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Everything's an Argument'sunique, student-centered approach to teaching argument has made it the best-selling brief argument text on the market. The book's engaging, informal style shows students first how to read and analyze a wide range of argumentative texts -- verbal and visual, scholarly and "real world" -- and then how to use what they learn to write their own arguments. Andrea Lunsford and John Ruszkiewicz's instruction is fresh, elegant, and jargon-free, emphasizing inclusivity (moving beyond simple pro/con positions), humor, and visual argument to makeEverything's an Argumentimmediately accessible. Students like this book because it helps them see and understand that a world of argument already surrounds them; instructors like it because it helps students construct their own arguments about that world.
ANDREA A. LUNSFORD is professor of English at Stanford University and also teaches at the Bread Loaf School of English. A past chair of the CCCC, she has won the major publication awards in both the CCCC and MLA. For Bedford/St. Martin's, she is the author of the St. Martin's Handbook (2007); Easy Writer (2006); The Everyday Writer (2005); The Presence of Others (2004), with John Ruszkiewicz; and Everything's an Argument with Readings (2007), with John Ruszkiewicz and Keith Walters.
JOHN J. RUSZKIEWICZ is professor of rhetoric and composition and director of the division of rhetoric and composition at the University of Texas at Austin. For Bedford/St. Martin's, he is the author of The Presence of Others (2004), with Andrea Lunsford; and Everything's an Argument with Readings (2007), with Andrea Lunsford and Keith Walters.
Table of Contents
PART I. READING ARGUMENTS
1. Everything Is an Argument
*NOT JUST WORDS
Purposes Of Argument Arguments to Inform Arguments to Convince Arguments to Explore Arguments to Make Decisions Arguments to Meditate or Pray Occasions for Argument Arguments About the Past Arguments About the Future Arguments About the Present CULTURAL CONTEXTS FOR ARGUMENT Kinds of Argument Arguments of Fact — Did Something Happen? Arguments of Definition — What Is the Nature of the Thing? Arguments of Evaluation — What Is the Quality of the Thing? Proposal Arguments — What Actions Should Be Taken? *Stasis Questions at Work *Audiences for Arguments *IF EVERYTHING'S AN ARGUMENT... *Appealing to Audiences *Emotional Appeals *Ethical Appeals *Logical Appeals *Arguments and their Rhetorical Situations Respond
2. Arguments from the Heart *NOT JUST WORDS Understanding How Emotional Arguments Work Using Emotions to Build Bridges *IF EVERYTHING'S AN ARUMENT... Using Emotions to Sustain an Argument Using Humor Using Arguments from the Heart Respond
3. Arguments Based on Character *NOT JUST WORDS Understanding How Arguments Based on Character Work Claiming Authority CULTURAL CONTEXTS FOR ARGUMENT Establishing Credibility *Coming Clean about Motives *IF EVERYTHING'S AN ARGUMENT... Respond
4. Arguments Based on Facts and Reason *NOT JUST WORDS Hard Evidence Reason and Common Sense Logical Structures for Argument *IF EVERYTHING'S AN ARGUMENT... Respond
*5. Thinking Rhetorically *Composing a Rhetorical Analysis *Understanding the Purpose of An Argument *Understanding What Makes an Argument *Identifying and Appealing to Audiences *IF EVERYTHING'S AN ARGUMENT... *Examining Arguments from the Heart: Pathos *Examining Arguments Based On Character *Examining Arguments Based On Fact And Reason *Examining The Shape and Media of Arguments *NOT JUST WORDS *Looking at Style *Examining A Rhetorical Analysis Derek Bok, Protecting Freedom of Expression at Harvard Milena Ateya, A Curse and a Blessing *Guide to Writing a Rhetorical Analysis *Finding a Topic
*Researching Your Topic *Formulating a Claim *Examples of Possible Claims for a Rhetorical Analysis *Preparing a Proposal *Thinking about Content and Organization *Getting and Giving Response *Respond
PART II. WRITING ARGUMENTS
6. Structuring Arguments *NOT JUST WORDS Toulmin Argument CULTURAL CONTEXTS FOR ARGUMENT *Outline of a Toulmin Argument *IF EVERYTHING'S AN ARGUMENT... A Toulmin Analysis Alan M. Dershowitz, Testing Speech Codes *What Toulmin Teaches Beyond Toulmin Respond
