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Experiencing the World's Religions: Tradition, Challenge, and Change,9781559344944

Experiencing the World's Religions: Tradition, Challenge, and Change

by
ISBN13:

9781559344944

ISBN10:
1559344946
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
9/1/1998
Publisher(s):
McGraw Hill College Div
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Table of Contents

Preface xv
1 Understanding Religion
1(24)
FIRST ENCOUNTER
1(1)
WHY IS THERE RELIGION?
2(8)
Speculations on the Sources of Religion
3(3)
Key Characteristics of Religion
6(1)
The Sacred
7(1)
Religious Symbolism
8(2)
PATTERNS AMONG RELIGIONS
10(10)
First Pattern: Focus of Beliefs and Practices
11(1)
Second Pattern: Religious Views of the World and Life
12(2)
Third Pattern: Religious Views of Male and Female
14(1)
Box: Is Goddess Worship Still Alive?
15(1)
Multidisciplinary Approaches to the Study of Religion
16(2)
Why Study the Major Religions of the World?
18(1)
Box: Exploring Religion Beyond the Classroom
19(1)
THE PILGRIMAGE
20(2)
RELIGION BEYOND THE CLASSROOM
22(1)
FOR FULLER UNDERSTANDING
22(1)
RELATED READINGS
22(1)
KEY TERMS
23(2)
2 Oral Religions
25(30)
FIRST ENCOUNTER
25(2)
DISCOVERING ORAL RELIGIONS
27(4)
Past Obstacles to the Appreciation of Oral Religions
28(1)
The Modern Recovery of Oral Religions
28(3)
STUDYING ORAL RELIGIONS: LEARNING FROM PATTERNS
31(6)
Human Relationships with the Natural World
31(1)
Box: Spirits Within
32(1)
Sacred Time and Sacred Space
33(1)
Respect for Origins, Gods, and Ancestors
34(3)
SACRED PRACTICES IN ORAL RELIGIONS
37(10)
Life-Cycle Ceremonies
37(2)
Taboo and Sacrifice
39(1)
Shamanism, Trance, and Magic
40(3)
Artifacts and Artistic Expression in Oral Religions
43(3)
Box: Halloween: "Just Good Fun" or Folk Religion?
46(1)
PERSONAL EXPERIENCE: GODS IN HAWATI
47(3)
ORAL RELIGIONS TODAY
50(1)
RELIGION BEYOND THE CLASSROOM
51(1)
FOR FULLER UNDERSTANDING
52(1)
RELATED READINGS
52(1)
KEY TERMS
53(2)
3 Hinduism
55(46)
FIRST ENCOUNTER
55(2)
THE ORIGINS OF HINDUISM
57(5)
The Earliest Stage of Indian Religion
58(2)
The Aryans and Their Religion
60(1)
The Vedas
61(1)
THE UPANISHADS AND THE AXIS AGE
62(6)
The Origin of the Upanishads
63(1)
Important Concepts of the Upanishads
64(4)
LIVING SPIRITUALLY IN THE EVERYDAY WORLD
68(9)
The Bhagavad Gita
68(2)
The Caste System
70(2)
The Stages of Life
72(1)
The Goals of Life
73(1)
The Yogas
73(2)
Box: Hindu Meditation: More Than Emptying the Mind
75(2)
DEVOTIONAL HINDUISM
77(10)
The Trimurti: Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva
79(4)
Worship of the Divine Feminine: Devi
83(1)
The Guru as Object of Devotion
84(1)
Devotion to Animals
85(1)
Box: Hindu Celebrations
86(1)
Other Forms of Religious Devotion
86(1)
PERSONAL EXPERIENCE: GAZING INTO THE MOTHER'S EYES
87(1)
HINDUISM AND THE ARTS
88(2)
HINDUISM: MODERN CHALLENGES
90(7)
Mohandas Gandhi
92(2)
Hindu Influence Beyond India
94(3)
RELIGION BEYOND THE CLASSROOM
97(1)
FOR FULLER UNDERSTANDING
98(1)
RELATED READINGS
98(1)
KEY TERMS
98(3)
4 Buddhism
101(62)
FIRST ENCOUNTER
101(1)
THE BEGINNINGS OF BUDDHISM: THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA
102(5)
THE BASIC TEACHINGS OF BUDDHISM
107(6)
The Three Marks of Reality
108(2)
The Four Noble Truths and the Noble Eightfold Path
110(3)
THE INFLUENCE OF INDIAN THOUGHT ON EARLY BUDDHIST TEACHINGS
113(2)
Ahimsa: "Do No Harm"
113(1)
The Soul and Karma
114(1)
Nirvana
114(1)
Box: Was the Buddha an Atheist?
