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The twentieth century has been interpreted as a short century marked by extremes. According to this view, the century lasted only from 1914 to 1989 or 1991. These dates coincide with the rise and fall of communism that came to power in Russia in 1917 and ended with the fall of the Berlin wall (1989) or that of the Soviet Union (1991). Thus, the concept of a short century is unduly influenced by a Cold War perspective. InEurope's Long Century, Spencer Di Scala presents an alternative view that will be more helpful to undergraduate history students in the twenty-first-century: namely, that twentieth century Europe was actually a "long" century lasting approximately from 1900 to 2000 with patterns and antecedents discernible before the century began and that continue to be elaborated today. Comprehensive, current, and affordable,Europe's Long Centuryintegrates the histories of Eastern Europe, Scandinavia, and the Balkans that are often neglected in similar treatments. It also thoroughly covers the role of science in shaping modern European life, and the book's "biographical sketches" profile the lives of important--though not always well known--people who influenced Europe's long century.
Spencer Di Scala is Professor of History and past graduate program director at University of Massachusetts Boston. He is the author of several books, including Italy from Revolution to Republic (2009), European Political Thought: 1815-1989 (1998), Italian Socialism Between Politics and History (1996), and Renewing Italian Socialism: Nenni to Craxi (OUP, 1988).
Table of Contents
List of Maps
List of Abbreviations
INTRODUCTION: WHAT IS EUROPE?
Europe as a Cultural Conception
The Idea of Europe and Christianity
The European Ideal Becomes Secularized
Hegemony versus Consensus
The Ideal of Unity between the Two World Wars
The European Concept during the Late Twentieth Century
A Post-Cold War Perspective
PART ONE: THE EUROPEAN AGE
1. DECEMBER 14, 1900
The Twentieth Century: Science and Ideology
Changing Cultural and Political Outlooks
Anna Kuliscioff Cofounder of Italian Socialism
Max Planck An Upright German
2. THE DEMOCRACIES AND THEIR DILEMMAS
Britain: Accommodation and Militancy
France Muddles Through
Italian Democracy in the Making
Emmeline Pankhurst "Votes for Women!"
Jean-Joseph-Marie-Auguste Jaurès Martyr
3. THE AUTHORITARIAN STATES
The German Empire: Greater Prussia
"That Ramshackle Realm": Austria-Hungary
Imperial Russia: "Institutions Are of No Importance"
Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albrecht of Hohenzollern Failure
Karl Lueger Mayor of Vienna
4. FOREIGN POLICIES
Britain: Managing Decline
World Policy (Weltpolitik)
France's Lost Provinces
Showdown in the Balkans
Italy Searches for Security
Théophile Delcassé Warrior Diplomat
Francis Joseph of Hapsburg Unlucky
5. EUROPEAN PERIPHERIES
Scandinavia: An Ideal Unity
Different Roads: The Low Countries
The Making of a Conservative: Switzerland
The Iberian States
Niels Henrik David Bohr "Uncle Nick"
Émile Vandervelde Evolutionary Socialist
PART TWO: END OF HEGEMONY
6. WORLD WAR
Imperialism and Diplomacy: From Crisis to Crisis
History of a History: Causes of World War I
The Home Fronts
The War Ends
Henry Gwyn Jeffreys Moseley A Casualty of War
Erich Maria Remarque "But now, for the first time, people learned what it was really like"
7. WAR'S IMMEDIATE IMPACT: RUSSIAN AND OTHER REVOLUTIONS
War and the Russian Revolutions
The German Revolution
End of the War in Germany
The Struggle for Power
Foundation of the Weimar Republic
Revolution in Austria
The Hungarian Revolution
Continuous Rebellion: Artists and Scientists
Vladimir Ilych Ulyanov A Sealed Train
Rosa Luxemburg Marxist Martyr
8. THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE PEACE
The Paris Peace Conference
The Territorial Consequences
The Moral Consequences
The League of Nations
Georges Clemenceau Tiger
Sidney Sonnino Failed Diplomatist
9. HARD LANDINGS: FROM CRISIS TO FALSE PROSPERITY
Britain: Back to 1914
France's Quest for Security
Italy: From "Red Biennium" to Fascism
Weimar's Three Original Sins
The USSR: The Crisis of NEP
John Maynard Keynes Savior of Capitalism
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini Young Rebel
PART THREE: AN AGE OF DICTATORS
10. THE GREAT DEPRESSION AND THE LIBERAL DEMOCRACIES
The Great Depression
Scandinavia: Toward Social Democracy
Marking Time: The Low Countries and Switzerland
James Ramsay MacDonald Labour's "Nonperson" Prime Minister
Léon Blum Popular Front
11. THE CRISIS OF DEMOCRACY IN EASTERN AND SOUTHERN EUROPE
The Victors of the Versailles Settlement
The Versailles Settlement's Losers
The Aegean and the Adriatic
Josef Klemens Pilsudski Polish Dictator
Thomas Garrigue Masaryk European Democrat
12. MUSSOLINI'S FASCISM
Edmondo Rossoni Fascist Labor
Margherita Sarfatti "Dictator of the Figurative Arts"
13. STALIN'S COMMUNISM
Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin Communist Theoretician
Alexandra Mikhaylovna Kollontai "Red Rose of the Revolution"
14. THE NAZI ASSAULT ON WEIMAR
Weimar's Crumbling Support
Ascent of the Nazi Party
The Collapse of Weimar
Installing the Dictatorship
Adolf Hitler Down and Out in Vienna
Franz von Papen Politico
15. HITLER'S NAZISM
Foundations of Nazism
Nazi Theory and Practice
Gertrud Scholtz-Klink Unrepentant!
