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Exercise Physiology : Human Bioenergetics and Its Applications with PowerWeb Bind-in Card,9780072985405
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Exercise Physiology : Human Bioenergetics and Its Applications with PowerWeb Bind-in Card

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780072985405

ISBN10:
0072985402
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
9/14/2004
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages

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Summary

A standard in the field, this text integrates bioenergetics into every chapter and provides a comprehensive survey of current data and research in exercise physiology. In-depth discussions of all areas of exercise physiology make this text an invaluable resource for students in exercise science, kinesiology, sports medicine, human biodynamics, and physical education courses.

Table of Contents

Preface xix
Introduction: The Limits of Human Performance
1(18)
The Scientific Basis of Exercise Physiology: Some Definitions
2(1)
Physiological Science in Sports Science and Medicine, the Health Care Professions, Physical Education, and Athletics
3(1)
The Relevance of Physiology for the Health Care Professions, Physical Education, and Athletics
4(1)
The Body as a Machine
4(1)
The Rate-Limiting Factor
5(1)
Maximal Oxygen Consumption (VO2max) and Physical Fitness
5(2)
Factors Affecting the Performance of the Biological Machine
7(1)
Stress and Response
7(1)
The Overload Principle
8(1)
Specificity
9(1)
Reversibility
9(1)
Individuality
9(1)
Development of the Field of Exercise Physiology
9(1)
Pioneers and Leaders in Exercise Physiology
10(3)
The Ever-Changing Fields of Exercise Physiology and Exercise and Sports Science in the United States and Elsewhere
13(1)
Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General of the United States
14(2)
Summary
16(1)
Selected Readings
16(3)
Bioenergetics
19(12)
Terminology
20(1)
Heat, Temperature, and the Biological Apparatus
20(1)
Laws of Thermodynamics
21(1)
Exergonic and Endergonic Reactions
22(1)
Enthalpy
23(1)
Free Energy
24(1)
The Equilibrium Constant and Free Energy
25(1)
The Actual Free Energy Change
26(1)
ATP: The Common Chemical Intermediate
26(3)
Structure of ATP
27(1)
ATP: The High-Energy Chemical Intermediate
28(1)
Summary
29(1)
Selected Readings
30(1)
The Maintenance of ATP Homeostasis in Energetics and Human Movement
31(12)
Immediate Energy Sources
32(2)
Nonoxidative (Glycolytic) Energy Sources
34(1)
Oxidative Energy Sources
35(1)
Aerobic and Anaerobic Metabolism
35(1)
Power and Capacity of Muscle Energy Systems
36(1)
Energetics and Athletic Performance
36(1)
Enzymatic Regulation of Metabolism
36(3)
Cell ATP Homeostasis and the Adenylate Energy Charge
39(2)
Summary
41(1)
Selected Readings
42(1)
Basics of Metabolism
43(16)
Energy Transductions in the Biosphere
43(1)
Metabolism and Heat Production in Animals
44(1)
Early Attempts at Calorimetry
45(6)
Indirect Calorimetry
51(1)
The Utility of Indirect Calorimetry During Exercise
51(6)
Summary
57(1)
Selected Readings
58(1)
Glycogenolysis and Glycolysis in Muscle: The Cellular Degradation of Sugar and Carbohydrate to Pyruvate and Lactate
59(38)
The Dietary Sources of Glucose
60(1)
Direct vs. Indirect Pathways of Liver Glycogen Synthesis: The ``Glucose Paradox''
61(2)
Blood Glucose Concentration During Rest and Exercise
63(2)
Glycolysis
65(14)
Glycolysis in Muscle
66(1)
Aerobic, Anaerobic, and ``Nonrobic'' Glycolysis in the Cytosol
66(5)
Malate-Aspartate and Glycerol-Phosphate Cytoplasmic-Mitochondrial Shuttle Systems
71(1)
The Intracellular Lactate Shuttle
72(2)
ATP Yield by Glycolysis
74(1)
The Efficiency of Glycolysis
75(1)
The Control of Glycolysis
75(4)
Glycogenolysis
79(4)
Control by Phosphate
79(1)
Control by Calcium Ion
79(3)
Energy Flux and Metabolic Regulation
82(1)
The Cell-Cell Lactate Shuttle
83(1)
Monocarboxylate (Lactate/Pyruvate) Transport Proteins in Muscle Cell Membranes and Mitochondria
84(2)
The Muscle Mitochondrial Lactate/Pyruvate Transporter is MCT1
86(1)
Gluconeogenesis
86(1)
Glycogen Synthesis
87(1)
Effects of Training on Glycolysis
87(1)
Quantitative and Relative Uses of Glucose, Glycogen, and Other Substrates During Exercise
88(3)
Effects of Exercise and Endurance Training on Blood Lactate Concentration, Appearance, and Clerance Rates
91(1)
Summary
92(1)
Selected Readings
93(4)
Cellular Oxidation of Pyruvate and Lactate
97(27)
Mitochondrial Structure
97(3)
The Mitochondrial Reticulum: Mitochondria Are Interconnected Tubes, Not Individual Spheres
100(1)
Mitochondrial Structure and Function
101(1)
The Krebs Cycle
102(4)
The Electron Transport Chain
106(4)
Function of the ETC
108(1)
Control of the ETC
108(1)
The Number of ATP from a Glucose Molecule
108(2)
Effects of Training on Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria
110(4)
The Training Adaptation and Coordination of Mitochondrial and Nuclear Genes
114(3)
What is the Mitochondrial Oxygen Partial Pressure During Exercise?
