
Introduction to the Abortion Issue
258(3)
When Does Human Life Begin?
261(2)
Arguments Against Abortion
263(4)
Arguments for Abortion
267(4)
The More Moderate Positions on Abortion
271(3)
Cases for Study and Discussion
274(2)
Chapter Summary
276(3)
Exercises for Review
279(1)
Views of the Major Ethical Theories on Abortion
279(1)
Notes
279(1)
Research Navigator™
280(1)
Chapter 12 Lying, Cheating, Breaking Promises, and Stealing 281(31)
Objectives
281(1)
Introduction
281(1)
Definitions of Key Terms
282(1)
Nonconsequentialist and Consequentialist Views
283(2)
Lying
285(6)
Cases for Study and Discussion
291(2)
Cheating
293(3)
Cases for Study and Discussion
296(1)
Breaking Promises
297(4)
Cases for Study and Discussion
301(1)
Stealing
302(4)
Cases for Study and Discussion
306(1)
Chapter Summary
307(3)
Exercises for Review
310(1)
Views of the Major Ethical Theories on Lying, Cheating, Breaking Promises, and Stealing
310(1)
Notes
310(1)
Research Navigator™
311(1)
Chapter 13 Morality, Marriage, and Human Sexuality 312(29)
Objectives
312(1)
Major Aspects of Human Sexuality
312(1)
The Meaning and Purposes of Human Sexuality
313(4)
Premarital Sex
317(4)
Sex in Marriage-Type Relationships (Including Nonlegal)
321(8)
Masturbation
329(1)
Pornography
330(2)
Prostitution
332(1)
Sexual Perversion or "Unnatural" Sexual Activity
333(1)
Cases for Study and Discussion
334(1)
Chapter Summary
335(4)
Exercises for Review
339(1)
Views of the Major Ethical Theories on Morality, Human Sexuality, and Marriage
340(1)
Notes
340(1)
Research Navigator™
340(1)
Chapter 14 Bioethics—Ethical Issues in Medicine 341(31)
Objectives
341(1)
Introduction and Definition of Terms
341(1)
Health Care Professionals and Patients and Their Families—Rights and Obligations
342(4)
Truth Telling and Informed Consent
346(5)
Confidentiality
351(2)
Guilt and Innocence in Treating Patients
353(1)
Ethical Issues in Medicine
354(4)
Stem Cell Research
358(2)
Cases for Study and Discussion
360(3)
Chapter Summary
363(6)
Exercises for Review
369(1)
Views of the Major Ethical Theories on Bioethical Issues
370(1)
Notes
370(1)
Research Navigator™
371(1)
Chapter 15 Business and Media Ethics 372(34)
Objectives
372(1)
Introduction
372(1)
Rights and Obligations in Business
373(1)
Two Ways of Approaching Rights and Obligations in Business
374(2)
The Moderate Position
376(1)
Justice, Truth Telling, and Honesty in Business
377(1)
Ethical Issues in Business
378(6)
Sexual Harassment
384(3)
The New Global Economy and the International Business Scene
387(2)
Media Ethics
389(3)
Corporate Greed—Enron
392(2)
Cases for Study and Discussion
394(5)
Chapter Summary
399(5)
Exercises for Review
404(1)
Views of the Major Ethical Theories on Business and Media Ethics
405(1)
Notes
405(1)
Research Navigator™
405(1)
Chapter 16 Environmental Ethics 406(31)
Objectives
406(1)
Key Terms
406(1)
Nature and Morality
407(1)
Environmental Ethical Issues
407(3)
Our Attitude Toward Nature and What Lies Behind It
410(2)
Arguments for Use and Exploitation of the Natural Environment
412(2)
Arguments Against the Use and Exploitation of Nature
414(1)
Moderate Position
415(1)
Criteria for Animal Rights
416(1)
Ways of Dealing with Animal Rights
417(1)
Use of Animals for Food
418(1)
Use of Animals for Experimentation
419(2)
Killing Animals for Sport
421(2)
Protection of Endangered Species
423(1)
Non-Western Perspectives on Environmental Issues
424(4)
Conclusion
428(1)
Cases for Study and Discussion
428(2)
Chapter Summary
430(5)
Exercises for Review
435(1)
Views of Major Ethical Theories on Environmental Ethics
435(1)
Notes
435(1)
Research Navigator™
436(1)
Appendixes 437(64)
Introduction
437(1)
Appendix 1: Applying Humanitarian Ethics to the Moral Problems of the Taking of Human Life
438(11)
Appendix 2: Applying Humanitarian Ethics to the Moral Problems of Allowing Someone to Die, Mercy Death, and Mercy Killing
449(9)
Appendix 3: Applying Humanitarian Ethics to the Moral Problems of Abortion
458(11)
Appendix 4: Applying Humanitarian Ethics to the Moral Problems of Lying, Cheating, Breaking Promises, and Stealing
469(8)
Appendix 5: Applying Humanitarian Ethics to the Moral Problems of Human Sexuality
477(6)
Appendix 6: Applying Humanitarian Ethics to Moral Problems in Medicine (Bioethics)
483(7)
Appendix 7: Applying Humanitarian Ethics to Moral Problems in Business (Business and Media Ethics)
490(7)
Appendix 8: Applying Humanitarian Ethics to Environmental Ethics
497(4)
Supplementary Reading 501(12)
Glossary 513(12)
Index 525


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