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Evaluation of Orthopedic and Athletic Injuries,9780803607910
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Evaluation of Orthopedic and Athletic Injuries

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780803607910

ISBN10:
0803607911
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
6/1/2001
Publisher(s):
F a Davis Co
List Price: $71.95
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Summary

KEY FEATURES Information presented in user-friendly format Three additional chapters new to this edition: Assessment of Posture; Distinctive boxes for each type of test added, including boxes for res Evaluation maps guide students through the evaluation process and spe Goniometry boxes explain how to take correct measurements and include New boxes accompany common injuries and highlight common clinical find All boxes include photos and illustrations to aid students in visualiz Two new highly illustrated appendices: Assessment of Muscle Length and Text conforms to or exceeds the new Athletic Training Educational Comp Each chapter starts with a review of the bony areas, clinical anatomy, and biomechanics of that part of the body and ends with a discussion of emergency or initial management of specific injuries

Table of Contents

The Injury Evaluation Process
Systematic Evaluation Technique
1(2)
Description of the Evaluative Model
1(1)
The Role of the Noninjured Paired Structure
2(1)
Clinical Evaluations
3(16)
History
3(4)
Inspection
7(1)
Palpation
8(2)
Range of Motion
10(4)
Ligamentous and Capsular Tests
14(1)
Special Tests
15(1)
Neurologic Tests
15(4)
Activity-Specific Functional Testing
19(1)
On-Field Evaluation of Athletic Injuries
19(3)
On-Field History
20(1)
On-Field Inspection
21(1)
On-Field Palpation
21(1)
On-Field Range of Motion Testing
21(1)
On-Field Ligamentous Testing
22(1)
On-Field Neurologic Testing
22(1)
Removal of the Athlete from the Field
22(1)
Termination of The Evaluation
22(1)
Standard Precautions Against Blood-Borne Pathogens
22(4)
The Roles of Different Health Care Professionals
26(2)
Athletic Trainer
26(1)
Physical Therapist
26(1)
School Nurse
27(1)
Emergency Medical Technician
27(1)
Physician
27(1)
Documentation
28(1)
References
28(1)
Injury Nomenclature
Soft Tissue Injuries
29(11)
Musculotendinous Injuries
29(4)
Joint Structure Injuries
33(4)
Articular Surface Injuries
37(3)
Bony Injuries
40(5)
Exostosis
41(1)
Apophysitis
41(1)
Fractures
42(3)
Neurovascular Pathologies
45(1)
Peripheral Nerve Injury
45(1)
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy)
46(1)
Imaging Techniques
46(4)
Radiographs
46(2)
Computed Tomography (CT) Scan
48(1)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
49(1)
Bone Scan
50(1)
Ultrasonic Imaging
50(1)
References
50(2)
Assessment of Posture
Clinical Anatomy
52(6)
The Kinetic Chain
52(3)
Muscular Function
55(1)
Muscular Length-Tension Relationships
56(1)
Agonist and Antagonist Relationships
56(1)
Muscle Imbalances
56(1)
Soft Tissue Imbalances
57(1)
Clinical Evaluation Of Posture
58(16)
History
58(1)
Inspection
59(4)
Overall Impression
63(1)
Views of Postural Inspection
63(3)
Inspection of Leg Length Discrepancy
66(2)
Palpation
68(4)
