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Exercise Physiology : Theory and Application to Fitness and Performance,9780073028637
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Exercise Physiology : Theory and Application to Fitness and Performance

by
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780073028637

ISBN10:
0073028630
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
5/8/2006
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages
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Summary

Written especially for exercise science and physical education students, this text provides a solid foundation in theory illuminated by application and performance models to increase understanding and to help students apply what they've learned in the classroom and beyond.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
SECTION 1
Physiology of Exercise in the United States---Its Past, Its Future
2(12)
European Heritage
3(1)
Harvard Fatigue Laboratory
4(1)
Physical Fitness
5(2)
Physical Education to Exercise Science
7(1)
Graduate Study and Research in the Physiology of Exercise
8(2)
Professional Societies and Research Journals
10(1)
Translation of Exercise Physiology to the Consumer
11(3)
Control of the Internal Environment
14(9)
Homeostasis: Dynamic Constancy
15(1)
Control Systems of the Body
16(1)
Nature of the Control Systems
17(1)
Negative Feedback
18(1)
Gain of a Control System
18(1)
Examples of Homeostatic Control
18(3)
Regulation of Arterial Blood Pressure
18(1)
Regulation of Blood Glucose
19(1)
Stress Proteins Assist in the Regulation of Cellular Homeostasis
19(2)
Exercise: A Test of Homeostatic Control
21(2)
Bioenergetics
23(29)
Cell Structure
24(1)
Biological Energy Transformation
25(6)
Cellular Chemical Reactions
25(2)
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
27(1)
Enzymes
28(3)
Fuels for Exercise
31(2)
Carbohydrates
31(1)
Fats
32(1)
Proteins
32(1)
High-Energy Phosphates
33(1)
Bioenergetics
33(13)
Anaerobic ATP Production
33(5)
Aerobic ATP Production
38(8)
Aerobic ATP Tally
46(1)
Efficiency of Oxidative Phosphorylation
46(1)
Control of Bioenergetics
46(2)
Control of ATP-PC System
47(1)
Control of Glycolysis
47(1)
Control of Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Chain
48(1)
Interaction Between Aerobic/Anaerobic ATP Production
48(4)
Exercise Metabolism
52(21)
Energy Requirements at Rest
53(1)
Rest-to-Exercise Transitions
53(1)
Recovery from Exercise: Metabolic Responses
54(3)
Metabolic Responses to Exercise: Influence of Duration and Intensity
57(4)
Short-Term, Intense Exercise
57(1)
Prolonged Exercise
58(1)
Incremental Exercise
58(3)
Estimation of Fuel Utilization During Exercise
61(1)
Factors Governing Fuel Selection
62(11)
Exercise Intensity and Fuel Selection
62(1)
Exercise Duration and Fuel Selection
63(1)
Interaction of Fat/Carbohydrate Metabolism
64(1)
Body Fuel Sources
65(8)
Hormonal Responses to Exercise
73(33)
Neuroendocrinology
74(4)
Blood Hormone Concentration
75(1)
Hormone-Receptor Interaction
76(2)
Hormones: Regulation and Action
78(14)
Hypothalamus and the Pituitary Gland
79(2)
Thyroid Gland
81(1)
Parathyroid Gland
82(1)
Adrenal Gland
82(3)
Pancreas
85(1)
Testes and Ovaries
86(6)
Hormonal Control of Substrate Mobilization During Exercise
92(14)
Muscle-Glycogen Utilization
92(1)
Blood Glucose Homeostasis During Exercise
93(7)
Hormone-Substrate Interaction
100(6)
Measurement of Work, Power, and Energy Expenditure
106(14)
Units of Measure
107(1)
Metric System
107(1)
SI Units
107(1)
Work and Power Defined
107(2)
Work
107(1)
Power
108(1)
Measurement of Work and Power
109(2)
Bench Step
109(1)
Cycle Ergometer
110(1)
Treadmill
110(1)
Measurement of Energy Expenditure
111(1)
Direct Calorimetry
111(1)
Indirect Calorimetry
112(1)
Estimation of Energy Expenditure
112(3)
Calculation of Exercise Efficiency
