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Exceptional Learners : Introduction to Special Education,9780205444212
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Exceptional Learners : Introduction to Special Education

by ;
Edition:
10th
ISBN13:

9780205444212

ISBN10:
0205444210
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2006
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon

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Summary

There are good reasons why Exceptional Learners has been the introductory text trusted to prepare hundreds of thousands of special education and general education teachers. Its depth, lucidity, clarity, and coherence combine to make a text appropriate for students at all levels: graduate and undergraduate, from introductory to advanced. Continuing its reputation as the standard bearer in the field for accuracy, currency, and reliability, the tenth edition increases its coverage of Autism Spectrum Disorders, collaboration and co-teaching, research-proven classroom applications, and references to professional standards (CEC and INTASC), and includes information on the 2004 IDEA reauthorization and its implications.

Table of Contents

Preface xxiii
Exceptionality and Special Education
2(36)
Getting Oriented to Exceptionality and Special Education
4(4)
Reasons for Optimism
4(3)
The Importance of Abilities
7(1)
Disability Versus Handicap
7(1)
Disability Versus Inability
8(1)
Educational Definition of Exceptional Learners
8(3)
Prevalence of Exceptional Learners
11(2)
High-Incidence and Low-Incidence Categories
12(1)
Definition of Special Education
13(1)
Providing Special Education
14(4)
Teachers' Roles
18(5)
Relationship Between General and Special Education
18(1)
Special Education and Students at Risk
18(1)
The Inclusion Controversy
19(1)
Expectations for All Educators
19(3)
Expectations for Special Educators
22(1)
Origins of Special Education
23(4)
People and Ideas
24(2)
Growth of the Discipline
26(1)
Legislation and Litigation
27(3)
Legislation
27(2)
Litigation
29(1)
The Intent of Special Education Law: Individualized Education for Students with Disabilities
30(5)
Our Perspective on the Progress of Special Education
35(1)
Summary
36(2)
Current Trends and Jssues
38(40)
Integration into the Larger Society
40(4)
Normalization
40(2)
Deinstitutionalization
42(1)
Self-Determination
43(1)
Integration into Schools
44(10)
Full Inclusion
44(1)
Current Trends
44(10)
Collaboration and Participation in General Education Classrooms
54(4)
Prereferral Teams and Response to Intervention
54(1)
Collaborative Consultation
55(1)
Co-Teaching
55(1)
Curricula and Instructional Strategies
56(1)
Accommodations and Adaptations
57(1)
Continuing Issues
57(1)
Participation in General Assessments of Progress: IDEA and NCLB
58(5)
Current Trends
58(3)
Continuing Issues
61(2)
Access to New Technologies
63(2)
Current Trends
64(1)
Continuing Issues
65(1)
Early Intervention
65(4)
Types of Programs
67(1)
Current Trends
68(1)
Continuing Issues
69(1)
Transition to Adulthood
69(5)
Federal Initiatives
70(1)
Current Trends
71(2)
Continuing Issues
73(1)
Discipline of Students with Disabilities
74(2)
Current Trends
74(1)
Continuing Issues
75(1)
Some Concluding Thoughts Regarding Trends and Issues
76(1)
Summary
76(2)
Multicultural and Bilingual Aspects of Special Education
78(26)
Universality of Cultural Pride and Shame
80(2)
America and Multiculturalism
82(3)
Education and Cultural Diversity
85(4)
Multicultural and Bilingual Special Education
89(14)
Assessment
91(2)
Instruction
93(6)
Socialization
99(4)
Summary
103(1)
Parents and Families
104(26)
Professionals' Changing Views of Parents
106(2)
The Effects of a Child with a Disability on the Family
108(8)
Parental Reactions
109(5)
Sibling Reactions
114(2)
Family Involvement in Treatment and Education
116(12)
Family Systems Theory
117(4)
Social Support for Families
