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Evolution, 3rd Edition

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Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9781405103459

ISBN10:
1405103450
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
11/1/2003
Publisher(s):
Wiley-Blackwell
List Price: $157.65

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Summary

Mark Ridley's Evolution has become the premier undergraduate text in the study of evolution. Readable and stimulating, yet well-balanced and in-depth, this text tells the story of evolution, from the history of the study to the most revent developments in evolutionary theory. The third edition of this successful textbook features updates and extensive new coverage. The sections on adaptation and diversity have been reorganized for improved clarity and flow, and a completely updated section on the evolution of sex and the inclusion of more plant examples have all helped to shape this new edition. Evolution also features strong, balanced coverage of population genetics, and scores of new applied plant and animal examples make this edition even more accessible and engaging. Dedicated website - provides an interactive experience of the book, with illustrations downloadable to PowerPoint, and a full supplemental package complementing the book - www.blackwellpublishing.com/ridley. Margin icons - indicate where there is relevant information included in the dedicated website. Two new chapters - one on evolutionary genomics and one on evolution and development bring state-of-the-art information to the coverage of evolutionary study. Two kinds of boxes - one featuring practical applications and the other related information, supply added depth without interrupting the flow of the text. Margin comments - paraphrase and highlight key concepts. Study and review questions - help students review their understanding at the end of each chapter, while new challenge questions prompt students to synthesize the chapter concepts to reinforce the learning at a deeper level.

Author Biography

Mark Ridley works in the Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, UK, and formerly worked at Emory University, Atlanta, and the University of Cambridge, UK. He has carried out research in several areas of evolutionary biology, particularly in sexual selection and the comparative method.

Table of Contents

Preface xxii
PART 1. INTRODUCTION
1(92)
The Rise of Evolutionary Biology
3(18)
Evolution means change in living things by descent with modification
4(1)
Living things show adaptations
5(1)
A short history of evolutionary biology
6(15)
Evolution before Darwin
7(2)
Charles Darwin
9(1)
Darwin's reception
10(4)
The modern synthesis
14(7)
Summary
Further reading
Study and review questions
Molecular and Mendelian Genetics
21(22)
Inheritance is caused by DNA molecules, which are physically passed from parent to offspring
22(1)
DNA structurally encodes information used to build the body's proteins
23(2)
Information in DNA is decoded by transcription and translation
25(2)
Large amounts of non-coding DNA exist in some species
27(1)
Mutational errors may occur during DNA replication
27(4)
Rates of mutation can be measured
31(2)
Diploid organisms inherit a double set of genes
33(1)
Genes are inherited in characteristic Mendelian ratios
34(3)
Darwin's theory would probably not work if there was a non-Mendelian blending mechanism of heredity
37(6)
Summary
Further reading
Study and review questions
The Evidence for Evolution
43(28)
We distinguish three possible theories of the history of life
44(1)
On a small scale, evolution can be observed in action
45(2)
Evolution can also be produced experimentally
47(1)
Interbreeding and phenotypic similarity provide two concepts of species
48(2)
Ring ``species'' show that the variation within a species can be extensive enough to produce a new species
50(3)
New, reproductively distinct species can be produced experimentally
53(1)
Small-scale observations can be extrapolated over the long term
54(1)
Groups of living things have homologous similarities
55(6)
Different homologies are correlated, and can be hierarchically classified
61(3)
Fossil evidence exists for the transformation of species
64(1)
The order of the main groups in the fossil record suggests they have evolutionary relationships
65(1)
Summary of the evidence for evolution
66(1)
Creationism offers no explanation of adaptation
67(1)
Modern ``scientific creationsim'' is scientifically untenable
67(4)
Summary
Further reading
Study and review questions
Natural Selection and Variation
71(22)
