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Ethics : Theory and Practice,9780130314086

Ethics : Theory and Practice

by
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780130314086

ISBN10:
0130314080
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2001
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $48.00
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Summary

For freshman/sophomore-level courses in Introduction to Ethics. Using a clear, jargon-free style and a flexible organization, this text introduces students with little or no background in philosophy or ethics to traditional and contemporary ethical theory. An abundance of examples and case studies illustrates for students how to set up their own systematic, rational ethics and how to apply ethical theories to traditional and contemporary moral issues.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
What Is Morality?
1(34)
Objectives
1(1)
What Is Philosophy and Ethics' Relationship to It?
2(1)
Key Terms
2(4)
Approaches to the Study of Morality
6(2)
Morality and Its Applications
8(5)
Where Does Morality Come From?
13(4)
Customary or Traditional and Reflective Morality
17(1)
Morality, Law, and Religion
18(6)
Why Should Human Beings Be Moral?
24(4)
Chapter Summary
28(3)
Exercises for Review
31(1)
Discussion Questions
32(1)
Notes
33(1)
Supplementary Reading
33(2)
Consequentialist (Teleological) Theories of Morality
35(20)
Objectives
35(1)
Psychological Egoism
36(2)
Ethical Egoism
38(5)
Utilitarianism
43(5)
Difficulty with Consequentialist Theories in General
48(1)
Chapter Summary
49(2)
Exercises for Review
51(1)
Discussion Questions
52(1)
Notes
53(1)
Supplementary Reading
53(2)
Nonconsequentiatist (Deontological) Theories of Morality and Virtue Ethics
55(28)
Objectives
55(1)
Act Nonconsequentialist Theories
56(3)
Rule Nonconsequentialist Theories
59(7)
General Criticisms of Nonconsequentialist Theories
66(2)
Virtue Ethics
68(6)
Conclusions
74(1)
Chapter Summary
74(4)
Exercises for Review
78(1)
Discussion Questions
79(2)
Notes
81(1)
Supplementary Reading
81(2)
Absolutism versus Relativism
83(18)
Objectives
83(1)
The Meanings of Absolute
84(1)
The Meanings of Relative
85(1)
Cultural Relativism and Cultural Absolutism
85(2)
Propositions and Truth
87(7)
Conclusion
94(2)
Chapter Summary
96(1)
Exercises for Review
97(1)
Discussion Questions
98(1)
Notes
99(1)
Supplementary Reading
99(2)
Freedom versus Determinism
101(20)
Objectives
101(1)
The Meaning of Determinism
102(1)
Types and Theories of Determinism
102(6)
Fatalism and Hard and Soft Determinism
108(2)
Indeterminism
110(1)
Criticisms of Hard Determinism and Arguments for Freedom
111(3)
Conclusion: Soft Determinism
114(1)
Chapter Summary
115(3)
Exercises for Review
118(1)
Discussion Questions
118(1)
Notes
119(1)
Supplementary Reading
119(2)
Reward and Punishment
121(32)
Objectives
121(1)
Definition of Key Terms
122(1)
Reward and Punishment in Relationship to Justice
122(1)
Elements of Justice
123(1)
Reward
124(6)
Theories of How to Reward
130(1)
Punishment
131(2)
Theories of Punishment
133(10)
Is a Synthesis Possible?
143(2)
Chapter Summary
145(5)
Exercises for Review
150(1)
Discussion Questions
150(1)
Notes
151(1)
Supplementary Reading
151(2)
Setting Up a Moral System: Basic Assumptions and Basic Principles
153(28)
Objectives
153(1)
Conflicting General Moral Issues
154(1)
Basic Assumptions
155(5)
Basic Principles, Individual Freedom, and Their Justification
160(10)
Priority of the Basic Principles
170(1)
A General Way of Determining Priority--Two Categories
170(4)
How the System of Humanitarian Ethics Works
174(1)
Conclusion
175(2)
Chapter Summary
177(1)
Exercises for Review
178(1)
Discussion Questions
179(1)
Note
179(1)
Supplementary Reading
179(2)
The Taking of Human Life
181(32)
Objectives
181(1)
The Taking of Human Life
182(1)
Suicide
182(3)
Cases for Study and Discussion
185(1)
Defense of the Innocent (the Self Included)
186(1)
Cases for Study and Discussion
187(1)
War
188(3)
Terrorism
191(1)
Cases for Study and Discussion
192(1)
Capital Punishment
193(5)
Cases for Study and Discussion
198(1)
Chapter Summary
199(3)
Exercises for Review
202(1)
Views of Major Ethical Theories on the Taking of Human Life
203(1)
Suicide
203(2)
Defense of the Innocent
205(1)
War and Terrorism
206(2)
Capital Punishment
208(2)
Reader Reactions
210(1)
Notes
210(1)
Supplementary Reading
210(3)
Allowing Someone to Die, Mercy Death, and Mercy Killing
213(56)
Objectives
213(1)
Definition of Terms
214(1)
Current Legal Status of Mercy Death and Mercy Killing
215(2)
Allowing Someone to Die
217(28)
Cases for Study and Discussion
245(2)
Mercy Death