Hermann Goering Nazi Chieftain
16. INTERWAR SOCIETY AND CULTURE
Entertainment and High Culture
Technology and Society
Pure Science: Revolution and Travail
Ettore Majorana The Enduring Mystery
Lise Meitner The Role of Insight
17. DIPLOMACY BETWEEN THE WARS: THE COLLAPSE OF PEACE
The Continent in the 1920s
The Hitler Revolution
From Crisis to Crisis
A New War
Gustav Stresemann Fulfillment
Aristide Briand Man of Peace, "Father of Europe"
18. THE GERMAN TIDE OVER EUROPE
The Home Fronts
Heinz Wilhelm Guderian Panzer General
Maurice Gustave Gamelin Historical Footnote
19. INSIDE HITLER'S EUROPE: MILITARY OCCUPATION AND GENOCIDE
Short and Long-Term Aims
Military Occupation in the East
Military Occupation in the West
Heinrich Himmler "Architect of Genocide"
Primo Levi 174517
20. HOW THE WAR WAS WON
Ideology: Nationalism's Handmaiden?
Erwin Rommel The Desert Fox
Bernard Law Montgomery Hero of El Alamein
[End Volume 1 / Begin Volume 2]
PART FOUR: DUAL EUROPE
21. MAKING POSTWAR EUROPE
Soviet Dominance in the East
The West: American Influence
The Cold War
Klement Gottwald Stalinist
Josip Broz Tito Communist Nationalist
22. ECONOMIC INTEGRATION AND POLITICAL STABILIZATION IN THE WEST
The Community: New Europe's Core
Jean Monnet Cognac and Europe
Konrad Adenauer Senior Statesman
23. FAILURE OF EFTA AND EXPANSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY
Characteristics of the Seven
The Disappearing Periphery
James Harold Wilson Reluctant European
Kurt Waldheim Austria in the Dock
Origins of Decolonization
Death by War
Frantz Fanon Language, Peasants, and Revolution
25. STALINISM AND "ACTUALLY EXISTING SOCIALISM"
The East European Revolution
Stalinism in Eastern Europe
"Actually Existing Socialism" in the USSR
Georgi Dimitrov Master in Ideology
Ana Rabinovici Pauker Communist Nonperson
26. DE-STALINIZATION AND DESTABILIZATION
Destabilization in Eastern Europe
Nikita Sergeievich Khrushchev Peasant Wit
Alexander Dubcek Brief Spring
27. THE SHIFTING ECONOMIC FRAMEWORK AND POLITICAL CHANGE IN THE WEST
The Thatcher Era in Britain
Mitterrand's "Unintended Revolution"
Italy's Triple Revolution
Keeping the Balance in Germany
Meeting the Challenge
Margaret Hilda Roberts Thatcher No Interpreter Needed
François Maurice Adrien Marie Mitterrand "A Very Good Dancer"
28. CULTURAL CHANGE AND EXTREMISM IN THE WEST
Expanding Opportunities and Growing Protest
Discontent in the West
The 1968 Revolts
Terrorism and Society
Growth of Feminism
Return to Normalcy
Mara Cagol Co-Founder, Red Brigades
Simone Lucie Ernestine Marie Bertrand e Beauvoir, Philosopher-Feminist
29. CONTINUITY AND CHANGE
Scandinavian Social Democracy
The Lesser-Developed Countries
European Union: The Acceleration of History
Joerg Haider Embarrassment or Admonition?
Andreas Papandreou Democratic Fighter
30. EVOLUTION OF SOCIETY
Discontent in the West
The Changing Family
John XXIII "The Good Pope"
Boris Pasternak Doctor Zhivago
31. CULTURAL DIMENSIONS
Science and Technology
Jean-Paul Sartre Model of an Intellectual
Arcangela Felice Assunta Wertmüller von Elgg Spanol von Braucich Outrageous!
32. STAGNATION AND FAILED REFORM IN THE EAST
Stagnation in the Soviet Union
Beginning the End: Poland
Mikhail Gorbachev's Failed Revolution
Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov "Our Regime Resembles A Cancer Cell"
Nicolae Ceausescu Gigantomania
33. THE COLLAPSE OF COMMUNISM
Why the Dominoes Fell
The Process of Collapse I: Implosion
The Process of Collapse II: Explosion
The Process of Collapse III: Russia versus the Soviet Union
Václav Havel Velvet Revolution
Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin Maverick
34. EUROPE IN A GLOBAL AGE: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS
The New Germany
The New Russia
The Balkan and Southeastern Hot Spots
The European Union's March
The Larger East European Economies and the EU
What Is Europe?