117(2)
Free Radicals, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), Oxidative Damage, Cell Signaling and Protection
119(1)
Summary
120(1)
Selected Readings
121(3)
Lipid Metabolism
124(34)
Lipid Defined
125(3)
Esterification and Hydrolysis
128(1)
Fats in the Diet
129(1)
Chylomicrons and Lipoproteins
129(1)
Free Fatty Acid Levels in Blood During Rest and Exercise
130(1)
The Utilization of Lipids During Exercise
131(8)
Mobilization from Adipose
132(2)
Circulation and Uptake
134(1)
Activation and Translocation
135(2)
β-Oxidation
137(1)
Mitochondrial Oxidation
137(2)
Intramuscular Triglycerides and Lipoproteins as Fuel Sources
139(2)
Tissue Specificity in Lipid Utilization
141(1)
Mitochondrial Adaptation to Enhance Fat Oxidation
141(1)
Carbohydrate--Lipid Interactions: The Glucose--Fatty Acid Cycle
141(1)
Substrate Utilization During Exercise: The ``Crossover Concept''
142(2)
The Substrate Shunt During Exercise
144(4)
Is AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) the Metabolic Master Switch for Energy-Sensing and Signaling in Skeletal Muscle?
148(2)
Gender Differences in Energy Substrate Partitioning
150(1)
Ketones as Fuels
151(3)
Summary
154(1)
Selected Readings
154(4)
Metabolism of Proteins and Amino Acids
158(23)
Structure of Amino Acids and Proteins
159(1)
Proteins in the Diet
160(1)
The Amino Acid Pool
161(5)
Nitrogen Balance: Protein-CHO-Energy Interactions
162(1)
The Removal of Nitrogen from Amino Acids---The Role of Glutamate
162(2)
The Excretion of Nitrogenous Wastes
164(1)
Sites of Amino Acid and Protein Degradation
164(2)
The Fate of Amino Acid Carbon Skeletons
166(1)
Gluconeogenic Amino Acids
166(2)
Pathways of Phosphoenolpyruvate Formation
167(1)
Amino Acids in Anaplerotic and Cataplerotic Reactions
168(1)
Branched-Chain Amino Acids
168(1)
The Glucose--Alanine Cycle
168(4)
Basic Studies
168(2)
Results of Experiments on Exercising Animals
170(1)
Muscle Proteolysis During Exercise
170(1)
Effects of Endurance Training on Amino Acid Metabolism
170(2)
Results of Human Experimentation
172(2)
Glutamate and Glutamine as Ammonia Scavengers
174(3)
Basic Studies
174(3)
Stimulation of Anabolic Processes Immediately After Exercise
177(1)
Summary
177(1)
Selected Readings
178(3)
Neural-Endocrine Control of Metabolism: Blood Glucose Homeostasis During Exercise
181(32)
Glucose Homeostasis: Hepatic Glucose Production (HGP) and Glucose Shunting During Exercise
182(1)
Feed-Forward Control of Glycemia During Exercise
183(1)
Characteristics of Hormones
183(2)
Feedback and the Control of Hormonal Secretion
185(1)
Mechanisms of Hormonal Action
185(1)
Cyclic AMP (cAMP)---The Intracellular Hormone
186(1)
Insulin and Glucagon---The Immediate Control of Blood Glucose Level
186(5)
Facilitated Glucose Transport---The ``Translocation Hypothesis'' as a Mechanism of Insulin Action
186(2)
Facilitated Glucose Transport---The Mechanism of Muscle Contractions
188(1)
Role of the Liver in Stabilizing Blood Glucose Level
188(1)
Insulin and Hepatic Fat Metabolism
189(1)
The Insulin Response to Exercise
189(1)
Training and Insulin Release in Exercise
190(1)
Training and Muscle GLUT-4
190(1)
Glucagon---The Insulin Antagonist
191(1)
The Autonomic Nervous System and the Adrenal Medulla
191(10)
Effects of Exercise Intensity and Training on Catecholamine Responses
193(1)
Mild to Moderate Intensity Exercise
193(1)
Hard to Maximal Intensity Exercise
194(2)
Catecholamines and Blood Glucose Homeostasis
196(1)
The Endocrine Control of Hepatic Glucose Production
197(2)
Insulin, Glucagon, Norepinephrine, and Epinephrine: Redundant Controls of Glycemia
199(2)
Amylin---the Missing Ingredient?
