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Europe in the Contemporary World - 1900 to Present : A Narrative History with Documents

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Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780312406998

ISBN10:
0312406991
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
2/13/2007
Publisher(s):
Bedford/St. Martin's
List Price: $79.99

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Summary

Offering a twenty-first century perspective on twentieth-century Europe, pre-eminent scholar Bonnie Smith's engaging new synthesis is the first text to provide both a thorough integration of social and cultural material with political history and substantive treatment of Europe's broader global context. Each of the twelve chapters combines compelling narrative with a wonderfully rich set of primary texts and picture essays, reinforcing for students the importance of primary sources to the study of history. Neither overtly triumphalist nor disparaging, this even-handed and thoughtful account takes the full measure of Europe's negative and positive legacies at home and its impact on and interactions with the world at large.

Author Biography

BONNIE G. SMITH is the Board of Governors Professor of History at Rutgers University. She is the author of Confessions of a Concierge: Madame Lucie's History of Twentieth-Century France (1985); Changing Lives: Women in European History Since 1700 (1989); The Gender of History: Men, Women, and Historical Practice (1998); Imperialism (2000); and The Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures. She is the editor of Global Feminisms since 1945 (2000) and coeditor of Objects of Modernity: Selected Writings of Lucy Maynard Salmon, Gendering Disability (2004) and the forthcoming Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History. Smith has received fellowships from the Guggenheim Foundation, the National Humanities Center, and the American Council of Learned Societies. Currently she is studying the globalization of European culture since the seventeenth century.

Table of Contents

  Preface for Instructors
  Introduction for Students
    
1. IMPERIAL EUROPE AT THE DAWN OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY
  Europe's Peoples and Nations in the Global Order
    Prosperity for States and Society
    Great Britain: Greatest of the European Powers
    France: Britain's Rival and Germany's Enemy
    Germany: Europe's Rising Star
    Austria-Hungary: The Clash of Ethnicities
    Russia: The Imperial Colossus
    The Ottoman Empire: Sick Man of Europe?
  Society in the Age of Empire
    Social and Cultural Influence of Empire
    Daily Life and Leisure Time
  Europe in an Age of Migration
    Changing Families and Family Economies
    Regional Migration and Urbanization
    Global Migration
  Nationalism and the Evolving Nation State
    The Growth of Nationalist Feeling
    The Nation-State Versus the Ethnic Nationalism of Minorities
    The Growth of Militant Nationalism
  Empires in Jeopardy
    Conflict and Conquest in Africa
    The Russian and Ottoman Empires in Crisis
  Conclusion
    
  DOCUMENTS
    Migrant Life in 1900
       1.1 Marie-Catherine Gardez Santerre, Oral history, early 1970s
    Imperial Dreams, Imperial Realities
       1.2 Rudyard Kipling, "The White Man's Burden," 1899
       1.3 Lothar von Trotha, writings from October, 1904. Proclamation and @a=Accompanying Letters to Troops and to General Staff
    Japan's Challenge to the West
       1.4 Count Shigenobu Okuma, "The Rise of Japan Was Not Unexpected," 1904
    
  PICTURE ESSAY:
    Europe's Global Aura in an Age of Nationalism
       Aristocrats on the Grand Tour in Egypt; Boy in a sailor suit; White Tea Party in India with Native Retinue; Advertisement for Pears' Soap; European dress influenced by Asian fashions; Immigrants at Ellis Island.
    
2. MODERNITY AND THE UNSETTLING OF EUROPE, 1900–1914
  The Many Faces of Modernity
    Modern Technology
    Life in the Modern City
    Gender Roles and Sexual Life
  Modernity and the Rise of Mass Politics
    Working-Class Politics
    Feminists on the March
  The Arts and Philosophy Embrace Modernity
    Innovation in the Arts
    Modernism in Thought
  The Road to War
    Military Buildup amid Shifting Alliances
    Internal Problems of the Great Powers
    Balkan and Great Power Instability
  Conclusion
    
  DOCUMENTS
    The Automobile
       2.1 Anthony Rhodes, Louis Renault. A Biography, 1969
       2.2 "Motorwagen," article, 1909
       2.3 "Camping" newspaper article in Allgemeine Automobil-Zeitung, 1914
    The Struggle for Women's Suffrage
       2.4 Emmeline Pankhurst, My Story, 1914
    Elites and the Spiritual Future of Europe
       2.5 F. W. Marinetti, "Manifesto of Futurism" 1909
       2.6 Wassily Kandinsky, Concerning the Spiritual in Art, 1911
    
  PICTURE ESSAY:
    Cross-Cultural Borrowing in Modern Art
       Picasso, Desmoiselles d'Avignon; "Head" by Amedeo Modigliani; Constantin Brancusi, Sculpture; Gustav Klimt, Embrace of Isis and Osiris; Paula Modersohn-Becker, Portrait; "Primitive" from Sacre du Printemps.
    