Functional Tests
72(2)
Common Postural Deviations
74(9)
Foot and Ankle
74(1)
The Knee
75(1)
Spinal Column
76(4)
Shoulder and Scapula
80(1)
Head and Cervical Spine
81(2)
Interrelationship Between Regions
83(1)
Documentation of Postural Assessment
83(2)
References
85(2)
The Foot and Toes
Clinical Anatomy
87(11)
Rearfoot
88(1)
Midfoot
88(1)
Forefoot and Toes
89(1)
Articulations and Ligamentous Support
90(1)
Muscles Acting on the Foot and Toes
91(1)
Arches of the Foot
91(7)
Clinical Evaluation Of Foot and Toe Injuries
98(22)
History
98(3)
Inspection
101(7)
Palpation
108(5)
Range of Motion Testing
113(1)
Ligamentous and Capsular Testing
114(2)
Neurologic Examination
116(4)
Pathologies and Related Special Tests
120(13)
Arch Pathologies
120(4)
Plantar Fascitis
124(2)
Tarsal Coalition
126(1)
Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome
126(2)
Metatarsal Fractures
128(1)
Intermetatarsal Neuroma
129(2)
Hallux Rigidus
131(1)
First Metatarsophalangeal Joint Sprains
132(1)
On-Field Evaluation Of Foot Injuries
133(1)
Equipment Considerations
133(1)
On-Field History
133(1)
On-Field Inspection
133(1)
On-Field Palpation
133(1)
On-Field Range of Motion Tests
133(1)
On-Field Management of Foot Injuries
134(1)
Plantar Fascia Ruptures
134(1)
Fractures and Dislocations
134(1)
References
134(2)
The Ankle and Lower Leg
Clinical Anatomy
136(9)
Related Bony Structures
138(1)
Articulations and Ligamentous Support
138(2)
Muscles of the Lower Leg and Ankle
140(5)
Bursae
145(1)
Clinical Evalution of The Ankle and Lower Leg
145(17)
History
145(2)
Inspection
147(3)
Palpation
150(4)
Range of Motion Testing
154(3)
Tests For Ligamentous Stability
157(5)
Neurologic Testing
162(1)
Pathologies and Related Special Tests
162(18)
Ankle Sprains
162(6)
Stress Fractures
168(4)
Os Trigonum Injury
172(1)
Achilles Tendon Pathology
172(4)
Subluxating Peroneal Tendons
176(1)
Neurovascular Deficit
177(3)
On-Field Evaluation of Lower Leg and Ankle Injuries
180(2)
Equipment Considerations
180(2)
On-Field History
182(1)
On-Field Inspection
182(1)
On-Field Palpation
182(1)
On-Field Range of Motion Tests
182(1)
Initial Management of On-Field Injuries
182(2)
Ankle Dislocations
182(1)
Lower Leg Fractures
183(1)
Management of Lower Leg Fractures and Dislocations
183(1)
Anterior Compartment Syndrome
184(1)
References
184(2)
The Knee
Clinical Anatomy
186(11)
Articulations and Ligamentous Support
187(3)
The Menisci
190(1)
Muscles of the Knee
191(4)
The Screw Home Mechanism
195(2)
Clinical Evaluation of Knee and Leg Injuries
197(19)
History
197(1)
Inspection
198(3)
Palpation
201(3)
Determination of Intracapsular Versus Extracapsular Swelling
204(1)
Range of Motion Testing
205(2)
Tests For Joint Stability
207(9)
Neurologic Testing
216(1)
Pathologies and Related Special Tests
216(23)
Uniplanar Knee Sprains
217(5)
Rotational Knee Instabilities
222(6)
Meniscal Tears
228(1)
Osterochondral Defects
229(6)
Lliotibial Band Friction Syndrome
235(3)
Popliteus Tendinitis
238(1)
On-Field Evaluation of Knee Injuries
239(1)
Equipment Considerations
239(1)
On-Field History
240(1)
On-Field Inspection
240(1)
On-Field Palpation
240(1)
On-Field Range of Motion Tests
240(1)
On-Field Ligamentous Tests
240(1)
On-Field Management of Knee Injuries