121(1)
Positive Behavioral Support for Challenging Behaviors
122(1)
Communication Between Parents and Professionals
123(4)
Parent Advocacy
127(1)
In Conclusion
128(1)
Summary
129(1)
Learners with Mental Retardation
130(36)
Definition
134(3)
The AAMR Definition
135(2)
Classification of Mental Retardation
137(1)
Prevalence
137(1)
Causes
138(7)
Prenatal Causes
138(5)
Perinatal Causes
143(1)
Postnatal Causes
144(1)
Assessment
145(1)
Intelligence Tests
145(1)
Adaptive Behavior Skills
146(1)
Psychological and Behavioral Characteristics
146(2)
Linking Genetic Syndromes to Particular Behavioral Phenotypes
147(1)
Educational Considerations
148(7)
Inclusion and Useful Skills
149(1)
Self-Determination
149(3)
Instructional Methods
152(3)
Service Delivery Models
155(1)
Early Intervention
155(3)
Early Childhood Programs Designed for Prevention
155(3)
Early Childhood Programs Designed to Further Development
158(1)
Transition to Adulthood
158(6)
Community Adjustment
159(2)
Employment
161(2)
Prospects for the Future
163(1)
Summary
164(2)
Learners with Learning Disabilities
166(40)
Definition
168(5)
The Federal Definition
171(1)
The National Joint Committee for Learning Disabilities Definition
171(2)
Identification Procedures
173(2)
Achievement-Ability Discrepancy
173(1)
Response to Intervention or Response to Treatment
173(2)
Prevalence
175(1)
Increase in Prevalence
175(1)
Gender Differences
175(1)
Causes
176(2)
Genetic Factors
177(1)
Teratogenic Factors
178(1)
Medical Factors
178(1)
Assessment
178(4)
Standardized Achievement Assessment
178(1)
Formative Assessment
179(1)
Informal Assessment
180(1)
Authentic Assessment
181(1)
Psychological and Behavioral Characteristics
182(9)
Interindividual Variation
182(1)
Intraindividual Variation
182(1)
Academic Achievement Problems
183(3)
Perceptual, Perceptual-Motor, and General Coordination Problems
186(1)
Disorders of Attention and Hyperactivity
187(1)
Memory, Cognitive, Metacognitive Problems
187(2)
Social-Emotional Problems
189(1)
Motivational Problems
190(1)
The Child with Learning Disabilities as an Inactive Learner with Strategy Deficits
191(1)
Educational Considerations
191(6)
Cognitive Training
191(2)
Direct Instruction
193(1)
Best Practices in Teaching Students with Learning Disabilities
194(2)
Service Delivery Models
196(1)
Early Intervention
197(2)
Transition to Adulthood
199(7)
Factors Related to Successful Transition
200(1)
Secondary Programming
201(1)
Postsecondary Programming
202(1)
Summary
203(3)
Learners with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
206(38)
Brief History
208(4)
Still's Children with ``Defective Moral Control''
208(3)
Goldstein's Brain-Injured Soldiers of World War I
211(1)
The Strauss Syndrome
211(1)
Cruickshank's Work
211(1)
Minimal Brain Injury and Hyperactive Child Syndrome
212(1)
Definition
212(1)
Prevalence
212(3)
Assessment
215(2)
Causes
217(3)
Areas of the Brain Affected: Frontal Lobes, Basal Ganglia, and Cerebellum
218(1)
Neurotransmitters Involved: Dopamine and Norepinephrine
219(1)
Hereditary Factors
219(1)
Toxins and Medical Factors
219(1)
Psychological and Behavioral Characteristics
220(5)
Barkley's Model of ADHD
220(4)
Adaptive Skills
224(1)
Problems Socializing with Peers
224(1)
Coexisting Conditions
225(1)
Educational Considerations
225(5)
Classroom Structure and Teacher Direction
226(1)
Functional Behavioral Assessment and Contingency-Based Self-Management
227(2)
Service Delivery Models
229(1)
Medication Considerations
230(7)
Opposition to Ritalin
233(1)
The Research Evidence
233(2)
Cautions Regarding Medication
235(2)
Early Intervention
237(1)
Transition to Adulthood
237(4)
Diagnosis in Adulthood
237(1)
Adult Outcomes
238(2)
Importance of Coaching
240(1)
Summary
241(3)
Learners with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders
244(40)
Terminology
248(1)
Definition
249(2)
Definitional Problems
249(1)
Current Definitions
249(2)