In nature, there is a struggle for existence
72(2)
Natural selection operates if some conditions are met
74(1)
Natural selection explains both evolution and adaptation
75(1)
Natural selection can be directional, stablizing, or disruptive
76(5)
Variation in natural populations is widespread
81(4)
Organisms in a population vary in reproductive success
85(2)
New variation is generated by mutation and recombination
87(1)
Variation created by recombination and mutation is random with respect to the direction of adaptation
88(5)
Summary
Further reading
Study and review questions
PART 2. EVOLUTIONARY GENETICS
93(160)
The Theory of Natural Selection
95(42)
Population genetics is concerned with genotype and gene frequencies
96(1)
An elementary population genetic model has four main steps
97(1)
Genotype frequencies in the absence of selection go to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
98(4)
We can test, by simple observation, whether genotypes in a population are at the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
102(1)
The Hardy-Weinberg theorem is important conceptually, historically, in practical research, and in the workings of theoretical models
103(1)
The simplest model of selection is for one favored allele at one locus
104(4)
The model of selection can be applied to the peppered moth
108(7)
Industrial melanism in months evolved by natural selection
108(1)
One estimate of the fitnesses is made using the rate of change in game frequencies
109(2)
A second estimate of the fitnesses is made from the survivorship of the different genotypes in mark-recapture experiments
111(1)
The selective factor at work is controversial, but bird predation was probably influential
112(3)
Pesticide resistance in insects is an example of natural selection
115(3)
Fitnesses are important numbers in evolutionary theory and can be estimated by three main methods
118(2)
Natural selection operating on a favored allele at a single locus is not meant to be a general model of evolution
120(1)
A recurrent disadvantageous mutation will evolve to a calculable equilibrial frequency
121(2)
Heterozygous advantage
123(4)
Selection can maintain a polymorphism when the heterozygote is fitter than either homozygote
123(1)
Sickle cell anemia is a polymorphism with heterozygous advantage
124(3)
The fitness of a genotype may depend on its frequency
127(2)
Subdivided populations require special population genetic principles
129(8)
A subdivided set of populations have a higher proportion of homozygotes than an equivalent fused population: this is the Wahlund effect
129(1)
Migration acts to unify gene frequencies between populations
130(2)
Convergence of gene frequencies by gene flow is illustrated by the human population of the USA
132(1)
A balance of selection and migration can maintain genetic differences between subpopulations
132(5)
Summary
Further reading
Study and review questions
Random Events in Population Genetics
137(18)
The frequency of alleles can change at random through time in a process called genetic drift
138(2)
A small funder population may have a non-representative sample of the ancestral population's genes
140(2)
One gene can be substituted for another by random drift
142(3)
Hardy-Weinberg ``equilibrium'' assumes the absence of genetic drift
145(1)
Neutral drift over time produces a march to homozygosity
145(5)
A calculable amount of polymorphism will exist in a population because of neutral mutation
150(1)
Population size and effective population size
151(4)
Summary
Further reading
Study and review questions
Natural Selection and Random Drift in Molecular Evolution
155(39)
Random drift and natural selection can both hypothetically explain molecular evolution
156(3)
Rates of molecular evolution and amounts of genetic variation can be measured
159(5)
Rates of molecular evolution are arguably too constant for a process controlled by natural selection
164(3)
The molecular clock shows a generation time effect
167(3)
The nearly neutral theory
170(5)
The ``purely'' neutral theory faces several empirical problems
170(1)
The nearly neutral theory of molecular evolution posits a class of nearly neutral mutations
171(2)
The nearly neutral theory can explain the observed facts better than the purely neutral theory
173(1)
The nearly neutral theory is conceptually closely related to the original, purely neutral theory
174(1)
Evolutionary rate and functional constraint
175(3)
More functionally constrained part of proteins evolve at slower rates
175(2)
Both natural selection and neutral drift can explain the trend for proteins, but only drift is plausible for DNA
177(1)
Conclusion and comment: the neutralist paradigm shift