240(1)
Tibiofemoral Joint Dislocation
240(1)
Collateral and Cruciate Ligament Sprains
241(1)
Meniscal Tears
241(1)
References
241(3)
The Patellofemoral Articulation
Clinical Anatomy
244(2)
Muscular Anatomy and Related Soft Tissues
245(1)
Bursa of the Extensor Mechanism
245(1)
Clinical Evaluation of the Patellofemoral Joint
246(10)
History
246(1)
Inspection
247(2)
Palpation
249(5)
Range of Motion Testing
254(1)
Ligamentous Testing
254(1)
Neurologic Testing
254(2)
Pathologies And Related Special Tests
256(12)
Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome
256(2)
Patellar Maltracking
258(1)
Patellar Subluxation and Dislocation
259(1)
Patellar Tendinitis
259(2)
Patellar Tendon Rupture
261(2)
Patellar Bursitis
263(1)
Synovial Plica
263(2)
Osgood-Schlatter Disease
265(2)
Sinding-Larsen-Johansson Disease
267(1)
Patellar Fracture
268(1)
On-Field Evaluation Of Patellofemoral Injuries
268(1)
Equipment Considerations
269(1)
On-Field History
269(1)
On-Field Palpation
269(1)
On-Field Functional Tests
269(1)
Initial Management of On-Field Injuries
269(1)
Patellar Tendon Rupture
269(1)
Patellar Dislocation
269(1)
References
270(2)
The Pelvis and Thigh
Clinical Anatomy
272(7)
Articulations and Ligamentous Support
273(2)
Muscular Anatomy
275(3)
Femoral Triangle
278(1)
Bursae
279(1)
Clinical Evaluation of Pelvis and Thigh
279(15)
History
279(1)
Inspection
280(3)
Palpation
283(2)
Range of Motion Testing
285(8)
Ligamentous Testing
293(1)
Neurologic Testing
294(1)
Pathologies And Related Special Tests
294(4)
Muscle Strains
294(1)
Bursitis
295(1)
Degenerative Hip Changes
296(1)
Piriformis Syndrome
296(2)
On-Field Evlaution of Pelvis And Thigh Injuries
298(1)
Initial Evaluation And Management of On-Field Injuries
299(2)
Iliac Crest Contusion
299(1)
Quadriceps Contusion
299(1)
Hip Dislocation
300(1)
Femoral Fracture
301(1)
References
301(2)
Evaluation of Gait
Observation Techniques
303(1)
Gait Cycle
304(5)
Normal Gait
307(1)
Gait Phases
307(2)
Qualitative Observation of Gait
309(1)
Running Gait
309(5)
Running Gait Cycle
309(5)
Walking Versus Running Gait
314(1)
Ground Reaction Forces
314(1)
Pathologies Affecting the Gait Cycle
315(3)
Acute Lower Extremity Strains and Sprains
315(1)
Overuse Injuries
316(2)
Leg Length Discrepancies
318(1)
Functional Bracing
318(1)
References
318(1)
The Thoracic and Lumbar Spine
Clinical Anatomy
319(10)
Bony Anatomy
319(3)
Intervertebral Disks
322(1)
Articulations and Ligamentous Anatomy
323(1)
Lumbar and Sacral Plexus
324(1)
Muscular Anatomy
325(4)
Clinical Evaluation of The Thoracic and Lumbar Spine
329(22)
History
329(2)
Inspection
331(3)
Palpation
334(3)
Range of Motion Testing
337(4)
Ligamentous Testing
341(2)
Special Tests
343(8)
Neurologic Testing
351(1)
Pathologies and Related Special Tests
351(15)
Erector Spinae Muscle Strain
353(1)
Facet Joint Dysfunction
353(1)
Intervertebral Disk Lesions
354(2)
Sciatica
356(1)
Spondylopathies
357(4)
Sacroiliac Dysfunction
361(5)
On-Field Evaluation of Thoracic and Lumbar Spine Injuries
366(1)
On-Field History
366(1)
On-Field Inspection
366(1)
On-Field Neurologic Tests
366(1)
On-Field Palpation
366(1)
On-Field Management of Thoracic and Lumbar Spine Injuries
366(1)
Thoracic Spine
366(1)
Lumbar Spine