201(1)
Can Muscle Make Glucose?
201(1)
Growth Hormone Response to Continuous and Intermittent Exercise
202(2)
Cortisol and the Pituitary---Adrenal Axis
204(1)
Role of Cortisol in Prolonged Exercise and During Recovery from Exhausting Exercise
204(1)
The Permissive Action of Thyroid Hormone
204(3)
Posterior Pituitary and ADH Secretion
207(1)
Summary
208(1)
Selected Readings
209(4)
Metabolic Response to Exercise: Lactate Metabolism During Exercise and Recovery, Excess Postexercise O2 Consumption (EPOC), O2 Deficit, O2 Debt, and the ``Anaerobic Threshold''
213(28)
Why Measure the Metabolic Response to Exercise?
213(1)
Validity of Indirect Calorimetry in Measuring Exercise Response
214(4)
Muscle as a Consumer of Lactate During Exercise
216(2)
The Excess Postexercise Oxygen Consumption (EPOC), or the ``O2 Debt''
218(1)
Classical O2 Debt Theory: The Early Twentieth Century
218(4)
The Metabolic Fate of Lactic Acid After Exercise
222(2)
Lactate as a Carbon Reservoir During Recovery
223(1)
Lactic Acid Does Not Cause the O2 Debt
223(1)
Exercise-Related Disturbances to Mitochondrial Function
224(2)
Temperature
224(1)
Fatty Acids and Ions
225(1)
Calcium Ion
225(1)
Sympathetic Stimulation
225(1)
Use of the Term ``O2 Debt''
226(1)
Continued Utility of the O2 Deficit Measure
226(1)
Lactic Acid Turnover During Exercise (Production, Effects of Training on Blood, Removal, and Clearance)
226(1)
Principles of Tracer Methodology
227(3)
Effect of Endurance Training on Lactate Metabolism During Exercise
230(1)
The ``Anaerobic Threshold'': A Misnomer
231(1)
Causes of the Lactate Inflection Point
232(2)
Summary
234(2)
Selected Readings
236(5)
The Why of Pulmonary Ventilation
241(17)
Breathing, Ventilation, and Respiration
242(1)
Rhythmicity in Ventilation
242(1)
Pulmonary Minute Volume
242(1)
Environmental Influences on Pulmonary Gas Volumes
243(1)
Entry of O2 into Blood
243(2)
Blood Hemoglobin and Hematocrit
245(1)
Pulmonary Diffusion
245(1)
Solubility and Diffusion of Gases in Liquids
245(1)
Diffusion of Gases Through Respiratory Membranes (Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity)
246(1)
Arterial Oxygen Homeostasis
246(3)
Oxygen Transport
247(1)
Effects of CO2 and H+ on O2 Transport
248(1)
The Red Blood Cells and Hemoglobin in CO2 Transport
249(3)
CO2 Content of Blood Depends on the PCO2
251(1)
Effects of O2 on Hemoglobin and CO2 Transport
252(1)
The Buffering of Metabolic Acids by the Bicarbonate Buffer System
252(3)
The Control of Blood pH by Ventilation (and Vice Versa)
254(1)
The Buffering of Metabolic Acids
254(1)
The Physicochemical (Stewart) Approach to Blood Acid-Base Chemistry
255(1)
Breathing for Talking
255(1)
Summary
256(1)
Selected Readings
256(2)
The How of Ventilation
258(25)
Pulmonary Anatomy
259(1)
Mechanics of Ventilation
260(1)
Dead Space and Alveolar Ventilation
261(2)
Static Lung Volumes---Physical Dimensions of the Lungs
263(2)
Physics of Ventilatory Gases
265(3)
Partial Pressures
265(1)
Water Vapor
265(3)
Respiration, Circulation, and Ventilation
268(1)
The Control of Alveolar Minute Ventilation
269(1)
Control of Tidal Volume and Breathing Frequency
269(2)
Control of Ventilation: An Integrated, Redundant Neural-Humoral Mechanism
271(3)
The Respiratory (Ventilatory) Center
274(1)
Central Inputs to the Inspiratory Center
274(2)
Neural Input---Central Command from the Motor Cortex
274(1)
Humoral Input---The Medullary Extracellular Fluid
275(1)
Peripheral Inputs to the Respiratory System
276(1)