178(1)
Genomic sequences have led to new ways of studying molecular evolution
179(11)
DNA sequences provide strong evidence for natural selection on protein structure
180(1)
A high ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous changes provides evidence of selection
181(3)
Selection can be detected by comparisons of the dN/dS ratio within and between species
184(2)
The gene for lysozyme has evolved convergently in cellulosedigesting mammals
186(1)
Codon usages are biased
187(2)
Positive and negative selection leave their signatures in DNA sequences
189(1)
Conclusion: 35 years of research on molecular evolution
190(4)
Summary
Further reading
Study and review questions
Two-locus and Multilocus Population Genetics
194(28)
Mimicry in Papilio is controlled by more than one genetic locus
195(2)
Genotypes at different loci in Papilio memnon are coadapted
197(1)
Mimicry in Heliconius is controlled by more than one gene, but they are not tightly linked
197(2)
Two-locus genetics is concerned with haplotype frequencies
199(1)
Frequencies of haplotypes may or may not be in linkage equilibrium
199(4)
Human HLA genes are a multilocus gene system
203(1)
Linkage disequilibrium can exist for several reasons
204(2)
Two-locus models of natural selection can be built
206(4)
Hitch-hiking occurs in two-locus selection models
210(1)
Selective sweeps can provide evidence of selection in DNA sequences
210(2)
Linkage disequilibrium can be advantageous, neutral, or disadvantageous
212(2)
Wright invented the influential concept of an adaptive topography
214(2)
The shifting balance theory of evolution
216(6)
Summary
Further reading
Study and review questions
Quantitative Genetics
222(31)
Climatic changes have driven the evolution of beak size in one of Darwin's finches
223(3)
Quantitative genetics is concerned with characters controlled by large numbers of genes
226(2)
Variation is first divided into genetic and environmental effects
228(3)
Variance of a character is divided into genetic and environmental effects
231(3)
Relatives have similar genotypes, producing the correlation between relatives
234(1)
Heritability is the proportion of phenotypic variance that is additive
235(1)
A character's heritability determines its response to artificial selection
236(4)
strength of selection has been estimated in many studies of natural populations
240(2)
Relations between genotype and phenotype may be non-linear, producing remarkable responses to selection
242(3)
Stabilizing selection reduces the genetic variability of a character
245(1)
Characters in natural populations subject to stabilizing selection show genetic variation
246(1)
Levels of genetic variation in natural populations are imperfectly understood
247(2)
Conclusion
249(4)
Summary
Further reading
Study and review questions
PART 3. ADAPTATION AND NATURAL SELECTION
253(92)
Adaptive Explanation
255(37)
Natural selection is the only known explanation for adaptation
256(3)
Pluralism is appropriate in the study of evolution, not of adaptation
259(1)
Natural selection can in principle explain all known adaptations
259(4)
New adaptations evolve in continuous stages from pre-existing adaptations, but the continuity takes various forms
263(3)
In Darwin's theory, no special process produces evolutionary novelties
263(1)
The function of an adaptation may change with little change in its from
264(1)
A new adaptation may evolved by combining unrelated parts
265(1)
Genetics of adaptation
266(4)
Fisher proposed a model, and microscope analogy, to explain why the genetic changes in adaptive evolution will be small
266(2)
An expanded theory is needed when an organism is not near an adaptive peak
268(1)
The genetics of adaptation is being studied experimentally
268(2)
Conclusion: the genetics of adaptation
270(1)
Three main methods are used to study adaptation
270(2)
Adaptations in nature are not perfect
272(14)
Adaptations may be imperfect because of time lags
272(2)
Genetic constraints may cause imperfect adaptation
274(1)
Developmental constraints may cause adaptive imperfection
275(6)
Historic constraints may cause adaptive imperfection
281(3)
An organism's design may be a trade-off between different adaptive needs
284(1)
Conclusion: constraints on adaptation
284(2)
How can we recognize adaptations?
286(6)
The function of an organ should be distinguished from the effects it may have
286(1)
Adaptations can be defined by engineering design or reproductive fitness
287(5)
Summary
Further reading
Study and review questions
The Units of Selection
292(21)
What entities benefit from the adaptations produced by selection?