115(2)
Factors That Influence Exercise Efficiency
115(2)
Running Economy
117(3)
The Nervous System: Structure and Control of Movement
120(20)
General Nervous System Functions
121(1)
Organization of the Nervous System
121(8)
Structure of the Neuron
122(1)
Electrical Activity in Neurons
122(7)
Sensory Information and Reflexes
129(2)
Proprioceptors
129(1)
Muscle Chemoreceptors
130(1)
Reflexes
130(1)
Somatic Motor Function
131(1)
Vestibular Apparatus and Equilibrium
132(1)
Motor Control Functions of the Brain
132(2)
Brain Stem
133(1)
Cerebrum
133(1)
Cerebellum
134(1)
Motor Functions of the Spinal Cord
134(1)
Control of Motor Functions
135(1)
Autonomic Nervous System
136(1)
Exercise Enhances Brain Health
137(3)
Skeletal Muscle: Structure and Function
140(29)
Structure of Skeletal Muscle
141(2)
Neuromuscular Junction
143(1)
Muscular Contraction
144(5)
Overview of the Sliding Filament Model
144(1)
Energy for Contraction
145(1)
Regulation of Excitation-Contraction Coupling
145(4)
Fiber Types
149(6)
Biochemical and Contractile Characteristics of Skeletal Muscle
149(3)
Characteristics of Individual Fiber Types
152(2)
Fiber Types and Performance
154(1)
Alterations in Skeletal Muscle Due to Exercise, Inactivity, and Aging
155(3)
Exercise-Induced Changes in Skeletal Muscles
155(1)
Muscle Atrophy Due to Inactivity
155(2)
Age-Related Changes in Skeletal Muscle
157(1)
Muscle Actions
158(1)
Speed of Muscle Action and Relaxation
159(1)
Force Regulation in Muscle
160(1)
Force-Velocity/Power-Velocity Relationships
161(2)
Receptors in Muscle
163(6)
Muscle Spindle
163(1)
Golgi Tendon Organs
164(5)
Circulatory Responses to Exercise
169(31)
Organization of the Circulatory System
170(1)
Structure of the Heart
170(1)
Pulmonary and Systemic Circuits
171(1)
Heart: Myocardium and Cardiac Cycle
171(10)
Myocardium
171(3)
Cardiac Cycle
174(2)
Arterial Blood Pressure
176(1)
Factors That Influence Arterial Blood Pressure
177(1)
Electrical Activity of the Heart
178(3)
Cardiac Output
181(5)
Regulation of the Heart Rate
182(1)
Regulation of Stroke Volume
183(3)
Hemodynamics
186(2)
Physical Characteristics of Blood
186(1)
Relationships Among Pressure, Resistance, and Flow
186(1)
Sources of Vascular Resistance
187(1)
Changes in Oxygen Delivery to Muscle During Exercise
188(4)
Changes in Cardiac Output During Exercise
188(1)
Changes in Arterial-Mixed Venous O2 Content During Exercise
189(1)
Redistribution of Blood Flow During Exercise
189(1)
Regulation of Local Blood Flow During Exercise
190(2)
Circulatory Responses to Exercise
192(3)
Emotional Influence
192(1)
Transition from Rest to Exercise
192(1)
Recovery from Exercise
192(1)
Incremental Exercise
192(1)
Arm versus Leg Exercise
193(1)
Intermittent Exercise
194(1)
Prolonged Exercise
194(1)
Regulation of Cardiovascular Adjustments to Exercise
195(5)
Respiration During Exercise
200(30)
Function of the Lung
201(1)
Structure of the Respiratory System
201(3)
Conducting Zone
202(2)
Respiratory Zone
204(1)
Mechanics of Breathing
204(3)
Inspiration
204(1)
Expiration
204(2)
Airway Resistance
206(1)
Pulmonary Ventilation
207(1)
Pulmonary Volumes and Capacities
208(2)
Diffusion of Gases
210(1)
Blood Flow to the Lung
211(1)
Ventilation-Perfusion Relationships
212(1)
O2 and CO2 Transport in Blood
213(4)
Hemoglobin and O2 Transport
213(1)
Oxyhemoglobin Dissociation Curve
213(2)
O2 Transport in Muscle
215(1)
CO2 Transport in Blood
215(2)
Ventilation and Acid-Base Balance
217(1)
Ventilatory and Blood-Gas Responses to Exercise
217(2)
Rest-to-Work Transitions
217(1)
Prolonged Exercise in a Hot Environment
217(1)
Incremental Exercise
218(1)
Control of Ventilation
219(5)
Ventilatory Regulation at Rest
219(3)
Ventilatory Control During Submaximal Exercise
222(1)
Ventilatory Control During Heavy Exercise
222(2)
Do the Lungs Adapt to Exercise Training?