Peripheral Chemoreceptors
276(1)
Other Peripheral Chemoreceptors
276(1)
Peripheral Neural Inputs to the Inspiratory Center
277(1)
Peripheral Mechanoreceptors
277(1)
Control of Exercise Hyperpnea
277(1)
Summary
278(1)
Selected Readings
279(4)
Ventilation as a Limiting Factor in Aerobic Performance at Sea Level
283(9)
Ventilatory Perfusion Ratio (VE/Q) During Rest and Exercise
284(1)
The Ventilatory Equivalent of O2 (VE/VO2) During Exercise
285(1)
VEmax Versus MVV During Exercise
285(1)
Partial Pressures of Alveolar (PAO2) and Arterial Oxygen (Pao2) During Exercise
285(1)
Alveolar Surface Area for Exchange
285(1)
Fatigue of Ventilatory Muscles and Other Limitations in Ventilation
286(1)
Pulmonary Limitations in Highly Trained Athletes
286(2)
Success at High Altitude
288(1)
Summary
288(1)
Selected Readings
289(3)
The Heart
292(20)
The Structure of the Heart
293(4)
The Myocardium
294(2)
Structure and the Cardiac Cycle
296(1)
The Electrical Activity of the Heart and the Electrocardiogram
297(2)
The Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)
297(2)
Training and the ECG
299(1)
Cardiac Performance at Rest and During Exercise
299(1)
Factors Determining Cardiac Performance
299(9)
Preload
301(3)
Afterload
304(2)
Contractility
306(1)
Heart Rate
307(1)
Summary
308(1)
Selected Readings
308(4)
Circulation and Its Control
312(28)
The Circulation
313(2)
Vascular Smooth Muscle
314(1)
Determinants of Blood Flow
315(4)
Poiseuille's Equation
316(1)
Principle of the Siphon
317(1)
Limitations of Poiseuille's Equation and the Siphon In Vivo
317(2)
Cardiovascular Regulation and Control
319(15)
Neural Control of the Heart
319(1)
Neural Control of the Cardiovascular System
319(4)
Hormonal Control Mechanisms
323(2)
Metabolic Regulation of Blood Flow
325(1)
Autoregulation
326(1)
Summary of Cardiovascular Control During Exercise
326(1)
Regional Circulations
327(4)
The Kidneys and Control of Blood and Fluid Volumes
331(3)
Vascularization and Exercise Training
334(1)
Summary
334(1)
Selected Readings
335(5)
Cardiovascular Dynamics During Exercise
340(23)
Cardiovascular Responses to Exercise
341(8)
Oxygen Consumption
343(2)
Heart Rate
345(1)
Stroke Volume
345(1)
Arteriovenous Oxygen Difference
346(1)
Blood Pressure
346(1)
Blood Flow and ``Cardiovascular Triage''
347(2)
The Limits of Cardiovascular Performance
349(6)
Protection of the Heart and Muscles During Exercise
351(1)
Classical Versus Contemporary Views of Maximal Oxygen Consumption and Endurance Performance
352(1)
Dynamics of Oxygen Transport Capacity
353(1)
Criteria for Identifying VO2max
353(1)
Performance Efficiency
354(1)
VO2max as Predictor of Endurance Performance
354(1)
Changes in Cardiovascular Parameters with Training
355(4)
Oxygen Consumption
355(1)
Heart Rate
356(1)
Stroke Volume
357(1)
Arteriovenous Oxygen Difference
358(1)
Blood Pressure
358(1)
Blood Volume
358(1)
Blood Flow
358(1)
Summary
359(1)
Selected Readings
359(4)
Skeletal Muscle Structure and Contractile Properties
363(33)
Skeletal Muscle Functional Anatomy
364(13)
Organizational Hierarchy
364(2)
Myotendinous Junction
366(1)
Cell Dimensions
367(2)
Sarcomeres
369(1)
Contractile and Regulatory Proteins
369(8)
Sliding Filament Theory and the Crossbridge Cycle
377(2)
Capillarity and the Microvascular Unit
379(4)
Capillarity
379(2)
Microvascular Unit
381(1)
Exercise Blood Flow
382(1)
Architectural Factors
383(3)
Contractile Properties
386(7)
Types of Contraction
386(1)
Experimental Models of Muscle Contraction
386(1)