293(1)
Natural selection has produced adaptations that benefit various levels of organization
294(12)
Segregation distortion benefits one gene at the expense of its allele
294(1)
Selection may sometimes favor some cell lines relative to other cell lines in the same body
295(1)
Natural selection has produced many adaptations to benefit organisms
296(2)
Natural selection working on groups of close genetic relatives is called kin selection
298(3)
Whether group selection ever produces adaptations for the benefit of groups has been controversial, though most biologists now think it is only a weak force in evolution
301(4)
Which level in the hierarchy of orgnization levels will evolve adaptations is controlled by which level shows heritbility
305(1)
Another sense of ``unit of selection'' is the entity whose frequency is adjusted directly by natural selection
306(4)
The two senses of ``unit of selection'' are compatible: one specifies the entity that generally shows phenotypic adaptations, the other the entity whose frequency is generally adjusted by natural selection
310(3)
Summary
Further reading
Study and review questions
Adaptations in Sexual Reproduction
313(32)
The existence of sex is an outstanding, unsolved problem in evolutionary biology
314(6)
Sex has a 50% cost
314(1)
Sex is unlikely to be explained by genetic constraint
315(1)
Sex can accelerate the rate of evolution
316(2)
Is sex maintained by group selection?
318(2)
There are two main theories in which sex may have a short-term advantage
320(7)
Sexual reproduction can enable females to reduce the number of delecterious mutations in their offspring
320(1)
The mutational theory predicts U > 1
321(2)
Coevolution of parasites and hosts may produce rapid environmental change
323(4)
Conclusion: it is uncertain how sex is adaptive
327(1)
The theory of sexual selection explains many differences between males and females
327(10)
Sexual characters are often apparently deleterious
327(1)
Sexual selection acts by male competition and female choice
328(1)
Females may choose to pair with particular males
329(2)
Females may prefer to pair with handicapped males, because the male's survival indicates his high quality
331(1)
Female choice in most models of Fisher's and Zahavi's theories is open ended, and this condition can be tested
332(1)
Fisher's theory requires heritable variation in the male character, and Zahavi's theory requires heritable variation in fitness
333(2)
Natural selection may work in conflicting ways on males and females
335(1)
Conclusion: the theory of sex differences is well worked out but incompletely tested
336(1)
The sex ratio is a well understood adaptation
337(4)
Natural selection ususlly favors a 50:50 sex ratio
337(2)
Sex ratios may be biased when either sons or daughters disproportionately act as ``helpers at the nest''
339(2)
Different adaptations are understood in different levels of detail
341(4)
Summary
Further reading
Study and review questions
PART 4. EVOLUTION AND DIVERSITY
345(176)
Species Concepts and Intraspecific Variation
347(34)
In practice species are recognized and defined by phenetic characters
348(2)
Several closely related species concepts exist
350(5)
The biological species concept
351(2)
The ecological species concept
353(1)
The phenetic species concept
354(1)
Isolating barriers
355(4)
Isolating barriers prevent interbreeding between species
355(1)
Sperm or pollen competition can produce subtle prezygotic isolation
356(1)
Closely related African cichlid fish species are prezygotically isolated by their color patterns, but are not postzygotically isolated
357(2)
Geographic variation within a species can be understood in terms of population genetic and ecological processes
359(4)
Geographic variation exists in all species and can be caused by adaptation to local conditions
359(1)
Geographic variation may also be caused by genetic drift
360(2)
Geographic variation may take the form of a cline
362(1)
``Popoulation thinking'' and ``typological thinking'' are two ways of thinking about biological diversity
363(3)
Ecological influences on the from of a species are shown by the phenomenon of character displacement
366(1)
Some controversial issues exist between the phenetic, biological, and ecological species concepts
367(7)
The phenetic species concept suffers from serious theoretical defects
368(1)
Ecological adaptation and gene flow can provide complementary, or in some cases competing, theories of the integrity of species
369(4)
Both selection and genetic incompatibility provide explanations of reduced hybrid fitness
373(1)
Taxonomic concepts may be nominalist or realist
374(3)
The species category
374(1)
Categories below the species level
375(1)
Categories above the species level
376(1)
Conclusion
377(4)
Summary
Further reading
Study and review questions
Speciation
381(42)
How can one species split into two reproductively isolated groups of organisms?