115(1)
THE EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF BUDDHISM
115(3)
THERAVADA BUDDHISM: THE WAY OF THE ELDERS
118(5)
Theravada Teachings and Literature
120(1)
Theravada Art and Architecture
121(2)
MAHAYANA BUDDHISM: THE "BIG VEHICLE"
123(15)
Mahayana Teachings and Practice
123(2)
Mahayana Thought and Worldview
125(5)
Mahayana Literature
130(1)
Mahayana in China
130(3)
Mahayana in Korea
133(1)
Mahayana in Japan
133(1)
Some Major Schools of Mahayana
134(4)
ZEN BUDDHISM: ENLIGHTENMENT THROUGH EXPERIENCE
138(8)
Zen Techniques for Enlightenment
140(2)
Buddhism and the Arts of Japan
142(4)
VAJRAYANA BUDDHISM: THE "DIAMOND VEHICLE"
146(6)
Origins, Practice, and Literature of Tibetan Buddhism
146(1)
Box: Buddhist Festivals
147(2)
Ritual and the Arts
149(3)
PERSONAL EXPERIENCE: VISITING THE DALAI LAMA
152(2)
BUDDHISM, THE WEST, AND MODERN CHALLENGES
154(4)
RELIGION BEYOND THE CLASSROOM
158(1)
FOR FULLER UNDERSTANDING
159(1)
RELATED READINGS
159(1)
KEY TERMS
160(3)
5 Jainism and Sikhism
163(24)
FIRST ENCOUNTER
163(1)
SHARED ORIGINS
164(1)
JAINISM
165(1)
BACKGROUND
165(1)
MAHAVIRA AND THE ORIGINS OF JAINISM
165(2)
WORLDVIEW
167(1)
JAIN ETHICS
168(3)
Box: Jains and Gentle Suicide
170(1)
THE DEVELOPMENT OF JAINISM AND ITS BRANCHES
171(1)
Digambaras
171(1)
Shvetambaras
171(1)
Sthanakavasis
172(1)
JAIN PRACTICES
172(1)
JAIN SCRIPTURES
172(2)
JAIN ART AND ARCHITECTURE
174(1)
SIKHISM
174(1)
BACKGROUND
174(2)
NANAK AND THE ORIGINS OF SIKHISM
176(1)
THE WORLDVIEW AND TEACHINGS OF NANAK
177(1)
Box: The "Five K's" of the Sikhs
178(1)
THE DEVELOPMENT OF SIKHISM
178(2)
SIKH SCRIPTURES
180(1)
SIKHISM AND THE MODERN WORLD
181(1)
PERSONAL EXPERIENCE: A VISIT TO THE GOLDEN TEMPLE
182(2)
RELIGION BEYOND THE CLASSROOM
184(1)
FOR FULLER UNDERSTANDING
184(1)
RELATED READINGS
184(1)
KEY TERMS
185(2)
6 Taoism and Confucianism
187(48)
FIRST ENCOUNTER
187(2)
BASIC ELEMENTS OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE BELIEFS
189(2)
TAOISM
191(1)
THE ORIGINS OF PHILOSOPHICAL TAOISM
192(5)
Laozi (Lao Tzu)
192(1)
The Tao Te Ching
193(2)
Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu)
195(1)
Box: The Seasons of Life
196(1)
THE BASIC TEACHINGS OF PHILOSOPHICAL TAOISM
197(1)
TAOISM AND THE QUEST FOR LONGEVITY
198(1)
RELIGIOUS TAOISM
199(2)
TAOISM AND THE ARTS
201(3)
TAOISM AND THE MODERN WORLD
204(2)
Box: The Chinese Garden-Bridge to the Infinite
205(1)
CONFUCIANISM
206(1)
THE TAO IN CONFUCIANISM
206(1)
THE LIFE OF CONFUCIUS
206(2)
Box: Confucianism: Philosophy or Religion?