3. WORLD WAR I AND THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION, 1914–1922
  World War I Begins
    The Opening Battles
    War Aims and the Struggle for Victory, 1915–1916
    The Soldier's War
  The Home Front
    Politics End
    Propaganda and Censorship
    War Transforms Society
  From War Fever to Revolution
    Containing Revolt during Wartime
    The Russian Revolution
    Civil War Begins in Russia
  The Great War Ends
    The Struggle to End the War
    Making Peace in the Midst of Revolution
  Conclusion
    
  DOCUMENTS
    War and the Individual
       3.1 Johannes Haas, Letter, 1915
       3.2 Khan Mahomed Khan, Letter, October 11, 1917
       3.3 Maria Luisa Perduca, A Hospital Year, 1917
    Lenin's April Theses: A Program for Immediate Action
       3.4 V.I. Lenin, "April Theses," 1917
    The Mandate System
       3.5 Articles 22 and 23 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, 1920
    
  PICTURE ESSAY:
    The Home Front
       Women coke workers; Poster of Teutonic Knight; The Gentle German (poster); Red Cross or Iron Cross?; A Republican barricade in Dublin; Greek refugees from Turkey.
    
4. A WORLD TRANSFORMED, 1920–1929
  The Search for Stability
    An Unsettled Peace
    The Weimar Experiment
    New Nations in Eastern and Southeastern Europe
    Political and Economic Recovery in Great Britain and France
  Society Recovers
    Remembering the Great War
    From Wartime to Peacetime Productivity
    Social Change in the Postwar Years
    Leisure and Consumerism
  Resurgence of Empire in an Age of Unrest
    A Growing Imperial Appetite
    Postwar Imperial Policies and Colonial Upheaval
    Mass Resistance Grows
  An Age of Extremes
    Utopias and Dystopias
    Utopian Dreams in the Soviet Union
    Fascist Triumph in Italy
  Conclusion
    
  DOCUMENTS
    Hitler and Fascism
       4.1 Adolf Hitler Mein Kampf 1925–1926
    Gandhi's Attack on European Civilization
       4.2 Mohandas Gandhi, "The Inwardness of Non-Co-operation" 1920
       4.3 Mohandas Gandhi, "Answers to Drew Pearson's Questions" 1924
    Love and Sexuality in Postwar Society: The Communist Case
       4.4 Aleksandra Kollontai, "Make Way for Winged Eros," 1923
    
  PICTURE ESSAY:
    Building the Future
       Underground fixture; Moscow Metro; Vienna worker housing; German worker housing; Bungalow; Stockholm Public Library.
    
5. FACING GLOBAL ECONOMIC DEPRESSION, 1929–1939
  Crash and Depression
    The Depression Comes to Europe
    Pressures on Society
    The Impact Abroad
  The Triumph of Dictatorship
    Hitler's Rise to Power
    Nazi Doctrine
    The Nazi Regime in Action
    Persecution of Jews and the Flight from Terror
    The USSR under Stalin: Collectivization, Modernization, Urbanization, and Culturalization
  The Democracies Search for Solutions
    Britain and France Defend Democracy
    Sweden Builds a Welfare State
    Cultural Leaders Take Action
  The Road to Global War
    Surging Global Imperialism: Japan, Italy, and Germany
    The Spanish Civil War
    Hitler Conquers Central Europe
  Conclusion
    
  DOCUMENTS
    Sweden's Battle for Population
       5.1 Alva Myrdal, Nation and Family: The Swedish Experiment in @h=Democratic Family and Population Policy, 1941.
    The Secret Poetry of Stalinism
       5.2 Anna Akhmatova, "Requiem," 1930s–1960s
    Japan on the Move
       5.3 Draft of Basic Plan for Establishment of Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, 1942
    
  PICTURE ESSAY:
    The Machine, the Military, and the Masses
       The Tiller Girls; Women's League of Health and Beauty; Exercising British Women; Nazi Pomp; Soviet Women Marchers; Boy Scouts in Vienna; Fascist Blackshirts in Italy.
    