Classification
251(2)
Prevalence
253(1)
Causes
254(6)
Biological Factors
255(1)
Family Factors
256(1)
School Factors
257(2)
Cultural Factors
259(1)
Identification
260(2)
Psychological and Behavioral Characteristics
262(8)
Educational Considerations
270(7)
Balancing Behavioral Control with Academic and Social Learning
270(1)
Importance of Integrated Services
271(1)
Strategies That Work
271(1)
Service Delivery
272(3)
Instructional Considerations
275(1)
Special Disciplinary Considerations
276(1)
Early Intervention
277(3)
Transition to Adulthood
280(2)
Summary
282(2)
Learners with Communication Disorders
284(34)
Definitions
286(3)
Prevalence
289(1)
Communication Variations
289(2)
Language Disorders
291(7)
Classification of Language Disorders
294(4)
Speech Disorders
298(5)
Phonological Disorders
299(1)
Articulation Disorders
299(1)
Voice Disorders
300(1)
Fluency Disorders
301(1)
Motor-Speech Disorders
302(1)
Assessment
303(1)
Educational Considerations
304(5)
Facilitating the Social Use of Language
304(1)
Question-Asking Strategies
305(3)
Teaching Written Language
308(1)
Early Intervention
309(5)
Early Development and Early Intervention
309(1)
Early Intervention in Delayed Language Development
310(1)
Involvement of Families
311(3)
Transition to Adulthood
314(1)
Summary
315(3)
Learners Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing
318(38)
Definition and Classification
322(1)
Prevalence
323(1)
Anatomy and Physiology of the Ear
324(2)
The Outer Ear
324(1)
The Middle Ear
325(1)
The Inner Ear
325(1)
Measurement of Hearing Ability
326(2)
Screening Tests
326(1)
Pure-Tone Audiometry
326(1)
Speech Audiometry
327(1)
Tests for Young and Hard-to-Test Children
327(1)
Causes
328(1)
Conductive, Sensorineural, and Mixed Hearing Impairment
328(1)
Hearing Impairment and the Outer Ear
328(1)
Hearing Impairment and the Middle Ear
328(1)
Hearing Impairment and the Inner Ear
328(1)
Psychological and Behavioral Characteristics
329(11)
Spoken Language and Speech Development
329(1)
Sign Language
330(3)
Intellectual Ability
333(1)
Academic Achievement
334(1)
Social Adjustment
335(5)
Educational Considerations
340(9)
Oral Approaches: The Auditory-Verbal Approach and the Auditory-Oral Approach
340(2)
Total Communication
342(2)
The Bicultural-Bilingual Approach
344(1)
Service Delivery Models
344(1)
Technological Advances
345(4)
Early Intervention
349(1)
Transition to Adulthood
350(3)
Postsecondary Education
350(2)
Family Issues
352(1)
Summary
353(3)
Learners with Blindness or Low Vision
356(38)
Definition and Classification
361(1)
Legal Definition
361(1)
Educational Definition
361(1)
Prevalence
361(1)
Anatomy and Physiology of the Eye
362(1)
Measurement of Visual Ability
363(1)
Causes
363(3)
Physiological and Behavioral Characteristics
366(6)
Language Development
366(1)
Intellectual Ability
366(2)
Orientation and Mobility
368(1)
Academic Achievement
369(1)
Social Adjustment
369(3)
Sterotypic Behaviors
372(1)
Educational Considerations
372(13)
Braille
373(3)
Use of Remaining Sight
376(1)
Listening Skills
377(1)
Orientation and Mobility (O & M) Training
378(4)
Technological Aids
382(3)
Service Delivery Models
385(1)
Early Intervention
385(3)
Transition to Adulthood
388(3)
Independent Living
388(2)
Employment
390(1)
Summary
391(3)
Learners with Autism Spectrum Disorders
394(34)
Historical Context: Kanner's and Asperger's Papers
396(2)
Leo Kanner's Paper
398(1)
Hans Asperger's Paper
398(1)
Definition of Autism Spectrum Disorders
398(2)
Autism Defined
399(1)
Asperger Syndrome Defined
400(1)
Prevalence
400(1)
Causes
401(5)
Early Causal Theories
401(2)
Today's Causal Theories
403(3)
Assessment
406(1)
Psychological and Behavioral Characteristics
407(5)
Autism
407(1)
Asperger Syndrome
408(3)
Attempts to Construct a Unifying Theory of Autism Spectrum Disorders
411(1)
Educational Considerations
412(9)
Educational Programming Principles for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders
413(4)
Educational Strategies for Teaching Social Skills to Students with Asperger Syndrome
417(4)
Service Delivery Models
421(1)
Early Intervention
421(2)
Transition to Adulthood
423(3)
Transition Programming for People with Autism
423(1)
Transition Programming for People with Asperger Syndrome
423(3)
Summary
426(2)
Learners with Low-Incidence, Multiple, and Severe Disabilities
428(36)
Definition and Prevalence
430(2)
Traumatic Brain Injury
432(1)
Definition and Characteristics
432(2)
Prevalence
434(1)
Causes
435(1)
Educational Considerations
435(4)
Language Disorders
437(1)
Social and Emotional Problems
438(1)
Deaf-Blindness
439(1)
Definition
440(1)
Prevalence
440(1)
Causes
441(1)
Genetic/Chromosomal Syndromes
441(1)
Prenatal Conditions
442(1)
Postnatal Conditions
442(1)
Psychological and Behavioral Characteristics
442(4)
Problems Accessing Information
442(2)
Problems Communicating
444(1)
Problems Navigating the Environment
444(2)
Educational Considerations
446(3)
The Importance of Direct Teaching
446(1)
The Importance of Structured Routines
446(1)
Communication
446(2)
Orientation and Mobility
448(1)
Special Considerations for Students with Usher Syndrome
449(1)
Considerations for Many Students with Low-Incidence, Multiple, and Severe Disabilities
449(1)
Augmentative or Alternative Communication
449(6)
Behavior Problems
455(2)
Self-Stimulation
455(1)
Self-Injury
455(1)
Tantrums
456(1)
Aggression Toward Others
456(1)
Lack of Daily Living Skills
456(1)
Functional Behavioral Assessment and Positive Behavioral Support
456(1)
Early Intervention
457(3)
Research- or Value-Based Practices
459(1)
Family-Centered Practices
459(1)
Multicultural Perspective
459(1)
Cross-Disciplinary Collaboration
459(1)
Developmentally and Chronologically Age-Appropriate Practices
460(1)
Principle of Normalization
460(1)
Transition to Adulthood
460(3)
Changing Philosophy
461(1)
Vocational Programming
462(1)
Community and Domestic Living Skills
462(1)
Summary
463(1)
Learners with Physical Disabilities and Other Impairments
464(32)
Definition and Classification
466(2)
Prevalence and Need
468(1)
Neuromotor Impairments
469(5)
Cerebral Palsy
469(2)
Seizure Disorder (Epilepsy)
471(2)
Spina Bifida and Other Spinal Cord Injuries
473(1)
Orthopedic and Musculoskeletal Disorders
474(1)
Other Conditions Affecting Health or Physical Ability
474(3)
Prevention of Physical Disabilities
477(1)
Psychological and Behavioral Characteristics
478(2)
Academic Achievement
478(1)
Personality Characteristics
478(2)
Prosthetics, Orthotics, and Adaptive Devices for Daily Living
480(2)
Educational Considerations
482(7)
Individualized Planning
483(1)
Educational Placement
484(1)
Educational Goals and Curricula
485(2)
Links with Other Disciplines
487(2)
Early Intervention
489(1)
Transition
489(5)
Choosing a Career
492(1)
SocioSexuality
493(1)
Summary
494(2)
Learners with Special Gifts and Talents
496(30)
Definition
500(4)
Prevalence
504(1)
Origin of Giftedness
504(2)
Identification of Giftedness
506(1)
Psychological and Behavioral Characteristics
507(1)
Cultural Values Regarding Students with Special Gifts and Talents and Their Education
508(2)
Neglected Groups of Students with Special Gifts and Talents
510(6)
Underachievers with Special Gifts and Talents
510(1)
Students Low in Socioeconomic Status and Those Living in Remote Areas
511(1)
Students with Special Gifts from Cultural- and Ethnic-Minority Groups
511(1)
Students with Disabilities and Special Gifts and Talents
512(3)
Females with Special Gifts and Talents
515(1)
Educational Considerations
516(5)
Acceleration
519(1)
Enrichment
519(2)
Early Intervention
521(1)
Transition to Adulthood
522(2)
Summary
524(2)
Appendix: CEC Content Standards and Intasc Core Principles 526(4)
Glossary 530(13)
References 543(40)
Author Index 583(11)
Subject Index 594


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