382(1)
A newly evolving species could theoretically have an allopatric, parapatric, or sympatric geographic relation with its ancestor
382(1)
Reproductive isolation can evolve as a by-product of divergence in allopatric populations
383(6)
Laboratory experiments illustrate how separately evolving populations of a species tend incidentally to evolve reproductive isolation
384(2)
Prezygotic isolation evolves because it is genetically correlated with the characters undergoing divergence
386(1)
Reproductive isolation is often observed when members of geographically distant populations are crossed
387(2)
Speciation as a by-product of divergence is well documented
389(1)
The Dobzhansky-Muller theory of postzgotic isolation
389(10)
The Dobzhansky-Muller theory is a genetic theory of postzygotic isolation, explaining it by interactions among many gene loci
389(2)
The Dobzhansky-Muller theory is supported by extensive genetic evidence
391(1)
The Dobzhansky-Muller theory has broad biological plausibility
392(2)
The Dobzhansky-Muller theory solves a general problem of ``valley crossing'' during speciation
394(1)
Postzygotic isolation may have ecological as well as genetic causes
395(1)
Postzygotic isolation usually follows Haldane's rule
396(3)
An interim conclusion: two solid generalizations about speciation
399(1)
Reinforcement
399(6)
Reproductive isolation may be reinforced by natural selection
399(2)
Preconditions for reinforcement may be short lived
401(1)
Empirical tests of reinformcement are inconclusive or fail to support the theory
402(3)
Some plant species have originated by hybridization
405(3)
Speciation may occur in non-allopatric populations, either parapatrically or sympatrically
408(1)
Parapatric speciation
409(2)
Parapatric speciation begins with the evolution of a stepped cline
409(2)
Evidence for the theory of parapatric speciation is relatively weak
411(1)
Sympatric speciation
411(2)
Sympatric speciation is theoretically possible
411(1)
Phytophagous insects may split sympatrically by host shifts
412(1)
Phylogenies can be used to test whether speciation has been sympatric or allopatric
413(1)
The influence of sexual selection in speciation is one current trend in research
413(2)
Identification of genes that cause reproductive isolation is another current trend in research
415(2)
Conclusion
417(6)
Summary
Further reading
Study and review questions
The Reconstruction of Phylogeny
423(48)
Phylogenies express the ancestral relations between species
424(1)
Phyloenies are inferred from morphological characters using cladistic techniques
425(2)
Homologies provide reliable evidence for phylogenetic inference, and homoplasies provide unreliable evidence
427(3)
Homologies can be distinguished from homoplasies by several criteria
430(1)
Derived homologies are more reliable indicators of phylogenetic relations than are ancestral homologies
431(2)
The polarity of character states can be inferred by several techniques
433(3)
Outgroup comparison
434(1)
The fossil record
435(1)
Other methods
436(1)
Some character conflict may remain after cladistic character analysis is complete
436(1)
Molecular sequences are becoming increasingly important in phylogenetic inference, and they have distinct properties
437(2)
Several statistical techniques exist to infer phylogenies from molecular sequences
439(10)
An unrooted tree is a phylogeny in which the common ancestor is unspecified
439(1)
One class of molecular phylogenetic techniques uses molecular distances
440(2)
Molecular evidence may need to be adjusted for the problem of multiple hits
442(3)
A second class of phylogenetic techniques uses the principle of parsimony
445(2)
A third class of phylogenetic techniques uses the principle of maximum likelihood
447(2)
Distance, parsimony, and maximum likelihood methods are all used, but their popularity has changed over time
449(1)
Molecular phylogenetics in action
449(2)
Different molecules evolve at different rates and molecular evidene can be tuned to solve particular phylogenetic problems
449(2)
Molecular phylogenies can now be produced rapidly, and are used in medical research
451(1)
Several problems have been encountered in molecular phylogenetics
451(8)
Molecular sequences can be difficult to align
452(1)
The number of possible trees may be too large for them all to be analyzed
452(3)
Species in a phylogeny mayhave diverged too little or too much
455(1)
Different lineages may evolve at different rates
456(1)
Paralogous genes may be confused with orthologous genes
457(1)
Conclusion: problems in molecular phylogenetics
458(1)
Paralogous genes can be used to root unrooted trees
459(1)
Molecular evidence successfully challenged paleontological evidence in the analysis of human phylogenetic relations
460(3)