6. THE SECOND WORLD WAR AND THE COLLAPSE OF EUROPE, 1939–1945
  Rapid Victories
    The German Onslaught
    The Expansion of War and Operation Barbarossa
    War Opens in the Pacific
    The Grand Alliance
  A War Against Civilians
    Occupation and Collaboration
    Holocaust
  Militarizing Nation and Empire
    Societies in Wartime
    Impact of the War Overseas
    Men in Combat
    Resistance
  The World War Ends and the Cold War Begins
    The Axis on the Defensive
    Surrender in Europe and the Defeat of Japan
    The Emergence of the Superpowers
    Toward the Cold War
  Conclusion
    
  DOCUMENTS
    The War Against Civilians
       6.1 London Diary (anonymous), 1941
       6.2 V. S. Kostrovitskaia, Diary, January 1942, April 1943
    Literature of the Holocaust
       6.3 Rudolf Vrba and Alfred Weczler, "Auschwitz Observed," U.S. War Refugee Board, 1944
       6.4 Nelly Sachs, "Already Embraced by the Arm of Heavenly Solace"
    World War II and Human Rights
       6.5 United Nations, "Universal Declaration of Human Rights," 1948
    
  PICTURE ESSAY:
    World War II Propaganda and Modern Racism
       Juden Komplot poster; Poster for the female wing of the Hitler Youth; German propaganda cartoon; Hitler as mouse cartoon; Anti-Japanese cartoon of Tojo; "Together," Allied propaganda poster; "Friend or Foe? How to know," diagram.
    
7. DEVASTATED EUROPE IN AN AGE OF COLD WAR, 1945–1963
  Cold War and the New World Politics
    Europe in Ruins
    The Cold War
    Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan
    The Battle for Germany
  Bringing Order to Postwar Europe
    Restoring Government
    Postwar Society: Women and Refugees
    The Revival of Stalinism
  Restoring Cultural Values
    Contested Memories
    From Holocaust to Hope
    Existentialism and the Politics of Commitment
  The Deepening Cold War
    The Arms Race
    Cold War Culture
    Toward Nuclear Holocaust
  Conclusion
    
  DOCUMENTS
    The Soviet Ambassador Appraises the U.S., 1946
       7.1 Nikolai Novikov, Report to Foreign Minister Molotov, September 27, 1946
    "What is Woman?... She Is The Other"
       7.2 Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex, 1949
    The Purges in Czechoslovakia
       7.3 Official Account of the trial of Dr. Milada Horáková, 1950
       7.4 Milda Horáková, Letter to her daughter before execution, 1950
    
  PICTURE ESSAY:
    Cold War Media and the Struggle of Good versus Evil
       "Candy-Bomber"; "Escapee across the Berlin Wall"; Soviet Era Kitsch; Still from Goldfinger; Soviet anti-American Cartoon; American anti-Soviet Cartoon; Peace March and Peace Symbol.
    
8. THE REBIRTH OF PROSPERITY AND THE RISE OF THE WELFARE STATE IN THE 1950S AND EARLY 1960S
  The Welfare State
    Enacting Social Programs
    The Welfare State at Work
  Economic Revival East and West
    The Common Market
    Rebuilding the East European Economy
    The Rise of the Technocrats
  The Politics of Prosperity
    Revolt and Reform in the Soviet Sphere
    Cultural Thaw Leads to Further Revolt
    Conservative Politics in Western Europe in the 1950s
  The Rebirth of Consumerism
    Europe Goes Shopping
    The Perils and Possibilities of Americanization
    Cultural Consumption
  Conclusion
    
  DOCUMENTS
    Childhood in the British Welfare State
       8.1 Carolyn Kay Steedman, Landscape for a Good Woman, 1986
    The Myth of Classlessness
       8.2 Milovan Djilas, The New Class, 1957
    Teen Culture in the Soviet Union
       8.3 D. Belyaev, "Stilyaga," 1949
    
  PICTURE ESSAY:
    European Consumerism in the 1950s and 1960s
       French refrigerator advertisement; Motorbike; Big TV console with built-in hi-fi; Coca-Cola ad; "Youth and beauty is marvelous" Dermilux ad; ad for luxury chocolate; models in plain Soviet fashions.
    
9. POST-IMPERIAL EUROPE, CA. 1947 TO 1980
  Decolonization
    The Legacy of War
    Ending the Empire in Asia
    The Quest for Autonomy in North Africa and the Middle East
    Decolonization in Sub-Saharan Africa
  Europe's Empire Comes Home
    Refugees and Guest Workers
    Civil Rights and Ethnic Politics
  A New Society
    Social Policy for Migrants
    Immigrant Communities
    Domestic Life and Gender Roles
  Culture After Colonization
    Decolonizing the Mind
    A New Burst of Cultural Mixture
  Conclusion
    
  DOCUMENTS
    Nasser Faces Off with Imperial Europe
       9.1 Gamal Abdul Nasser, Speech September 15, 1956
    Racial Difference in Postwar Germany
       9.2 Abena Adomako, Memoir
    A Powerful Voice of Decolonization
       9.3 Frantz Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth, 1961
    
  PICTURE ESSAY:
    The Changing Face of Europe
       Exiled Moluccans; Woman in Brixton Market; Indian Man at Cinema; Turkish Émigré Showing Handmade Lace; Conservative Party election Poster; Muslims at Prayer in Marseilles, France; Kaiserslautern Soccer Stars.
    
