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Experimental Methodology

by
Edition:
10th
ISBN13:

9780205393695

ISBN10:
0205393691
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2007
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon

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Summary

This text presents a reader-friendly introduction to the basic principles of experimental psychological research. Experimental Methodology is organized so that each chapter focuses on a specific step in the research process. This text provides an instruction in the experimental research and an introduction to non-experimental approaches such as ex-post facto research, correlational research, and survey research.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
CHAPTER 1 What Is Science? 1(29)
Chapter Preview
3(1)
Introduction
3(2)
Methods of Acquiring Knowledge
5(5)
Tenacity
5(1)
Intuition
6(1)
Authority
7(1)
Rationalism
8(1)
Empiricism
8(2)
Science
10(3)
Identifying the Problem
10(1)
Designing the Experiment
11(1)
Conducting the Experiment
11(1)
Analyzing the Data
12(1)
Communicating the Research Results
13(1)
Advantage of the Scientific Method
13(1)
Characteristics of the Scientific Approach
13(5)
Control
14(1)
Operationism
15(2)
Replication
17(1)
Objectives of Science
18(2)
Description
18(1)
Explanation
19(1)
Prediction
19(1)
Control
19(1)
Basic Assumption Underlying Science
20(2)
Reality in Nature
21(1)
Rationality
21(1)
Regularity
21(1)
Discoverability
21(1)
The Role of Theory in Science
22(1)
The Role of the Scientist in Science
23(3)
Curiosity
24(1)
Patience
24(1)
Objectivity
24(1)
Change
25(1)
Summary
26(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
27(1)
Related Internet Sites
27(1)
Practice Test
27(2)
Challenge Exercises
29(1)
CHAPTER 2 Nonexperimental Research Approaches 30(34)
Chapter Preview
32(1)
Introduction
32(1)
Nonexperimental Quantitative Research
33(18)
Correlational Study
34(2)
Ex Post Facto Study
36(2)
Longitudinal Study and Cross-Sectional Study
38(2)
Naturalistic Observation
40(2)
Meta Analysis
42(2)
The Survey
44(7)
Methods of Data Collection
47(1)
Questionnaire Construction
48(1)
Response Bias
49(2)
Qualitative Research
51(9)
Phenomenology
53(1)
Ethnography
54(4)
Ethnographic Methods
55(1)
Entry and Group Acceptance
55(1)
Data Collection, Analysis, Report Writing
56(2)
Case Study
58(2)
Summary
60(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
60(1)
Related Internet Sites
61(1)
Practice Tests
62(1)
Challenge Exercises
63(1)
CHAPTER 3 The Experimental Research Approach 64(20)
Chapter Preview
66(1)
Introduction
66(1)
Causation
66(6)
Cause
67(1)
Effect
67(1)
Causal Relationship
67(5)
The Psychological Experiment
72(6)
Advantages of the Experimental Approach
74(1)
Causal Inference
74(1)
Control
75(1)
Ability to Manipulate Variables
75(1)
Disadvantages of the Experimental Approach
75(3)
Does Not Test Effects of Nonmanipulated Variables
75(1)
Artificiality
76(1)
Inadequate Method of Scientific Inquiry
77(1)
Experimental Research Settings
78(2)
Field Experimentation
78(1)
Laboratory Experimentation
79(1)
Summary
80(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
81(1)
Related Internet Sites
81(1)
Practice Test
82(1)
Challenge Exercises
83(1)
CHAPTER 4 Problem Identification and Hypothesis Formation 84(28)
Chapter Preview
86(1)
Introduction
86(1)
Sources of Research Ideas
87(4)
Everyday Life
87(1)
Practical Issues
88(1)
Past Research
89(1)
Theory
90(1)
Gender Bias in Research Ideas
91(1)
Ideas Not Capable of Scientific Investigation
92(1)
Review of the Literature
92(11)
Getting Started
93(1)
Defining Objectives
94(1)
Doing the Search
94(7)
Books
94(1)
Psychological Journals
95(1)
Computerized or Electronic Databases
95(2)
Internet Resources
97(4)
Obtaining Resources
101(2)
Additional Information Sources
103(1)
Feasibility of the Study
103(2)
Formulating the Research Problem
105(1)
Defining a Research Problem
105(1)
Specificity of the Question
106(1)
Formulating Hypotheses
106(2)
Summary
108(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
109(1)
Related Internet Sites
109(1)
Practice Test
110(1)
Challenge Exercises
111(1)
CHAPTER 5 Ethics 112(50)
Chapter Preview
114(1)
Introduction
114(1)
Research Ethics: What Are They?
115(6)
Relationship between Society and Science
115(1)
Professional Issues
116(3)
Treatment of Research Participants
119(2)
Ethical Dilemmas
121(5)
Ethical Guidelines
126(6)