247(8)
Cases for Study and Discussion
255(1)
Mercy Killing
256(3)
Cases for Study and Discussion
259(2)
Chapter Summary
261(4)
Exercises for Review
265(1)
Views of the Major Ethical Theories on Allowing Someone to Die, Mercy Death, and Mercy Killing
266(1)
Notes
266(1)
Supplementary Reading
267(2)
Abortion
269(26)
Objectives
269(1)
Introduction to the Abortion Issue
270(3)
When Does Human Life Begin?
273(2)
Arguments Against Abortion
275(4)
Arguments for Abortion
279(4)
The More Moderate Positions on Abortion
283(4)
Cases for Study and Discussion
287(1)
Chapter Summary
288(3)
Exercises for Review
291(1)
Views of the Major Ethical Theories on Abortion
292(1)
Notes
292(1)
Supplementary Reading
293(2)
Lying, Cheating, Breaking Promises, and Stealing
295(34)
Objectives
295(1)
Introduction
296(1)
Definitions of Key Terms
296(1)
Nonconsequentialist and Consequentialist Views
297(2)
Lying
299(7)
Cases for Study and Discussion
306(1)
Cheating
307(3)
Cases for Study and Discussion
310(1)
Breaking Promises
311(5)
Cases for Study and Discussion
316(1)
Stealing
317(4)
Cases for Study and Discussion
321(1)
Chapter Summary
322(3)
Exercises for Review
325(1)
Views of the Major Ethical Theories on Lying, Cheating, Breaking Promises, and Stealing
326(1)
Notes
326(1)
Supplementary Reading
327(2)
Morality, Marriage, and Human Sexuality
329(33)
Objectives
329(1)
Major Aspects of Human Sexuality
330(1)
The Meaning and Purposes of Human Sexuality
330(5)
Premarital Sex
335
Sex in Marriage-Type Relationships (Including Nonlegal)
333(13)
Masturbation
346(1)
Pornography
347(2)
Prostitution
349(1)
Sexual Perversion or ``Unnatural'' Sexual Activity
350(1)
Cases for Study and Discussion
351(1)
Chapter Summary
352(6)
Exercises for Review
358(1)
Views of the Major Ethical Theories on Morality, Human Sexuality, and Marriage
359(1)
Notes
359(1)
Supplemetary Reading
359(3)
Bioethics-Ethical Issues in Medicine
362(32)
Objectives
362(1)
Introduction and Definition of Terms
363(1)
Health Care Professionals and Patients and Their Families--Rights and Obligations
363(5)
Truth Telling and Informed Consent
368(5)
Confidentiality
373(1)
Guilt and Innocence in Treating Patients
374(1)
Ethical Issues in Medicine
375(5)
Cases for Study and Discussion
380(2)
Chapter Summary
382(7)
Exercises for Review
389(1)
Views of the Major Ethical Theories on Bioethical Issues
390(1)
Notes
390(1)
Supplementary Reading
391(3)
Business and Media Ethics
394(32)
Objectives
394(1)
Introduction
395(1)
Rights and Obligations in Business
395(1)
Two Ways of Approaching Rights and Obligations in Business
396(2)
The Moderate Position
398(1)
Justice, Truth Telling, and Honesty in Business
399(1)
Ethical Issues in Business
400(6)
Sexual Harassment
406(3)
Media Ethics
409(4)
Cases for Study and Discussion
413(4)
Chapter Summary
417(6)
Exercises for Review
423(1)
Views of the Major Ethical Theories on Business and Media Ethics
424(1)
Notes
424(1)
Supplementary Reading
424(2)
Environmental Ethics
426(29)
Objectives
426(1)
Key Terms
427(1)
Nature and Morality
427(1)
Environmental Ethical Issues
428(2)
Our Attitude Toward Nature and What Lies Behind it
430(3)
Arguments for Use and Exploitation of the Natural Environment
433(1)
Arguments Against the Use and Exploitation of Nature
434(2)
Moderate Position
436(1)
Criteria for Animal Rights
436
Ways of Dealing with Animal Rights
429(9)
Use of Animals for Food
438(2)
Use of Animals for Experimentation
440(1)
Killing Animals for Sport
441(3)
Protection of Endangered Species
444(1)
Conclusion
444(1)
Cases for Study and Discussion
445(2)
Chapter Summary
447(5)
Exercises for Review
452(1)
Views of the Major Ethical Theories on Environmental Ethics
452(1)
Notes
453
Supplementary Reading
443(12)
Appendixes 455(67)
Introduction
455(1)
Appendix 1: Applying Humanitarian Ethics to the Moral Problems of the Taking of Human Life
456(11)
Appendix 2: Applying Humanitarian Ethics to the Moral Problems of Allowing Someone to Die, Mercy Death, and Mercy Killing
467(9)
Appendix 3: Applying Humanitarian Ethics to the Moral Problems of Abortion
476(11)
Appendix 4: Applying Humanitarian Ethics to the Moral Problems of Lying, Cheating, Breaking Promises, and Stealing
487(9)
Appendix 5: Applying Humanitarian Ethics to the Moral Problems of Human Sexuality
496(6)
Appendix 6: Applying Humanitarian Ethics to Moral Problems in Medicine (Bioethics)
502(48)
Appendix 7: Applying Humanitarian Ethics to Moral Problems in Business (Business and Media Ethics)
550
Appendix 8: Applying Humanitarian Ethics to Environmental Ethics
517(5)
Glossary 522(11)
Index 533


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