Unrooted trees can be inferred fro other kinds of evidence, such as chromosomal inversions in Hawaiian fruitflies
463(3)
Conclusion
466(5)
Summary
Further reading
Study and review questions
Classfication and Evolution
471(21)
Biologists classify species into a hierarchy of groups
472(1)
There are phenetic and phylogenetic principles of classification
472(2)
There are phenetic, cladistic, and evolutionary schools of classification
474(1)
A method is needed to judge the merit of a school of classification
475(1)
Phenetic classification uses distance measures and cluster statistics
476(3)
Phylogenetic classification uses inferred phylogenetic relations
479(6)
Hennig's cladism classifies species by their phylogenetic branching relations
479(2)
Cladists distinguish monophyletic, paraphyletic, and polyphyletic groups
481(2)
A knowledge of phylogeny does not simply tell us the rank levels in Linnaean classification
483(2)
Evolutionary classification is a synthesis of phenetic and phylogenetic principles
485(2)
The principle of divergence explains why phylogeny is hierarchical
487(2)
Conclusion
489(3)
Summary
Further reading
Study and review questions
Evolutionary Biogeography
492(29)
Species have defined geographic distributions
493(3)
Ecological characteristics of a species limit its geographic distribution
496(1)
Geographic distributions are influenced by dispersal
496(1)
Geographic distributions are influenced by climate, such as in the ice ages
497(3)
Local adaptive rediations occur on island archipelagos
500(3)
Species of large geographic areas tend to be more closely related to other local species than to ecologically similar species elsewhere in the globe
503(2)
Geographic distributions are influenced by vicariance events, some of which are caused by plate tectonic movements
505(7)
The Great American Interchange
512(5)
Conclusion
517(4)
Summary
Further reading
Study and review questions
PART 5. MACROEVOLUTION
521(161)
The History of Life
523(33)
Fossils are remains of organisms from the past and are preserved in sedimentary rocks
524(1)
Geological time is conventionally divided into a series of eras, periods, and epochs
525(4)
Successive geological ages were first recognized by characteristic fossil faunas
525(1)
Geological time is measured in both absolute and relative terms
526(3)
The history of life: the Precambrian
529(6)
The origin of life
529(2)
The origin of cells
531(2)
The origin of multicellular life
533(2)
The Cambrian explosion
535(3)
Evolution of land plants
538(2)
Vertebrate evolution
540(5)
Colonization of the land
540(2)
Mammals evolved from the reptiles in a long series of small changes
542(3)
Human evolution
545(5)
Four main classes of change occurred during hominin evolution
545(2)
Fossil records show something of our ancestors for the past 4 million years
547(3)
Macroevolution may or may not be an extrapolated from of microevolution
550(6)
Summary
Further reading
Study and review questions
Evolutionary Genomics
556(16)
Our expanding knowledge of genome sequences is making it possible to ask, and answer, questions about the evolution of genomes
557(1)
The human genome documents the history of the human gene set since early life
558(1)
The history of duplications can be inferred in a genomic sequence
559(2)
Genome size can shrink by gene loss
561(2)
Symbiotic mergers, and horizontal gene transfer, between species influence genome evolution
563(2)
The X/Y sex chromosomes provide an example of evolutionary genomic research at the chromosomal level
565(2)
Genome sequences can be used to study the history of non-coding DNA
567(2)
Conclusion
569(3)
Summary
Further reading
Study and review questions
Evolutionary Developmental Biology
572(18)
Changes in development, and the genes controlling development, underlie morphological evolution
573(1)
The theory of recapitulation is a classic idea (largely discredited) about the relation between development and evolution
573(5)
Humans may have evolved from ancestral apes by changes in regulatory genes
578(1)
Many genes that regulate development have been identified recently
579(1)
Modern developmental genetic discoveries have challenged and clarified the meaning of homology
580(2)
The Hox gene complex has expanded at two points in the evolution of animals
582(1)
Changes in the embryonic expression of genes are associated with evolutionary changes in morphology
583(2)
Evolution of genetic switches enables evolutionary innovation, making the system more ``evolvable''
585(2)
Conclusion
587(3)
Summary
Further reading
Study and review questions
Rates of Evolution
590(23)
Rates of evolution can be expressed in ``darwins,'' as illustrated by a study of horse evolution
591(5)
How do population genetic, and fossil, evolutionary rates compare?