Length--Tension Relationship
387(1)
Isometric Contraction
387(2)
Force--Velocity Relationship During Shortening and Lengthening Contractions
389(2)
Contraction Modes for Testing and Training Skeletal Muscle Groups
391(2)
Summary
393(1)
Selected Readings
393(3)
Neurons, Motor Unit Recruitment, and Integrative Control of Movement
396(34)
Excitability
397(6)
Resting Membrane Potential
397(1)
Action Potential
398(3)
Neuron Anatomy
401(1)
Facilitation and Inhibition of Action Potentials
401(2)
The Neuromuscular Junction
403(2)
Excitation-Contraction Coupling
405(3)
Muscle Membranes Involved in Excitation
405(1)
Coupling of Excitation to Contraction
406(2)
Motor Units, Fiber Types, and Recruitment
408(6)
The Motor Unit
408(1)
Muscle Fiber Types
408(4)
The Size Principle of Motor Unit Recruitment
412(1)
Electromyography
413(1)
Integrative Control of Movement
414(10)
Anatomical Considerations
414(3)
Neural Control of Reflexes
417(2)
Muscle Spindles and the Gamma Loop
419(1)
Golgi Tendon Organs
420(2)
Corticospinal Tract
422(1)
Multineuronal, Extrapyramidal Pathways
423(1)
Spinal Movements
423(1)
Motor Control and Learning
424(2)
Volitional and Learned Movements
424(1)
Sensory Input During Movement
424(2)
Motor Learning
426(1)
Summary
426(1)
Selected Readings
427(3)
Principles of Skeletal Muscle Adaptations
430(26)
Principle of Myoplasticity
431(3)
Muscle Fiber Types in Elite Athletes
434(3)
Adaptations in Muscle Structure to Endurance Training
437(1)
Adaptations in Muscle Structure to Resistance Training
438(3)
Contribution of Cellular Hypertrophy and Hyperplasia
438(1)
Fiber-Type Specific Adaptations
438(1)
Alterations in Specific Force with Hypertrophy
439(2)
Adaptations in Muscle Structure to Decreased Physical Activity
441(1)
Muscle Adaptation: Injury and Regeneration
442(1)
Gender Differences in Skeletal Muscle
443(1)
Age-Associated Changes in Skeletal Muscle
444(6)
Age-Associated Muscle Atrophy
445(1)
Age-Associated Change in Muscle Function
446(1)
Structure-Function Responses to Resistance Training
447(3)
Summary
450(1)
Selected Readings
451(5)
Muscle Strength, Power, and Flexibility
456(36)
Progressive Resistance Training
457(1)
Classification of Strength Exercises
458(3)
Isometric Exercise
458(1)
Isotonic Exercise
459(2)
Factors Involved in Muscle Adaptation to Progressive Resistance Exercise
461(7)
Overload
463(1)
Specificity
464(3)
Reversibility
467(1)
Individual Differences
467(1)
Components of Muscle Strength: Neural-Motor, Contractile, Elastic
468(7)
Neural-Motor Component of Strength
468(4)
Contractile Component of Strength
472(2)
Muscle Elastic Component of Strength
474(1)
Coordinating Neural-Motor, Contractile, and Elastic Components of Strength
475(1)
Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS)
475(2)
Progressive Resistance Training Programs of Athletes
477(4)
Physiological Basis for Periodization of Training
481(1)
Training for Flexibility
481(5)
Benefits of Flexibility and Stretching Exercises
482(1)
Additional Potential Benefits
482(1)
Factors Determining Flexibility
483(2)
Developing Flexibility
485(1)
Summary
486(1)
Selected Readings
487(5)
Principles of Endurance Conditioning
492(19)
Training for Athletic Competition
493(1)
Overload, Stimulus, and Response
493(1)
Specificity, Skill Acquisition, and Developing Metabolic Machinery
494(3)
Recovery from Sprint Activities
494(1)
Over-Distance Training
495(1)
Interval Training
496(1)
Training Variation and Peaking
496(1)
Sprint Training
497(1)