*7. Arguments of Fact *Understanding Arguments of Fact *NOT JUST WORDS *Characterizing Factual Arguments *Developing a Factual Argument *Identifying an Issue *IF EVERYTHING'S AN ARGUMENT... *Key Features of Factual Arguments *Guide to Writing an Argument of Fact *Finding a Topic *Researching a Topic *Formulating a Hypothesis *Examples of Arguable Factual Claims *Preparing a Proposal *Thinking about Organization *Getting and Giving Response *Respond *Two Sample Factual Arguments *Michael Osofsky, "The Psychological Experience of Security Officers Who Work With Executions" *FactCheck.Org, "Abortion Distortions"
8. Arguments of Definition *NOT JUST WORDS Understanding Arguments of Definition Kinds of Definition *IF EVERYTHING'S AN ARGUMENT... Developing a Definitional Argument Key Features of Definitional Arguments Guide to Writing an Argument of Definition Respond Two Sample Definitional Arguments Sayoh Mansaray, "The Offbeat Allure of Cult Films" Lynn Peril, "Pink Think"
9. Evaluations Understanding Evaluations Criteria of Evaluations Characterizing Evaluation *NOT JUST WORDS Developing an Evaluative Argument *IF EVERYTHING'S AN ARGUMENT... Key Features of Evaluations Guide to Writing an Evaluative Argument Respond Two Sample Evaluations Nisey Williams, "Why I Hate Britney" *Jon Pareles, "The Case Against Coldplay"
10. Causal Arguments Understanding Causal Arguments Characterizing Causal Arguments *NOT JUST WORDS Developing Causal Arguments *IF EVERYTHING'S AN ARGUMENT... Key Features of Causal Arguments Guide to Writing a Causal Argument Respond Two Sample Causal Arguments La Donna Beatty, "What Makes a Serial Killer?" *Dana Gioia, "Why Literature Matters"
11. Proposals Understanding and Categorizing Proposals *Proposals about Practices *Proposals about Policies Characterizing Proposals Developing Proposals Key Features of Proposals Guide to Writing a Proposal Respond *NOT JUST WORDS *IF EVERYTHING'S AN ARGUMENT... Two Sample Proposals *Manasi Deshpande, "A Call to Improve Campus Accessibility for the Mobility Impaired" *P.J. O'Rourke, "Mass Transit Hysteria"
PART III. STYLE AND DELIVERY IN ARGUMENTS
*12. Style and Argument *NOT JUST WORDS *Style and Word Choice *Sentence Structure And Argument *Punctuation and Argument Tropes Schemes Dangers of Unduly Slanted Language Respond
13. Humor In Arguments Understanding Humor as Argument Characterizing Kinds of Humor Developing Humorous Arguments Key Features of Humorous Arguments Respond
14. Visual Arguments The Power of Visual Arguments Shaping The Message Achieving Visual Literacy Analyzing Visual Elements of Arguments Using Visuals in Your Own Arguments Respond
*15. Presenting Arguments *Print Presentations *Oral/Multimedia Presentations The Role of Visuals in Oral/Multimedia Arguments *Web-Based Presentations *Respond
PART IV. CONVENTIONS OF ARGUMENT
16. What Counts as Evidence Evidence and the Rhetorical Situation Firsthand Evidence and Research CULTURAL CONTEXTS FOR ARGUMENT Secondhand Evidence and Research *Two Important Distinctions Some Questions for Beginning Research Using Evidence Effectively Respond
17. Fallacies of Argument Flashpoints of Emotional Argument Scare Tactics Either-Or Choices Slippery Slope Sentimental Appeals Bandwagon Appeals Flashpoints of Ethical Argument Appeals to False Authority Dogmatism Moral Equivalence Ad Hominem Arguments Flashpoints of Logical Argument Hasty Generalization Faulty Causality Begging the Question Equivocation Non Sequitur Faulty Analogy Respond
18. Intellectual Property, Academic Integrity, and Avoiding Plagiarism Crediting Sources in Arguments Citing Sources and Recognizing Plagiarism Inaccurate or Incomplete Citation of Sources Acknowledging Your Use of Sources CULTURAL CONTEXTS FOR ARGUMENT Using Copyrighted Internet Sources Acknowledging Collaboration Respond
19. Evaluating and Using Sources Evaluating Sources Using Sources Cultural Contexts for Argument Respond
20. Documenting Sources MLA Style Sample First Page for an Essay In MLA Style Sample List of Works Cited for an Essay in MLA Style APA Style Respond