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The twentieth century has been interpreted as a short century marked by extremes. According to this view, the century lasted only from 1914 to 1989 or 1991. These dates coincide with the rise and fall of communism that came to power in Russia in 1917 and ended with the fall of the Berlin wall (1989) or that of the Soviet Union (1991). Thus, the concept of a short century is unduly influenced by a Cold War perspective. InEurope's Long Century, Spencer Di Scala presents an alternative view that will be more helpful to undergraduate history students in the twenty-first-century: namely, that twentieth century Europe was actually a "long" century lasting approximately from 1900 to 2000 with patterns and antecedents discernible before the century began and that continue to be elaborated today. Comprehensive, current, and affordable,Europe's Long Centuryintegrates the histories of Eastern Europe, Scandinavia, and the Balkans that are often neglected in similar treatments. It also thoroughly covers the role of science in shaping modern European life, and the book's "biographical sketches" profile the lives of important--though not always well known--people who influenced Europe's long century.
Spencer Di Scala is Professor of History and past graduate program director at University of Massachusetts Boston. He is the author of several books, including Italy from Revolution to Republic (2009), European Political Thought: 1815-1989 (1998), Italian Socialism Between Politics and History (1996), and Renewing Italian Socialism: Nenni to Craxi (OUP, 1988).
Table of Contents
Preface Acknowledgments List of Maps List of Abbreviations
INTRODUCTION: WHAT IS EUROPE?
Europe as a Cultural Conception The Idea of Europe and Christianity The European Ideal Becomes Secularized Hegemony versus Consensus The Ideal of Unity between the Two World Wars The European Concept during the Late Twentieth Century A Post-Cold War Perspective
PART ONE: THE EUROPEAN AGE
1. DECEMBER 14, 1900
The Twentieth Century: Science and Ideology European Society Changing Cultural and Political Outlooks
BIBLIOGRAPHICAL ESSAY BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES Anna Kuliscioff Cofounder of Italian Socialism Max Planck An Upright German
2. THE DEMOCRACIES AND THEIR DILEMMAS
Britain: Accommodation and Militancy France Muddles Through Italian Democracy in the Making