Volume Versus Intensity of Training
497(1)
Peripheral (Cardiovascular and Intramuscular) Adaptations
498(1)
Central Limitations
498(1)
The Taper for Competition
499(2)
High-Altitude Training
501(1)
Three Components of a Training Session
501(2)
Methods of Evaluating Training Intensity
503(3)
Heart Rate
503(1)
Blood Lactate
503(2)
Heart Rate Field Test for the Maximal Blood Lactate Steady State
505(1)
Planning a Training Schedule
506(1)
Summary
507(1)
Selected Readings
507(4)
Exercise in the Heat and Cold
511(29)
Humans as Homeotherms
512(2)
Normal Body Temperature
513(1)
Heat Transfer
514(7)
Body Temperature, Environment, and Exercise Intensity
514(1)
Heat Production
515(1)
Heat Loss
516(3)
Temperature Regulation
519(2)
Behavior
521(1)
Exercise in the Cold
521(5)
Movement in the Cold
521(1)
Cardiopulmonary Responses to the Cold
522(2)
Muscle Strength
524(1)
Metabolic Changes
524(1)
Acclimatization and Habituation to Cold
524(1)
Cold Injury
525(1)
Exercise in the Heat
526(8)
Cardiovascular Effects
526(1)
Sweating Response
527(1)
Acclimatization to Heat
528(1)
Loss of Acclimatization to Heat
529(1)
Thermal Distress
529(1)
Dehydration
530(1)
Heat Cramps
531(1)
Heat Exhaustion
531(1)
Heat Syncope
531(1)
Heat Stroke
532(1)
Preventing Thermal Distress
533(1)
Summary
534(1)
Selected Readings
535(5)
Exercise, Atmospheric Pressure, Air-Pollution, and Travel
540(34)
Altitude
541(14)
Human Responses to Altitude
543(1)
Systemic Responses to Altitude
544(6)
Muscle Oxidative Capacity at Altitude
550(3)
Competitive Athletics at Altitude
553(2)
Humans in High-Pressure Environments
555(10)
Physiological Effects of Exposure to High Pressure
555(5)
Hyperbaric Exercise
560(5)
Exercise and Air Pollution
565(1)
Biological Rhythms and Travel Across Time Zones
565(1)
Summary
566(1)
Selected Readings
567(7)
Cardiovascular Diseases and Exercise
574(43)
Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD) and Exercise
575(2)
Mechanisms of Sudden Death During Exercise
576(1)
Preventing Sudden Death During Exercise
577(1)
The Development of Atherosclerosis
577(4)
Risk Factors in the Development of Coronary Heart Disease
581(14)
Dyslipidemia
582(4)
Hypertension
586(1)
Smoking
586(1)
Family History, Gender, and Age
587(1)
Obesity
587(1)
Emotional Stress
587(3)
Physical Activity
590(5)
Cardiac Rehabilitation
595(11)
The Inpatient Program
596(1)
The Outpatient Therapeutic Program
596(1)
The Exercise Maintenance Program
597(1)
Cardiac Rehabilitation and Reinfarction
597(1)
Cardiac Drugs and Exercise
597(9)
Hypertension
606(5)
Systolic Blood Pressure
606(1)
Diastolic Blood Pressure
607(1)
Mechanisms of Hypertension
607(2)
Treatment of Hypertension
609(1)
Exercise and Hypertension
609(2)
Chronic Heart Failure (CHF)
611(1)
Exercise Training in CHF
612(1)
Heart Transplantation
612(1)
Exercise and the HT Patient
613(1)
Summary
613(1)
Selected Readings
614(3)
Obesity, Body Composition, and Exercise
617(32)
Obesity and Health
618(5)
Obesity, Insulin Resistance, and the Metabolic Syndrome
620(1)
Obesity and Hypertension
621(1)
Obesity and Hyperlipidemia
622(1)
Obesity and Musculoskeletal Injury
623(1)
Energy Balance: The Role of Exercise and Diet
623(2)
Control of Food Intake
623(2)
Energy Expenditure
625(3)
Resting Metabolic Rate
625(1)
Thermogenesis
625(2)
Physical Activity
627(1)
Hypercellularity of Adipose
628(1)
The Treatment of Obesity
629(5)
Diet: Caloric Restriction
629(1)
Dehydration
630(1)
Medical Procedures
631(1)
Behavior Modification
632(1)