224(1)
Does the Pulmonary System Limit Maximal Exercise Performance?
224(6)
Acid-Base Balance During Exercise
230(11)
Acids, Bases, and pH
231(1)
Hydrogen Ion Production During Exercise
232(2)
Importance of Acid-Base Regulation During Exercise
234(1)
Acid-Base Buffer Systems
234(2)
Intracellular Buffers
234(1)
Extracellular Buffers
235(1)
Respiratory Influence on Acid-Base Balance
236(1)
Regulation of Acid-Base Balance via the Kidneys
236(1)
Regulation of Acid-Base Balance During Exercise
237(4)
Temperature Regulation
241(19)
Overview of Heat Balance During Exercise
242(1)
Temperature Measurement During Exercise
243(1)
Overview of Heat Production/Heat Loss
243(4)
Heat Production
243(1)
Heat Loss
244(1)
Heat Storage in the Body During Exercise
245(2)
Body's Thermostat---Hypothalamus
247(2)
Shift in the Hypothalamic Thermostat Set Point Due to Fever
248(1)
Thermal Events During Exercise
249(1)
Exercise in the Heat
250(6)
Sweat Rates During Exercise
251(1)
Exercise Performance in a Hot Environment
252(1)
Gender and Age Differences in Thermoregulation
253(1)
Heat Acclimatization
254(2)
Loss of Acclimatization
256(1)
Exercise in a Cold Environment
256(4)
Cold Acclimatization
256(4)
The Physiology of Training: Effect on VO2 Max, Performance, Homeostasis, and Strength
260(28)
Principles of Training
261(1)
Overload
261(1)
Specificity
262(1)
Research Designs to Study Training
262(1)
Endurance Training and VO2 Max
262(2)
Training Programs and Changes in VO2 Max
263(1)
VO2 Max: Cardiac Output and the Arteriovenous O2 Difference
264(4)
Stroke Volume
265(2)
Arteriovenous O2 Difference
267(1)
Detraining and VO2 Max
268(1)
Endurance Training: Effects on Performance and Homeostasis
269(6)
Biochemical Adaptations and the Oxygen Deficit
271(1)
Biochemical Adaptations and the Plasma Glucose Concentration
271(2)
Biochemical Adaptations and Blood pH
273(1)
Biochemical Adaptations and Lactate Removal
274(1)
Endurance Training: Links Between Muscle and Systemic Physiology
275(3)
Peripheral Feedback
277(1)
Central Command
277(1)
Physiological Effects of Strength Training
278(1)
Physiological Mechanisms Causing Increased Strength
279(9)
Neural Factors
279(1)
Muscular Enlargement
280(1)
Concurrent Strength and Endurance Training
281(7)
SECTION 2
Patterns in Health and Disease: Epidemiology and Physiology
288(11)
Epidemiology
289(2)
Coronary Heart Disease
291(3)
Physical Inactivity as a Risk Factor
292(2)
Physiology
294(2)
Synthesis
296(3)
Work Tests to Evaluate Cardiorespiratory Fitness
299(21)
Testing Procedures
300(2)
Screening
300(2)
Resting and Exercise Measures
302(1)
Field Tests for Estimating CRF
302(3)
Maximal Run Tests
302(2)
Walk Tests
304(1)
Canadian Home Fitness Test
304(1)
Graded Exercise Tests: Measurements
305(3)
Heart Rate
305(1)
Blood Pressure
305(1)
ECG
306(1)
Rating of Perceived Exertion
306(1)
Termination Criteria
307(1)
VO2 Max
308(3)
Estimation of VO2 Max from Last Work Rate
309(1)
Estimation of VO2 Max from Submaximal HR Response
309(2)
Graded Exercise Test: Protocols
311(9)
Treadmill
312(1)
Cycle Ergometer
313(1)
Step Test
314(6)
Exercise Prescriptions for Health and Fitness
320(17)
Prescription of Exercise
321(4)
Dose-Response
322(1)
Physical Activity and Health
323(2)
General Guidelines for Improving Fitness
325(1)
Screening
325(1)
Progression
325(1)
Warm-Up, Stretch, and Cool-Down, Stretch
325(1)
Exercise Prescription for CRF
325(4)