208(1)
LIVING ACCORDING TO CONFUCIAN VALUES
208(7)
The Five Great Relationships
209(3)
The Confucian Virtues
212(2)
Box: The Ideal Human Being
214(1)
CONFUCIAN LITERATURE
215(3)
The Five Classics
215(2)
The Four Books
217(1)
THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONFUCIANISM
218(5)
Schools of Philosophy
218(3)
The Development of Confucianism as a Religious System
221(2)
CONFUCIANISM AND THE ARTS
223(3)
Box: Friends from Far Away
224(2)
PERSONAL EXPERIENCE: AT A CONFUCIAN TEMPLE
226(5)
Confucianism and the Modern World
228(3)
RELIGION BEYOND THE CLASSROOM
231(1)
FOR FULLER UNDERSTANDING
231(1)
RELATED READINGS
232(1)
KEY TERMS
232(3)
7 Shinto
235(28)
FIRST ENCOUNTER
235(1)
THE ORIGINS OF SHINTO
236(3)
THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF SHINTO
239(6)
Accommodation with Buddhism and Confucianism
239(2)
Shinto and Japanese National Identity
241(2)
Box: Kamikaze Pilots and Shinto
243(2)
ESSENTIALS OF SHINTO BELIEF
245(2)
Box: Shinto Ethics: Basic Rules for the Twenty-First Century
247(1)
SHINTO RELIGIOUS PRACTICE
247(5)
Worship at Shrines
247(3)
Celebration of the New Year
250(1)
Observances of the Seasons and Nature
250(1)
Other Practices
251(1)
PERSONAL EXPERIENCE: A TEMPLE HIGH ABOVE KYOTO
252(2)
SHINTO AND THE ARTS
254(2)
Architecture
254(1)
Music and Dance
255(1)
SHINTO OFFSHOOTS: THE NEW RELIGIONS
256(3)
SHINTO AND THE MODERN WORLD
259(1)
RELIGION BEYOND THE CLASSROOM
260(1)
FOR FULLER UNDERSTANDING
261(1)
RELATED READINGS
261(1)
KEY TERMS
261(2)
8 Judaism
263(56)
FIRST ENCOUNTER
263(2)
AN OVERVIEW OF JEWISH HISTORY
265(2)
THE HEBREW BIBLE
267(2)
Box: Books of the Hebrew Bible
268(1)
BIBLICAL HISTORY
269(14)
In the Beginning: Stories of Origins
269(3)
The World of the Patriarchs and Matriarchs
272(2)
Moses and the Law
274(4)
Box: The Ten Commandments
278(1)
The Judges and Kings
279(1)
Exile and Captivity
280(1)
Return to Jerusalem and the Second Temple
281(1)
Box: Zoroastrianism
282(1)
CULTURAL CONFLICT DURING THE SECOND-TEMPLE ERA
283(3)
The Seleucid Period
283(1)
Responses to Outside Influences
284(2)
THE DEVELOPMENT OF RABBINICAL JUDAISM
286(5)
The Canon of Scripture and the Talmud
286(2)
Islam and Medieval Judaism
288(1)
The Kabbalah
289(1)
Christianity and Medieval Judaism
290(1)
QUESTIONING AND REFORM
291(1)
JUDAISM AND THE MODERN WORLD
292(3)
Hitler and the Holocaust
293(1)
Creation of the State of Israel
294(1)
PERSONAL EXPERIENCE: A VISIT TO ANNE FRANK'S HOUSE
295(2)
JEWISH BELIEF
297(1)
RELIGIOUS PRACTICE
298(7)
The Jewish Sabbath
298(1)
Holy Days
299(3)
Jewish Dietary Practices
302(1)
Other Religious Practices
303(2)
DIVISIONS WITHIN CONTEMPORARY JUDAISM
305(5)
Culturally Based Divisions
305(2)
Observance-Based Divisions
307(3)
THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF JUDAISM
310(4)
JEWISH IDENTITY AND THE FUTURE OF JUDAISM
314(1)
RELIGION BEYOND THE CLASSROOM
314(1)
FOR FULLER UNDERSTANDING
315(1)
RELATED READINGS
315(1)
KEY TERMS
316(3)
9 Christianity
319(82)
FIRST ENCOUNTER
319(2)
Box: The Christian System of Chronology: B.C. and A.D.