367(1)
References
367(2)
The Cervical Spine
Clinical Anatomy
369(3)
Ligamentous Anatomy
369(1)
Brachial Plexus
370(1)
Muscular Anatomy
371(1)
Clinical Evaluation of Cervical Spine
372(9)
History
372(4)
Inspection
376(1)
Palpation
376(1)
Range of Motion Testing
377(2)
Ligamentous Testing
379(2)
Neurologic Testing
381(1)
Cervical Spine Pathologies and Related Special Tests
381(8)
Brachial Plexus Pathology
381(4)
Cervical Nerve Root Impingement
385(4)
On-field Evaluation and Management of Cervical Spine Injuries
389(5)
Brachial Plexus Injury
389(5)
References
394(1)
The Thorax and Abdomen
Clinical Antomy
395(4)
Muscular Anatomy
396(1)
Respiratory Tract Anatomy
396(1)
Cardiovascular Anatomy
397(1)
Digestive Tract Anatomy
397(1)
Lymphatic Organ Anatomy
398(1)
Urinary Tract Anatomy
398(1)
Reproductive Tract Anatomy
399(1)
Clinical Evaluation of the Thorax and Abdomen
399(11)
History
400(1)
Inspection
401(3)
Palpation
404(2)
Vital Signs
406(1)
Neurologic Signs
407(3)
Pathologies of the Thorax and Abdomen and Related Special Tests
410(10)
Injuries to the Thorax
410(4)
Pathology of the Abdominal and Urinary Organs
414(4)
Pathology of the Reproductive Organs
418(2)
On-Field Evaluation and Management of Thoracic and Abdominal Injuries
420(3)
Rib Fractures
420(1)
Flail Chest
421(1)
Pneumothorax and Hemothorax
421(1)
Cardiac Contusions
422(1)
Solar Plexus Injury
422(1)
Breast Injuries
422(1)
Hollow Organ Injuries
423(1)
References
423(1)
The Shoulder and Upper Arm
Clinical Anatomy
424(13)
Bony Anatomy
424(2)
Joints of the Shoulder Complex
426(4)
Muscles of the Shoulder Complex
430(7)
Scapulothoracic Rhythm
437(1)
Bursa of the Shoulder Complex
437(1)
Clinical Evaluation of Shoulder Injuries
437(22)
History
437(2)
Inspection
439(3)
Palpation
442(2)
Range of Motion Testing
444(12)
Ligamentous and Capsular Testing
456(1)
Neurologic Testing
457(2)
Pathologies of the Shoulder Complex and Related Special Tests
459(25)
Sternoclavicular Joint Sprains
459(1)
Acromioclavicular Joint Sprains
460(3)
Glenohumeral Instability
463(7)
Rotator Cuff Pathology
470(6)
Biceps Tendon Pathology
476(4)
Thoracic Outlet Syndrome
480(4)
On-Field Evaluation of Shoulder Injuries
484(3)
Equipment Considerations
485(1)
On-Field History
485(1)
On-Field Inspection
486(1)
On-Field Palpation
486(1)
On-Field Functional Tests
487(1)
On-Field Neurologic Tests
487(1)
Initial Management of on-Field Shoulder Injuries
487(1)
Scapular Fractures
487(1)
Clavicular Injuries
487(1)
Glenohumeral Dislocations
488(1)
Humeral Fractures
488(1)
References
488(2)
The Elbow and Forearm
Clinical Anatomy
490(7)
Articulations and Ligamentous Anatomy
491(2)
Muscular Anatomy
493(3)
Nerves
496(1)
Bursae
496(1)
Clinical Evaluation of the Elbow and Forearm
497(11)
History
497(1)
Inspection
498(2)
Palpation
500(3)
Range of Motion Testing
503(4)
Ligamentous Testing
507(1)
Neurologic Testing
507(1)
Pathologies and Related Special Tests
508(8)
Elbow Sprains
508(3)
Epicondylitis
511(2)
Distal Biceps Tendon Rupture
513(1)
Osteochondritis Dessicans of the Capitulum
514(1)
Nerve Trauma
514(2)
On-Field Evaluation of Elbow and Forearm Injuries
516(1)
On-Field History
516(1)
On-Field Inspection
516(1)
On-Field Palpation
516(1)
On-Field Range of Motion Tests