Frequency
326(1)
Duration
326(1)
Intensity
326(3)
Sequence of Physical Activity
329(2)
Walking
329(1)
Jogging
329(1)
Games and Sports
330(1)
Strength and Flexibility Training
331(1)
Environmental Concerns
332(5)
Exercise for Special Populations
337(22)
Diabetes
338(4)
Exercise and the Diabetic
339(3)
Asthma
342(3)
Diagnosis and Causes
342(1)
Prevention/Relief of Asthma
343(1)
Exercise-Induced Asthma
343(2)
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
345(1)
Testing and Training
345(1)
Hypertension
346(1)
Cardiac Rehabilitation
347(2)
Population
347(1)
Testing
348(1)
Exercise Programs
348(1)
Exercise for Older Adults
349(3)
Exercise During Pregnancy
352(7)
Body Composition and Nutrition for Health
359(49)
Nutritional Goals
360(2)
Standards of Nutrition
362(1)
Classes of Nutrients
363(11)
Water
363(1)
Vitamins
364(1)
Minerals
364(4)
Carbohydrates
368(4)
Fats
372(1)
Protein
373(1)
Meeting the Guidelines and Achieving the Goals
374(2)
Food Group Plans
374(1)
Evaluating the Diet
375(1)
Body Composition
376(8)
Methods of Assessing Overweight and Obesity
377(1)
Methods of Measuring Body Composition
378(2)
Two-Component System of Body Composition
380(3)
Body Fatness for Health and Fitness
383(1)
Obesity and Weight Control
384(4)
Obesity
384(4)
Diet, Exercise, and Weight Control
388(20)
Energy and Nutrient Balance
389(1)
Diet and Weight Control
390(1)
Energy Expenditure and Weight Control
391(17)
SECTION 3
Factors Affecting Performance
408(13)
Sites of Fatigue
409(4)
Central Fatigue
409(1)
Peripheral Fatigue
410(3)
Factors Limiting All-Out Anaerobic Performances
413(2)
Ultra Short-Term Performances (Less than Ten Seconds)
413(2)
Short-Term Performances (10 to 180 Seconds)
415(1)
Factors Limiting All-Out Aerobic Performances
415(3)
Moderate-Length Performances (Three to Twenty Minutes)
415(1)
Intermediate-Length Performances (Twenty-One to Sixty Minutes)
416(1)
Long-Term Performances (One to Four Hours)
417(1)
Athlete as Machine
418(3)
Laboratory Assessment of Human Performance
421(20)
Laboratory Assessment of Physical Performance
422(1)
Physiological Testing: Theory and Ethics
422(1)
What the Athlete Gains by Physiological Testing
422(1)
What Physiological Testing Will Not Do
423(1)
Components of Effective Physiological Testing
423(1)
Direct Testing of Maximal Aerobic Power
424(2)
Specificity of Testing
424(1)
Exercise Test Protocol
425(1)
Determination of Peak VO2 in Paraplegic Athletes
425(1)
Laboratory Tests to Predict Endurance Performance
426(3)
Use of the Lactate Threshold to Evaluate Performance
426(2)
Measurement of Critical Power
428(1)
Tests to Determine Exercise Economy
429(1)
Estimating Success in Distance Running Using the Lactate Threshold and Running Economy
429(1)
Determination of Anaerobic Power
430(4)
Tests of Ultra Short-Term Maximal Anaerobic Power
431(2)
Tests of Short-Term Anaerobic Power
433(1)
Evaluation of Muscular Strength
434(7)
Criteria for Selection of a Strength-Testing Method
434(1)
Isometric Measurement of Strength
435(1)
Free-Weight Testing of Strength
435(1)
Isokinetic Assessment of Strength
436(1)
Variable-Resistance Measurement of Strength
437(4)
Training for Performance
441(22)
Training Principles
442(2)
Overload, Specificity, and Reversibility
442(1)
Influence of Gender, Initial Fitness Level, and Genetics
443(1)
Components of a Training Session: Warm-Up, Workout, and Cool Down
444(1)