Respect for Persons and Their Autonomy
128(1)
Beneficence and Nonmaleficence
129(1)
Justice
130(1)
Trust
131(1)
Fidelity and Scientific Integrity
131(1)
APA Ethical Standards for Research
132(4)
Issues Raised by the APA Code of Ethics
136(14)
Institutional Approval
136(1)
Informed Consent
137(4)
Dispensing with Informed Consent
137(2)
Informed Consent and Minors
139(1)
Passive versus Active Consent
139(2)
Deception
141(5)
Debriefing
146(2)
Coercion and Freedom to Decline Participation
148(1)
Confidentiality versus Anonymity
149(1)
Ethics of Animal Research
150(7)
Animal Rights
150(3)
Alternatives to the Use of Animals
153(1)
Safeguards in the Use of Animals
153(1)
Animal Research Guidelines
154(3)
Summary
157(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
158(1)
Related Internet Sites
159(1)
Practice Test
159(1)
Challenge Exercises
160(2)
CHAPTER 6 Variables Used in Experimentation 162(32)
Chapter Preview
163(1)
Introduction
164(1)
Types of Variables
165(1)
The Independent Variable
166(10)
Variation
166(3)
Presence versus Absence
166(1)
Amount of a Variable
167(1)
Type of a Variable
168(1)
Establishing Variation in the Independent Variable
169(4)
Experimental Manipulation
170(2)
Individual Difference Manipulation
172(1)
Constructing the Independent Variable
173(2)
Number of Independent Variables
175(1)
The Dependent Variable
176(5)
Response to be Used as the Dependent Variable
178(1)
Reducing Participant Error
179(1)
Number of Dependent Variables
180(1)
Reliability and Validity of the Dependent and Independent Variables
181(9)
Reliability
182(3)
Reliability and the Independent Variable
182(1)
Reliability and the Dependent Variable
182(1)
Measurement Error
183(1)
Assessment of Reliability with Standardized Tests
184(1)
Validity
185(13)
Content Validity
186(1)
Criterion-Related Validity
186(1)
Construct Validity
187(3)
Summary
190(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
190(1)
Related Internet Sites
190(1)
Practice Test
191(1)
Challenge Exercises
192(2)
CHAPTER 7 Validity in Experimental Research 194(37)
Chapter Preview
196(1)
Introduction
196(1)
Statistical Conclusion Validity
197(1)
Internal Validity
198(9)
Threats to Internal Validity
199(8)
History
200(1)
Maturation
201(1)
Instrumentation
202(1)
Testing
202(1)
Regression Artifact
203(1)
Attrition
204(1)
Selection
205(1)
Additive and Interactive Effects
205(2)
Construct Validity
207(10)
Threats to Construct Validity
207(10)
Reactivity to the Experimental Situation
208(3)
Experimenter Effects
211(6)
External Validity
217(6)
Population Validity
218(2)
Ecological Validity
220(1)
Temporal Validity
221(1)
Treatment Variation Validity
222(1)
Outcome Validity
223(1)
Cautions in Evaluating the External Validity of Experiments
223(1)
Relationship between Internal and External Validity
224(1)
Summary
225(3)
Key Terms and Concepts
228(1)
Related Internet Sites
228(1)
Practice Test
228(2)
Challenge Exercise
230(1)
CHAPTER 8 Control Techniques 231(36)
Chapter Preview
233(1)
Introduction
233(1)
Randomization
234(6)
Matching
240(8)
Matching by Holding Variables Constant
240(2)
Matching by Building the Extraneous Variable into the Research Design
242(1)
Matching by Yoked Control
243(1)
Matching by Equating Participants
244(4)
Precision Control
244(2)
Frequency Distribution Control
246(2)
Counterbalancing
248(6)
Intrasubject Counterbalancing: The ABBA Technique
250(2)
Intragroup Counterbalancing
252(2)
Incomplete Counterbalancing
252(2)
Control of Participant Effects
254(4)
Double Blind Placebo Model
254(1)
Deception
255(1)
Procedural Control, or Control of Participant Interpretation
256(2)
Control of Experimenter Effects
258(4)
Control of Recording Errors
258(1)
Control of Experimenter Attribute Errors
259(1)
Control of Experimenter Expectancy Error
260(11)
The Blind Technique
260(1)
The Partial Blind Technique
261(1)
Automation
262(1)
Likelihood of Achieving Control
262(1)
Summary
263(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
264(1)
Related Internet Sites
264(1)
Practice Test
265(1)
Challenge Exercises
266(1)
CHAPTER 9 Experimental Research Design 267(32)
Chapter Preview
269(1)
Introduction
269(2)
Research Designs with Threats to Internal Validity
271(4)
One-Group Posttest-Only Design
271(1)
One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design
272(2)
Nonequivalent Posttest-Only Design
274(1)
Requirements of Experimental Research Designs
275(2)
Pretesting Participants
277(1)