516(1)
On-Field Neurologic Tests
517(1)
On-Field Management of Elbow and Forearm Injuries
517(1)
Elbow Dislocations
517(1)
Fracture About the Elbow
517(1)
References
517(2)
The Wrist, Hand, and Fingers
Clinical Anatomy
519(9)
Articulations and Ligamentous Support
520(2)
Muscular Anatomy
522(6)
The Carpal Tunnel
528(1)
Clinical Evaluation of Injuries to Wrist, Hand, and Fingers
528(24)
History
528(2)
Inspection
530(3)
Palpation
533(4)
Range of Motion Testing
537(8)
Ligamentous and Capsular Testing
545(3)
Neurologic Testing
548(4)
Pathologies of the Wrist, Hand, and Fingers and Related Special Tests
552(12)
Wrist Pathology
552(4)
Hand Pathology
556(4)
Finger Pathology
560(2)
Thumb Pathology
562(2)
On-Field Evaluation and Management of Wrist, Hand and Finger Injuries
564(1)
Wrist Fractures and Dislocations
564(1)
Interphalangeal Joint Dislocations
565(1)
Hand and Finger Fractures
565(1)
Lacerations
565(1)
References
565(2)
The Eye
Clinical Anatomy
567(3)
Eye Structures
567(1)
Muscular Anatomy
568(2)
Visual Acuity
570(1)
Clinical Evaluation of Eye Injuries
570(6)
History
570(2)
Inspection
572(2)
Palpation
574(1)
Functional Testing
574(2)
Neurologic Testing
576(1)
Eye Pathologies and Related Special Tests
576(6)
Orbital Fractures
576(1)
Corneal Abrasions
577(1)
Corneal Lacerations
577(2)
Iritis
579(1)
Detached Retina
579(1)
Ruptured Globe
580(1)
Conjunctivitis
580(1)
Foreign Bodies
580(2)
On-Field Evaluation and Management of Eye Injuries
582(1)
Contact Lens Removal
582(1)
Orbital Fractures
582(1)
Penetrating Eye Injuries
582(1)
Chemical Burns
583(1)
References
583(1)
The Face and Related Structures
Clinical Anatomy
584(6)
Temporomandibular Joint Anatomy
584(1)
The Ear
585(1)
The Nose
586(1)
The Throat
586(1)
The Mouth
586(1)
The Teeth
587(1)
Muscular Anatomy
587(3)
Clinical Evaluation of Facial Injuries
590(7)
History
590(1)
Inspection
591(3)
Palpation
594(2)
Functional Testing
596(1)
Neurologic Testing
597(1)
Facial Area Pathologies and Related Special Tests
597(9)
Ear Pathology
597(2)
Nasal Injuries
599(1)
Throat Injury
600(1)
Facial Fractures
601(2)
Dental Conditions
603(2)
Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction
605(1)
On-Field Evaluation and Management of Injuries to the Face and Related Areas
606(2)
Lacerations
606(1)
Laryngeal Injuries
607(1)
Facial Fractures
607(1)
Temporomandibular Injuries
607(1)
Nasal Fracture and Epistaxis
608(1)
Dental Injuries
608(1)
References
608(2)
Head and Neck Injuries
Clinical Anatomy
610(3)
The Brain
611(1)
The Meninges
612(1)
Cerebrospinal Fluid
612(1)
Blood Circulation in the Brain
613(1)
Evaluation of Head and Neck Injuries
613(13)
Evaluation Scenarios
614(1)
Evaluation of Athlete's Position
614(1)
Determination of Consciousness
614(1)
History
615(2)
Inspection
617(1)
Palpation
618(1)
Functional Testing
619(6)
Neurologic Testing
625(1)
Head and Neck Pathologies and Related Special Tests
626(11)
Head Trauma
626(8)
Cervical Spinal Cord Trauma
634(3)
On-Field Evaluation and Management of Head and Neck Injuries
637(10)
Equipment Considerations
638(3)
Initial Inspection
641(1)
Initial Action
642(4)
History
646(1)
Inspection
646(1)
Palpation
646(1)
Neurologic Testing
647(1)
Removing the Athlete From the Field