Training to Improve Aerobic Power
444(3)
Interval Training
445(1)
Long, Slow-Distance Exercise
446(1)
High-Intensity, Continuous Exercise
446(1)
Injuries and Endurance Training
447(1)
Training for Improved Anaerobic Power
447(1)
Traning to Improve the ATP-PC System
448(1)
Training to Improve the Glycolytic System
448(1)
Training to Improve Muscular Strength
448(8)
Progressive Resistance Exercise
450(1)
General Strength-Training Principles
450(1)
Free Weights versus Machines
451(1)
Combined Strength- and Endurance-Training Programs
451(1)
Gender Differences in Response to Strength Training
451(2)
Muscle Soreness
453(3)
Training for Improved Flexibility
456(1)
Year-Round Conditioning for Athletes
457(1)
Off-Season Conditioning
457(1)
Preseason Conditioning
457(1)
In-Season Conditioning
457(1)
Common Training Mistakes
458(5)
Training for the Female Athlete, Children, and Special Populations
463(14)
Factors Important to Women Involved in Vigorous Training
464(5)
Exercise and Menstrual Disorders
464(1)
Training and Menstruation
465(1)
The Female Athlete and Eating Disorders
465(1)
Bone Mineral Disorders and the Female Athlete
466(1)
Training During Pregnancy
466(1)
Risk of Knee Injury in Female Athletes
466(3)
Sports Conditioning for Children
469(1)
Training and the Cardiopulmonary System
469(1)
Training and the Musculoskeletal System
469(1)
Competitive Training for Diabetics
470(2)
Training for Asthmatics
472(1)
Epilepsy and Physical Training
472(5)
Does Exercise Promote Seizures?
473(1)
Risk of Injury Due to Seizures
473(4)
Nutrition, Body Composition, and Performance
477(22)
Nutrition and Performance
478(14)
Carbohydrate
478(4)
Protein
482(4)
Water and Electrolytes
486(3)
Minerals
489(1)
Vitamins
490(1)
Precompetition Diet
491(1)
Body Composition and Performance
492(1)
Somatotype
492(7)
Body Fatness and Performance
492(7)
Exercise and the Environment
499(23)
Altitude
500(9)
Atmospheric Pressure
500(1)
Short-Term Anaerobic Performance
500(1)
Long-Term Aerobic Performance
501(1)
Maximal Aerobic Power and Altitude
501(2)
Adaptation to High Altitude
503(1)
Training for Competition at Altitude
504(2)
The Quest for Everest
506(3)
Heat
509(3)
Hyperthermia
509(3)
Cold
512(4)
Environmental Factors
512(1)
Insulating Factors
513(2)
Energy Production
515(1)
Dealing with Hypothermia
516(1)
Air Pollution
516(6)
Particulate Matter
517(1)
Ozone
517(1)
Sulfur Dioxide
517(1)
Carbon Monoxide
517(5)
Ergogenic Aids
522
Research Design Concerns
523(1)
Dietary Supplements
524(1)
Aerobic Performance
524(5)
Oxygen
524(3)
Blood Doping
527(2)
Anaerobic Performance
529(1)
Blood Buffers
529(1)
Drugs
530(6)
Amphetamines
530(1)
Caffeine
531(3)
Cocaine
534(1)
Nicotine
535(1)
Physical Warm-Up
536
Appendix A Calculation of Oxygen Uptake and Carbon Dioxide Production 1(4)
Appendix B Estimated Energy Expenditure during Selected Activities 5(12)
Appendix C PARmed-X Physical Activity Readiness Medical Examination 17(1)
Appendix D Dietary Reference Intakes: Macronutrients 18(2)
Appendix E Dietary Reference Intakes: Vitamins and Minerals 20(4)
Appendix F Dietary Reference Intakes: Estimated Energy Requirements 24(1)
Appendix G Percent Fat Estimate for Men: Sum of Triceps, Chest, and Subscapula Skinfolds 25(1)
Appendix H Percent Fat Estimate for Women: Sum of Triceps, Abdomen, and Suprailium Skinfolds 26
Glossary 1(1)
Credits 1(1)
Index 1


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