Exercise
632(2)
Body Composition
634(10)
Ideal Body Composition
634(1)
Measuring Body Composition
634(9)
Application of Body Composition Measurements
643(1)
Summary
644(1)
Selected Readings
645(4)
Exercise, Disease, and Disability
649(32)
Chronic Diseases
650(6)
Cancer
650(2)
Diabetes
652(4)
Aging-Related Disorders
656(3)
Arthritis
656(1)
Osteoporosis
657(2)
Pulmonary Disorders
659(4)
Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease
659(2)
Asthma
661(2)
Exercise, Immunity, and Infection
663(4)
Basic Structure of the Immune System
663(1)
Exercise Training and Immunity
664(1)
Viral Infections
665(2)
Mental and Physical Disability
667(8)
Exercise and Mental Health
667(1)
Exercise for People Confined to Wheelchairs
667(3)
Deconditioning and Bed Rest
670(5)
Summary
675(1)
Selected Readings
676(5)
Exercise Testing and Prescription
681(40)
Medical Screening Prior to Beginning an Exercise Program
682(3)
Medical Examination
682(1)
Contraindications to Exercise Training and Testing
683(2)
Functional Capacity
685(3)
METs
686(1)
VO2max Expressed per Kilogram Body Mass (ml · kg-1 · min-1)
686(2)
Measuring Maximal Oxygen Consumption
688(2)
Ventilation
688(1)
Gas Temperature and Barometric Pressure
688(1)
Composition of Expired Air
689(1)
Tests of Functional Capacity
690(13)
Maximal Versus Submaximal Tests
691(1)
Exercise Test Measurements
691(2)
Physical Preparation for Exercise Tolerance Testing
693(3)
The Treadmill
696(2)
The Bicycle Ergometer
698(3)
The Arm Ergometer
701(1)
Bench Steps
701(2)
Exercise-Specific Tests
703(5)
Field Tests of Maximal Oxygen Consumption
703(3)
Submaximal Tests
706(1)
Tests of High-Intensity Exercise Capacity
706(2)
Exercise Prescription for Health and Fitness
708(6)
Exercise and Health
709(5)
Exercise Prescription for the Cardiac Patient
714(2)
Summary
716(1)
Selected Readings
717(4)
Nutrition and Athletic Performance
721(28)
Nutritional Practice in Athletics
722(1)
What Is the IOM Macronutrient Report, Why Was It Written, Who Wrote It, and What Does It Say?
722(4)
Dietary Recommendations in the IOM Macronutrient Report
726(2)
Muscle Glycogen and Dietary Carbohydrate
728(2)
The High-Complex Carbohydrate Diet as the Norm
730(1)
Problems with Carbohydrate Loading
730(1)
Liver Glycogen and Blood Glucose
731(1)
Amino Acid Participation in Exercise
731(1)
Lean Tissue Maintenance and Accretion (Bulking Up)
732(2)
Fat Utilization During Exercise
734(1)
The Precompetition Meal
735(2)
Water in the Diet
737(1)
Fluid, Energy, and Electrolyte Ingestion During and After Exercise
738(1)
The Normal Balanced Diet
739(1)
Meal Planning
739(1)
The Athlete's Diet and Trace Elements
740(4)
Cutting Weight and Special Needs of the Female Athlete
744(1)
Summary
744(1)
Selected Readings
745(4)
Ergogenic Aids
749(34)
Banned Substances
750(3)
Anabolic--Androgenic Steroids
753(11)
How Anabolic Steroids Work
753(3)
Anabolic Steroids and Performance
756(2)
Side Effects of Anabolic Steroids
758(4)
Use of Anabolic Steroids by Athletes
762(2)
Growth Hormone
764(3)
IGF-1
765(1)
Prohormones
766(1)
Insulin
766(1)
Clenubuterol
766(1)
Creatine Monohydrate
766(1)
Phosphatidylserine (PS)
767(1)
β-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB)
767(1)
Amphetamines
767(1)
Amphetamines and Athletic Performance
768(1)
Side Effects of Amphetamines
768(1)
Cocaine
768(1)
Caffeine
769(2)
Caffeine and Performance
770(1)
Other Stimulants
771(1)
Nutritional Supplements
771(4)
Carbohydrate Feeding
771(1)
Protein Loading
772(1)
Vitamins
