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Evaluating Research in Communicative Disorders,9780205337729
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Evaluating Research in Communicative Disorders

by ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780205337729

ISBN10:
0205337724
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2002
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon

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Summary

The Fourth Edition of Evaluating Research in Communicative Disorders explains and discusses how to read, understand, and evaluate research published in communicative disorders and sciences journals. This text is broken down into three parts. Part I introduces the basic principles for evaluating research, Part II contains a excerpts from journal articles and Part III presents two complete articles for student evaluation accompanied by an evaluation checklist to guide the student in the evaluation process. Numerous examples from current research to illustrate and clarify points made in the text. The book is richly illustrated with tables and figures and includes many study questions to guide students through primary sources in the research literature.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
PART I Basic Considerations in Evaluating Research 1(202)
Overview
1(2)
References
3(2)
The Consumer of Research in Communicative Disorders
5(18)
Research-Practice Relationships in Communicative Disorders
6(2)
Knowledge Acquisition
8(2)
Scientific Method
10(2)
Theory Construction in Behavioral Science
12(1)
Common Steps in Behavioral Science Research
13(3)
Statement of the Problem
13(1)
Method of Investigation
14(1)
Results of Investigation
14(1)
Conclusions
14(2)
The Nature of Research in Communicative Disorders
16(1)
Research Ethics
17(1)
The Editorial Process in the Publication of a Research Article
18(1)
Some Myths and a Caveat
19(2)
Study Questions
21(1)
References
22(1)
Research Strategies in Communicative Disorders
23(57)
Variables in Empirical Research
23(6)
Independent and Dependent Variables
24(3)
Active and Attribute Variables
27(1)
Continuous and Categorical Variables
27(2)
Experimental Research
29(17)
Bivalent Experiments
31(3)
Multivalent Experiments
34(3)
Parametric Experiments
37(9)
Descriptive Research
46(22)
Comparative Research
48(7)
Developmental Research
55(6)
Correlational Research
61(3)
Survey Research
64(1)
Case Study and Retrospective Research
65(3)
Combined Experimental and Descriptive Research
68(7)
Study Questions
75(2)
References
77(3)
Research Design in Communicative Disorders
80(26)
Meaning of Research Design
80(1)
Purposes of Research Design
81(1)
General Research Design Principles
82(1)
Group Research Designs
82(10)
Between-Subjects Designs
82(7)
Within-Subjects Designs
89(2)
Mixed Designs
91(1)
Single-Subject Research Designs
92(5)
External Validity Issues in Research Design
97(6)
Study Questions
103(1)
References
104(2)
Measurement Issues in Communicative Disorders
106(22)
Definition of Measurement
108(1)
Levels of Measurement
109(3)
Nominal Level of Measurement
109(2)
Ordinal Level of Measurement
111(1)
Interval Level of Measurement
111(1)
Ratio Level of Measurement
112(1)
Factors That Affect Quality of Measurement
112(3)
Test Environment
113(1)
Instrument Calibration
113(1)
Instructions to Participants
113(1)
Observer Bias
114(1)
Reliability of Measurements
115(6)
Stability
117(1)
Equivalence
117(1)
Internal Consistency
118(3)
Validity of Measurements
121(3)
Content Validity
121(1)
Criterion Validity
122(1)
Construct Validity
123(1)
Study Questions
124(2)
References
126(2)
Evaluating Treatment Efficacy Research
128(34)
Internal Validity and Factors That Affect It
132(6)
History
133(1)
Maturation
133(1)
Testing or Test-Practice Effects
134(1)
Instrumentation
135(1)
Statistical Regression
136(1)
Differential Subject-Selection
136(1)
Mortality
137(1)
Interaction of Factors
137(1)
External Validity and Factors That Affect It
138(3)
Subject-Selection
139(1)
Reactive or Interactive Effects of Pretesting
140(1)
Reactive Arrangements
140(1)
Multiple-Treatment Interference
141(1)
Evaluation of Some Experimental Designs for Studying Treatment Efficacy
141(17)
Weak Designs
142(3)
Stronger Designs
145(8)
Meta-Analysis of Treatment Efficacy Research
153(1)
Ethics of Using Control Groups in Treatment Efficacy Research
154(2)
Protection of Human Participants in Research
156(2)
Study Questions
158(2)
References
160(2)
Organization and Analysis of Data
162(41)
Data Organization
163(9)
Data Distributions
163(1)
Tabular and Graphic Presentation
163(6)
Summary Statistics
169(3)
Data Analysis
172(28)
Basic Concepts of Data Analysis
172(7)
Methods for Analyzing Relationships
179(9)
Methods for Analyzing Differences
188(12)
Study Questions
200(1)
References
201(2)
PART II Evaluation of the Components of a Research Article 203(188)
Overview
203(1)
Reference
204(1)
The Introduction Section of the Research Article
205(19)
Title of the Article
205(2)
The Abstract
207(1)
General Statement of the Problem
208(2)
The Rationale for the Study
210(7)
Review of the Literature
217(2)
Statement of Purpose, Research Questions, and Hypotheses
219(3)
Miscellaneous Considerations
222(1)
Evaluation Checklist
223(1)
Reference
223(1)
The Method Section
224(77)
Participant
224(8)
Sample Size
225(3)
Criteria for Participant Selection
228(4)
Materials
232(27)
Hardware Instrumentation and Calibration
232(6)
Reliability and Validity of Behavioral Instruments
238(7)
Other Measurement Considerations
245(14)
Procedures
259(39)
Within-Subjects Experimental Design
260(1)
Between-Subjects Experimental Design
260(4)
Mixed (Between-Subjects and Within-Subjects) Design
264(5)
Within-Subjects Time-Series Experiment
269(4)
Between-Subjects Comparative Research
273(9)
Developmental Research
282(5)
Correlational Research
287(4)
Retrospective Research
291(1)
Survey Research
291(3)
Case Study Research
294(4)
Evaluation Checklist
298(2)
References
300(1)
The Results Section
301(54)
Organization of Results
301(15)
Frequency Distribution: Tabular and Graphic Presentations
301(9)
Summary Statistics: Central Tendency and Variability
310(6)
Some Characteristics of Clear Data Organization
316(1)
Analysis of Data
317(32)
Correlational Analysis
318(14)
Analysis of Differences
332(17)
Some Characteristics of Clear Data Analysis
349(5)
Evaluation Checklist
354(1)
The Discussion and Conclusions Section
355(36)
Relation of Conclusions to Preceding Parts of the Article
355(13)
The Research Problem
355(2)
The Method of Investigation
357(3)
The Results of the Investigation
360(8)
Relationship of Results to Previous Research
368(4)
Theoretical Implications of the Research
372(3)
Practical Implications of the Research
375(5)
Implications for Future Research
380(10)
Evaluation Checklist
390(1)
PART III Evaluation of the Complete Research Article: Two Examples 391(6)
Overview
391(1)
Evaluation Checklist
392(5)
Example Article for Evaluation in Audiology: Auditory Temporal Order Perception in Younger and Older Adults 397(13)
Peter J. Fitzgibbons
Sandra Gordon-Salant
Example Article for Evaluation in Speech-Language Pathology: Effects of Treatment on Linguistic and Social Skills in Toddlers with Delayed Language 410(22)
Shari Brand Robertson
Susan Ellis Weismer
Appendix: Proclamation of the Association of American Medical Colleges and the National Health Council 432(3)
Author Index 435(8)
Subject Index 443


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