10. POST-INDUSTRIAL EUROPE AND ITS CRITICS, 1965–1979
  The Technology Revolution
    The Information Age: Television and Computers
    The Space Age
    Revolutions in Biology, Reproductive Technologies, and Sexual Behavior
  Postindustrial Economy and Society
    Multinational Corporations
    The New Worker: the Rise of the Service Sector
    Women in the Post-Industrial Economy
    The Boom in Research and Education
    The Redefined Family
  An Age of Protest and Reform
    Student Protest
    Feminism
    1968: Year of Crisis in Western and Eastern Europe
  Attacking and Defending an Eroding Status Quo
    Oil Crisis and Stagflation
    Troubled U.S. Leadership
    Repression and Dissent in the Soviet Bloc
  Alternative Politics
    Environmentalism and the Green Party
    Political, Ethnic, and Religious Violence
  Conclusion
    
  DOCUMENTS
    The Post-Industrial Worker and Family Life
       10.1 A Day in the Life of a White-Collar Worker in Budapest, 1970s
    Gay Liberation
       10.2 Gay Liberation Front: Manifesto, 1971, revised 1978
    The "Green" Analysis
       10.3 Petra Kelly, Fighting for Hope, 1983
    
  PICTURE ESSAY:
    Politics in the Streets
       London anti-Vietnam war demonstrator; Women demonstrators in Turin; "Don't be sheep" poster; May Day parade in Prague; Dancing on the Silos; A student felled by a flic; Che Guevara.
    
11. EUROPE CHANGES COURSE: THE 1980S AND BEYOND
  Europe Faces the Global Economic Challenge
    The Rise of the Pacific Economy
    Thatcher Reshapes Political Culture
    The Reagan Revolution's Global Impact
  Alternatives to Thatcherism
    Germany Turns to the Right
    France Charts a Different Course
    Smaller States Pursue Prosperity
  Reformers Change the Soviet Bloc
    Gorbachev Comes to Power
    Poland and the Birth of Solidarity
  The End of the Soviet System
    Hungary
    Reunification of Germany
    Czechoslovakia
    Romania
  Yugoslavia and the USSR Disintegrate
    The Breakup of Yugoslavia
    The Soviet Union Comes Apart
  The Birth Pains of a New Eastern Europe
    An Elusive Market Economy
    Post-Communist Culture
  Conclusion
    
  DOCUMENTS
    Thatcher and Neo-Liberalism
       11.1 Margaret Thatcher, Speech to the Conservative Party Conference, Blackpool, 16 October, 1981; Speech to the Conservative Party Conference, 14 October, 1988
    Gorbachev on Glasnost and Perestroika
       11.2 Mikhail Gorbachev, Speech to the Communist Party, January 1987
    Days of Confusion and Turmoil in Yugoslavia
       11.3 Sara Bafo, "Between Despair and Hope: A Belgrade Diary," 1991–1992
       11.4 Jelena, 9 Years old, from The Suitcase: Refugee Voices from Bosnia and Croatia
    
  PICTURE ESSAY:
    Dissident Art in the Soviet Bloc
       Berliner, Picnic in Nature; Endless Train; Russian Trinity; Mother and Child by Arutíunian; Estonian art; First AptArt Exhibition by the Mukhomor Group.
    
12. EUROPE IN THE GLOBAL AGE
  The Perils and Possibilities of Globalization
    Europe and the Environment
    Disease and Drug Epidemics
    Migration Continues
    Global Networks and Organizations
  Beyond the Nation-State: Integration and Fragmentation
    From Common Market to European Union
    East Joins West
    Global Cities and Global Citizens
    National Fragmentation and the Move for Local Autonomy
  The Future of European Society
    Population and Prosperity
    Neo-liberalism and the Crisis of Social Citizenship
    Movements for Human Rights and Equality
  Culture and the Global Challenge
    Islam Confronts the West
    The Global Diffusion of Culture
  Conclusion
    
  DOCUMENTS
    Beyond the Nation-State: Global Cities
       12.1 Saskia Sassen, from Globalization and Its Discontents, 1998
    The Future of Democracy in the Global Age
       12.2 Shirley Williams, Can Democracy Survive the Computer?, 1985
    Global Human Rights
       12.3 Fatima Ahmed Ibrahim, "The Global Refugee Crisis," 1995
    
  PICTURE ESSAY:
    Building the Global city, Rebuilding a Global Europe
       Paris Library; Hong Kong Skyline; Tokyo; New York; Sony Center, Potsdammerplatz; Beaubourg, Paris; Jewish Museum, Berlin; Helsinki Airport; Prague scaffolded; Prague, Fred & Ginger; Cordoba


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