772(1)
B Vitamins
772(1)
Vitamin C
773(1)
Vitamin E and Wheat Germ Oil
773(1)
Aspartates
774(1)
L-Carnitine
774(1)
Succinates
775(1)
Chromium
775(1)
``Adaptogens''---Herbal Stimulants
775(1)
Other Nutritional Ergogenic Aids
775(1)
Sodium Bicarbonate
775(1)
Blood Doping and Erythropoietin
776(1)
Oxygen
776(1)
Summary
777(1)
Selected Readings
778(5)
Gender Differences in Physical Performance
783(26)
Physiological Sex Differences
784(8)
Sex Chromosomes
784(1)
Growth and Maturation
785(1)
Body Composition
786(1)
Oxygen Transport and Endurance
787(3)
Physical Performance
790(1)
Muscle Metabolism and Substrate Utilization
790(1)
Strength
791(1)
Exercise and the Menstrual Cycle
792(5)
Menarche
792(1)
Amenorrhea and Oligomenorrhea
792(4)
The Female Athlete Triad
796(1)
Dysmenorrhea and Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)
797(1)
Pregnancy
797(7)
Energy Cost of Pregnancy
798(1)
Effects of Physical Fitness on Childbirth
799(1)
Effect of Pregnancy on Fitness
800(1)
The Effect of Exercise on the Fetus
801(1)
Exercise Prescription in Pregnancy
802(2)
Summary
804(1)
Selected Readings
805(4)
Growth and Development
809(25)
Nature of the Growth Process
810(7)
Growth Curves
810(1)
Neuroendocrine Control of Growth
810(2)
Exercise and Growth
812(1)
Growth in Infancy and Childhood
813(1)
Growth at Puberty and Adolescence
813(1)
Assessing Maturation in Adolescents
814(3)
Skeletal Changes During Growth
817(2)
Bone Growth
817(2)
Epiphyseal Injury
819(1)
Body Composition and Obesity
819(3)
Muscle
822(1)
Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Function
822(5)
Cardiac Performance
822(1)
Pulmonary Function
823(3)
Temperature Regulation
826(1)
Training
826(1)
``Anaerobic'' Work Capacity
827(1)
Genetics and Physical Performance
828(1)
Summary
828(2)
Selected Readings
830(4)
Aging and Exercise
834(18)
The Nature of the Aging Process
836(2)
The Aging Process and the Effects of Exercise
838(4)
Cardiovascular Capacity
839(3)
Pulmonary Function
842(1)
Skeletal System
842(1)
Joints
843(1)
Skeletal Muscle
843(1)
Strength
843(1)
Muscle Fiber Types and Motor Units
844(1)
Muscle Biochemistry
844(1)
Exercise and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors
844(1)
Body Composition and Stature
845(1)
Neural Function
846(1)
Exercise Prescription for the Elderly
846(1)
Summary
847(1)
Selected Readings
847(5)
Fatigue During Muscular Exercise
852
Identifying Fatigue
853(1)
Metabolite Depletion
854(2)
The Phosphagens (ATP and CP)
854(1)
Free Energy of ATP and Other ATP-Related Fatigue Effects
855(1)
Glycogen
856(1)
Blood Glucose
856(1)
Metabolite Accumulation
856(4)
Lactic Acid Accumulation (Lactic Acidosis)
857(1)
Phosphate and Diprotenated Phosphates
857(1)
Calcium Ion
858(1)
Mitochondrial Coupling Efficiency
858(1)
Ryanodine Receptor Fatigue
859(1)
O2 Depletion and Muscle Mitochondrial Density
860(1)
Disturbances to Homeostasis
860(1)
Central and Neuromuscular Fatigue
860(2)
Psychological Fatigue
862(1)
The Heart as a Site of Fatigue
863(1)
VO2max and Endurance
864(3)
Muscle Mass
864(1)
Muscle Mitochondria
865(1)
Arterial O2 Transport
866(1)
Muscle Oxygenation at VO2max
866(1)
Arterial O2 Transport, VO2max, and Exercise Endurance
866(1)
Catastrophe Theory
867(1)
The Future of Fatigue
867(3)
NMR (MRS and MRI)
867(2)
PET
869(1)
NIRS
870(1)
Summary
870(1)
Selected Readings
871
Appendix I List of Symbols and Abbreviations 1(4)
Appendix II Units and Measures 5
Index


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