321(1)
THE LIFE AND TEACHINGS OF JESUS
321(7)
Jesus in the New Testament Gospels
324(3)
The Two Great Commandments
327(1)
EARLY CHRISTIAN BELIEFS AND HISTORY
328(10)
Paul and Pauline Christianity
329(3)
The New Testament: Its Structure and Artistry
332(1)
Box: The Books of the New Testament
333(5)
THE ESSENTIAL CHRISTIAN WORLDVIEW
338(4)
THE EARLY SPREAD OF CHRISTIANITY
342(3)
INFLUENCES ON CHRISTIANITY AT THE END OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE
345(4)
Augustine
345(1)
Benedict and the Monastic Ideal
346(3)
THE EASTERN ORTHODOX CHURCH
349(4)
Early Development
350(1)
Monasticism in the Eastern Church
350(1)
Eastern Orthodox Beliefs
351(2)
Box: Inside a Greek Orthodox Church
353(1)
PERSONAL EXPERIENCE: INSIDE THE MONASTERIES ON MOUNT ATHOS
353(2)
CHRISTIANITY IN THE MIDDLE AGES
355(5)
Christian Mysticism
356(1)
The Crusades, the Inquisition, and the Founding of Religious Orders
357(2)
The Late Middle Ages
359(1)
THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION
360(7)
Martin Luther
362(1)
Box: Essential Beliefs of Protestant Christianity
363(1)
Forms of Protestantism
364(3)
THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHRISTIANITY FOLLOWING THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION
367(6)
The Catholic Reformation (Counter Reformation)
367(1)
The International Spread of Christianity
368(1)
Box: Essential Beliefs of Catholic Christianity
369(1)
Nontraditional Christianity
370(3)
CHRISTIAN PRACTICE
373(7)
Sacraments and Other Rituals
373(4)
The Christian Year
377(2)
Devotion to Mary
379(1)
CHRISTIANITY AND THE ARTS
380(9)
Architecture
380(4)
Art
384(3)
Music
387(2)
CHRISTIANITY FACES THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY
389(7)
The Challenge of Science
389(2)
Contemporary Influences and Developments
391(5)
RELIGION BEYOND THE CLASSROOM
396(1)
FOR FULLER UNDERSTANDING
397(1)
RELATED READINGS AND MUSICAL RECORDINGS
397(1)
KEY TERMS
398(3)
10 Islam
401(54)
FIRST ENCOUNTER
401(1)
THE LIFE AND TEACHINGS OF MUHAMMAD
402(6)
ESSENTIALS OF ISLAM
408(14)
The Five Pillars of Islam
410(6)
Additional Islamic Religious Practices
416(1)
Box: The Islamic Religious Calendar
417(4)
Scripture: The Qur'an
421(1)
THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF ISLAM
422(5)
Expansion and Consolidation
422(2)
The Shiite and Sunni Division within Islam
424(3)
SUFISM: ISLAMIC MYSTICISM
427(5)
Sufi Beliefs
427(2)
Al-Ghazali and Sufi Brotherhoods
429(1)
Sufi Practice and Poetry
430(2)
PERSONAL EXPERIENCE: RAMADAN IN MOROCCO
432(2)
ISLAMIC LAW AND PHILOSOPHY
434(4)
Islamic Law and Legal Institutions
435(1)
Islamic Philosophy
436(2)
ISLAM AND THE ARTS
438(7)
Architecture
438(2)
Fine Art
440(5)
ISLAM AND THE MODERN WORLD
445(7)
Islam and Contemporary Life
445(3)
Box: Women in Islam: Contrasting Notions of Liberation
448(1)
Islam in the West and Beyond
449(3)
RELIGION BEYOND THE CLASSROOM
452(1)
FOR FULLER UNDERSTANDING
452(1)
RELATED READINGS
453(1)
KEY TERMS
453(2)
11 The Religious Search in the Modern World
455(35)
FIRST ENCOUNTER
455(1)
MODERN INFLUENCES ON THE FUTURE OF RELIGION
456(16)
The New World Order
457(2)
Multiculturalism and Interfaith Dialogue
459(1)
Box: Religion and Rock Music
460(2)
Women's Rights Movements
462(2)
Reassessment of Human Sexuality
464(3)
Science and Technology
467(2)
Secularism
469(3)
Environmentalism
472(1)
THE RECURRING CHALLENGE OF CHANGE
472(1)
NATURISM: A NEW RELIGIOUS PHENOMENON?
472(8)
ECLECTIC SPIRITUALITY
480(8)
Box: Religion and Movies
481(2)
Box: Religion and Pop Culture
483(5)
PERSONAL EXPERIENCE: 2001 AND BEYOND
488(1)
RELIGION BEYOND THE CLASSROOM
489(1)
FOR FULLER UNDERSTANDING
489(1)
RELATED READINGS
489(1)
NOTES 490(9)
CREDITS 499(2)
INDEX 501


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