Experimental Research Designs
278(15)
Posttest-Only Design
279(12)
Between-Participants Posttest-Only Design
279(10)
Within-Participants Posttest-Only Design
289(1)
Combining Between- and Within-Participants Designs
290(1)
Pretest-Posttest Design
291(2)
Choice of a Research Design
293(1)
Research Question
293(1)
Control
293(1)
Between-versus Within-Participants Design
293(1)
Summary
294(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
295(1)
Related Internet Sites
295(1)
Practice Test
296(1)
Challenge Exercises
297(2)
CHAPTER 10 Quasi-Experimental Designs 299(25)
Chapter Preview
301(1)
Introduction
301(2)
Nonequivalent Comparison Group Design
303(9)
Outcomes with Rival Hypotheses
306(1)
Outcome I: First Increasing Treatment Effect
306(3)
Outcome II: Increasing Treatment and Control Groups
309(1)
Outcome III: Second Increasing Treatment Effect
310(1)
Outcome IV: Crossover Effect
311(1)
Causal Inference from the Nonequivalent Comparison Group Design
311(1)
Time-Series Design
312(5)
Interrupted Time-Series Design
313(4)
Regression Discontinuity Design
317(3)
Summary
320(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
320(1)
Related Internet Sites
321(1)
Practice Test
321(1)
Challenge Exercises
322(2)
CHAPTER 11 Single-Case Research Designs 324(29)
Chapter Preview
326(1)
Introduction
326(3)
Single-Case Designs
329(14)
ABA Design
330(4)
Interaction Design
334(4)
Multiple-Baseline Design
338(3)
Changing-Criterion Design
341(2)
Methodological Considerations in Using Single-Case Designs
343(3)
Baseline
343(2)
Changing One Variable at a Time
345(1)
Length of Phases
345(1)
Criteria for Evaluating Change
346(2)
Experimental Criterion
346(1)
Therapeutic Criterion
346(2)
Rival Hypotheses
348(1)
Summary
349(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
350(1)
Related Internet Sites
350(1)
Practice Test
351(1)
Challenge Exercises
352(1)
CHAPTER 12 Data Collection 353(21)
Chapter Preview
355(1)
Introduction
355(1)
Research Participants
355(3)
Obtaining Animals (Rats)
356(1)
Obtaining Human Participants
356(2)
Gender Bias
358(1)
Sample Size
358(2)
Power
359(1)
Apparatus and/or Instruments
360(2)
Instructions
362(1)
Scheduling of Research Participants
363(1)
Procedure
364(1)
Pilot Study
364(1)
Institutional Approval
365(1)
Data Collection
366(1)
Consent to Participate
367(1)
Debriefing, or Postexperimental Interview
368(3)
Debriefing Functions
369(1)
How to Debrief
369(2)
Summary
371(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
372(1)
Related Internet Sites
372(1)
Practice Test
372(1)
Challenge Exercises
373(1)
CHAPTER 13 Hypothesis Testing 374(35)
Chapter Preview
376(1)
Introduction
376(1)
Testing the Hypothesis
377(2)
The Mean
379(1)
Standard Deviation
380(2)
Selection of a Statistical Test
382(1)
Independent Samples t-Test
383(1)
Significance Level
384(4)
Analysis of Variance
388(15)
One-Way Analysis of Variance
388(5)
Analysis of Variance Summary Table
393(1)
Interpreting the Results of the Analysis of Variance
394(1)
Two-Way Analysis of Variance
395(6)
Rejecting versus Failing to Reject the Null Hypothesis
401(2)
Potential Errors in the Statistical Decision-Making Process
403(2)
Summary
405(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
406(1)
Related Internet Sites
406(1)
Practice Test
406(1)
Challenge Exercise
407(2)
CHAPTER 14 The Research Report 409(54)
Introduction
410(2)
The APA Format
412(34)
Preparation of the Research Report
446(9)
Writing Style
446(2)
Language
448(2)
Specificity
448(1)
Labels
448(1)
Participation
448(1)
Specific Issues
449(1)
Editorial Style
450(5)
Italics
450(1)
Abbreviations
450(1)
Headings
450(1)
Quotations
451(1)
Numbers
451(1)
Physical Measurements
451(1)
Presentation of Statistical Results
451(1)
Tables
452(1)
Figures
453(1)
Figure Captions
453(1)
Reference Citations
454(1)
Reference List
454(1)
Typing
455(1)
Ordering of Manuscript Pages
455(1)
Submission of the Research Report for Publication
455(3)
Acceptance of the Manuscript
457(1)
Presenting Research Results at Professional Conferences
458(3)
Oral Presentation
458(1)
Poster Presentation
459(2)
Summary
461(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
461(1)
Related Internet Sites
462(1)
Appendices 463(7)
A Answers to Practice Tests
464(1)
B Critical Values of t
465(1)
C The 5 Percent and 1 Percent Values for the F-Distribution
466(3)
D Table of Random Numbers
469(1)
References 470(18)
Index 488


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