647(4)
Walking the Athlete Off the Field
647(1)
Using a Spine Board
647(3)
Home Instructions
650(1)
References
651(2)
Environmental Injury
Clinical Anatomy and Physiology
653(3)
Heat Transfer
653(1)
Blood Flow and Heat Exchange
654(1)
Sweating Mechanism
655(1)
Heat Conservation
655(1)
Influence of Ambient Temperature
655(1)
Clinical Evaluation of Environmental Injuries
656(1)
History
656(1)
Inspection
657(1)
Palpation
657(1)
Functional Testing
657(1)
Environmental Pathologies and Related Special Tests
657(7)
Heat Injuries
657(2)
Prevention of Heat Injuries
659(2)
Cold Injuries
661(2)
Prevention of Cold Injuries
663(1)
On-Field Evaluation and Management of Environmental Injuries
664(2)
Heat Injuries
664(1)
Cold Injuries
665(1)
References
666(1)
Cardiopulmonary Conditions
Clinical Anatomy
667(1)
Clinical Evaluation of Cardiopulmonary Injuries
668(4)
History
668(2)
Inspection and Palpation
670(1)
Functional Testing
671(1)
Cardiopulmonary Pathologies and Related Special Tests
672(6)
Syncope
672(1)
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
672(1)
Myocardial Infarction
673(1)
Arrhythmias
674(1)
Bradycardia
674(1)
Tachycardia
674(1)
Mitral Valve Prolapse
675(1)
Hypertension
675(1)
Asthma
675(1)
Hyperventilation
676(2)
On-Field Evaluation and Management of Cardiopulmonary Conditions
678(1)
Asthma
678(1)
Hyperventilation
678(1)
References
679(1)
General Medical Conditions
Respiratory Infections
680(4)
Upper Respiratory Infections
680(3)
Lower Respiratory Infections
683(1)
Management of Athletes with Respiratory Infections
684(1)
Viral Syndromes
684(2)
Mononucleosis
684(1)
Measles
685(1)
Mumps
685(1)
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
686(3)
Chlamydia
686(1)
Genital Warts
686(1)
Gonorrhea
687(1)
Syphilis
687(1)
Herpes Simplex
688(1)
Bloodborne Pathogens
689(2)
Hepatitis
689(1)
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
690(1)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
691(1)
Endocrine System Disorders
691(3)
Diabetes Mellitus
691(2)
Hyperthyroidism
693(1)
Hypothyroidism
693(1)
Pancreatitis
694(1)
Systemic Diseases
694(4)
Marfan Syndrome
694(1)
Iron Deficiency Anemia
695(1)
Sickle Cell Anemia and Sickle Cell Trait
695(1)
Lyme Disease
696(1)
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
696(1)
Fibromyalgia
697(1)
Cancer
698(6)
Signs and Symptoms of Cancer
698(1)
Leukemia
698(1)
Lymphomas
699(1)
Brain Tumors
699(1)
Melanoma
700(1)
Oral Cancer
700(1)
Breast Cancer
701(1)
Cervical Cancer
702(1)
Ovarian Cancer
703(1)
Testicular Cancer
703(1)
Prostate Cancer
703(1)
Colon Cancer
703(1)
Effect of Cancer on Athletic Participation
704(1)
Neurologic Disorders
704(1)
Migraine Headaches
704(1)
Epilepsy
704(1)
Bacterial Meningitis
705(1)
Disordered Eating
705(2)
Anorexia Nervosa
706(1)
Bulimia Nervosa
706(1)
Obesity
706(1)
Skin Conditions
707(10)
Skin Infestations
707(3)
Inflammatory Skin Conditions
710(4)
Infectious Skin Disorders
714(2)
Skin Growths
716(1)
References
717(3)
APPENDICES
Appendix A: Reflex Testing
720(4)
Appendix B: Assessment of Muscle Length
724(7)
Appendix C: Functional Testing of the Lower Extremity
731(2)
Glossary 733(7)
Credits 740(3)
Index 743


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