593(2)
Rates of evolution observed in the short term can explain speciation over longer time periods in Darwin's finches
595(1)
Why do evolutionary rates vary?
596(3)
The theory of punctuated equilibrium applies the theory of allopatric speciation to predict the pattern of change in the fossil record
599(3)
What is the evidence for punctuated equilibrium and for phyletic gradualism?
602(4)
A satisfactory test requires a complete stratigraphic record and biometrical evidence
602(1)
Caribbean bryozoans from the Upper Miocene and Lower Pliocene show a punctuated equilibrial pattern of evolution
603(2)
Ordovician trilobites show gradual evolutionary change
605(1)
Conclusion
605(1)
Evolutionary rates can e measured for non-continuous character changes, as illustrated by a study of ``living fossil'' lungfish
606(3)
Taxonomic data can be used to describe the rate of evolution of higher taxonomic groups
609(2)
Conclusion
611(2)
Summary
Further reading
Study and review questions
Coevolution
613(30)
Coevolution can give rise to coadaptations between species
614(2)
Coadaptation suggests, but is not conclusive evidence of, coevolution
616(1)
Insect-plant coevolution
616(7)
Coevolution between insects and plants may have driven the diversification of both taxa
616(2)
Two taxa may show mirror-image phylogenies, but coevolution is only one of several explanations for this pattern
618(2)
Cophylogenies are not found when phytophagous insects undergo host shifts to exploit phylogenetically unrelated but chemically similar plants
620(2)
Coevolution between plants and insects may explain the grand pattern of diversification in the two taxa
622(1)
Coevolutionary relations will often be diffuse
623(1)
Parasite-host coevolution
623(9)
Evolution of parasitic virulence
625(5)
Parasites and their hosts may have cophylogenies
630(2)
Coevolution can proceed in an ``arms race''
632(5)
Coevolutionary arms races can result in evolutionary escalation
634(3)
The probability that a species will go extinct is approximately independent of how long it has existed
637(1)
Antagonistic coevolution can have various forms, including the Red Queen mode
638(2)
Both biological and physical hypotheses should be tested on macroevolutionary observations
640(3)
Summary
Further reading
Study and review questions
Extinction and Radiation
643(39)
The number of species in a taxon increases during phases of adaptive radiation
644(2)
Causes and consequences of extinctions can be studied in the fossil record
646(2)
Mass extinctions
648(7)
The fossil record of extinction rates shows recurrent rounds of mass extinctions
648(3)
The best studied mass extinction occurred at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary
651(2)
Several factors can contribute to mass extinctions
653(2)
Distributions of extinction rates may fit a power law
655(2)
Changes in the quality of the sedimentary record through time are associatied with changes in the observed extinction rate
657(1)
Species selection
658(11)
Characters that evolve within taxa may influence extinction and speciation rates, as is illustrated by snails with planktonic and direct development
658(6)
Differences in the persistence of ecological niches will influence macroevolutionary patterns
664(1)
When species selection operates, the factors that control macroevolution differ from the factors that control microevolution
665(1)
From of species selection may change during mass extictions
666(3)
One higher taxon may replace another, because of chance, enviornmental change, or competitive replacement
669(5)
Taxonomi patters through time can provide evidence about the cause of replacements
669(1)
Two bryozoan groups are a possible example of a competitive replacement
670(1)
Mammals and dinosaurs are a classic example of independent replacement, but recent molecular evidence has complicated the intrpretation
671(3)
Species diversity may have increased logistically or exponentially since the Cambrian, or it may have increased little at all
674(3)
Conclusion: biologists and paleontologists have held a range of views about the importance of mass extinctions in the history of life
677(5)
Summary
Further reading
Study and review questions
Glossary 682(8)
Answers to Study and Review Questions 690(9)
Refrences 699(34)
Index 733


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