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Experimental Methodology

by
Edition:
10th
ISBN13:

9780205484737

ISBN10:
0205484735
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2007
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $152.40

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Summary

Larry Christensenrs"s Experimental Methodology, Tenth Edition, is a reader-friendly introduction to the basic principles of experimental psychological research. The text provides instruction in experimental research as well as non-experimental approaches such as ex-post facto research, correlational research, and survey research. Also included are qualitative research approaches such as ethnography and phenomenology. Features that facilitate student learning include chapter-opening vignettes that show the relevance of psychological research, study questions within each chapter, andend-of-chapter challenge questions. A short practice exam also is included at theend of each chapter to help students assess their comprehension. A student website includes additional practice exam questions, as well as web links and other study tools.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Introduction to Scientific Research
1(36)
Chapter Preview
3(1)
Introduction
3(2)
Methods of Acquiring Knowledge
5(5)
Tenacity
5(1)
Intuition
6(1)
Authority
7(1)
Rationalism
7(1)
Empiricism
8(2)
Science
10(5)
Induction
10(1)
Hypothesis Testing
11(1)
Naturalism
12(1)
Kuhn and Paradigms
12(1)
Lakatos and Research Programs
12(1)
Feyerabend's Anarchists Theory of Science
13(1)
What Is Science?
14(1)
Pseudoscience
15(4)
Overuse of ad hoc Hypotheses to Escape Refutation
16(1)
Emphasis on Confirmation Rather Than Refutation
16(1)
Absence of Self-Correction
17(1)
Reversed Burden of Proof
17(1)
Overreliance on Testimonials and Anecdotal Evidence
17(1)
Use of Obscurantist Language
18(1)
Absence of ``Connectivity'' with Other Disciplines
18(1)
Advantage of Scientific Research
19(1)
Characteristics of Scientific Research
19(5)
Control
20(1)
Operationalism
21(2)
Replication
23(1)
Objectives of Scientific Research
24(2)
Description
24(1)
Explanation
25(1)
Prediction
25(1)
Control
25(1)
Basic Assumptions Underlying Scientific Research
26(2)
Reality in Nature
26(1)
Rationality
27(1)
Regularity
27(1)
Discoverability
27(1)
The Role of Theory in Scientific Research
28(1)
The Role of the Scientist in Research
29(8)
Curiosity
29(1)
Patience
30(1)
Objectivity
30(1)
Change
31(1)
Summary
31(2)
Key Terms and Concepts
33(1)
Related Internet Sites
33(1)
Practice Test
34(1)
Challenge Exercises
35(2)
Nonexperimental Research Approaches
37(36)
Chapter Preview
39(1)
Introduction
39(1)
Nonexperimental Quantitative Research
40(19)
Correlational Study
41(2)
Ex Post Facto Study
43(2)
Longitudinal Study and Cross-Sectional Study
45(2)
Naturalistic Observation
47(3)
Meta Analysis
50(1)
The Survey
51(3)
Methods of Data Collection
54(2)
Questionnaire Construction
56(2)
Response Bias
58(1)
Obtaining Participants
58(1)
Qualitative Research
59(14)
Phenomenology
62(1)
Ethnography
63(1)
Ethnographic Methods
63(1)
Entry and Group Acceptance
64(1)
Data Collection, Analysis, Report Writing
65(1)
Case Study
66(2)
Summary
68(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
69(1)
Related Internet Sites
69(1)
Practice Test
70(1)
Challenge Exercises
71(2)
The Experimental Research Approach
73(22)
Chapter Preview
75(1)
Introduction
75(1)
Causation
75(6)
Cause
76(1)
Effect
76(1)
Causal Relationship
76(5)
The Psychological Experiment
81(6)
Advantages of the Experimental Approach
83(1)
Causal Inference
83(1)
Control
84(1)
Ability of Manipulate Variables
84(1)
Disadvantages of the Experimental Approach
85(1)
Does Not Test Effects of Nonmanipulated Variables
85(1)
Artificiality
85(1)
Inadequate Method of Scientific Inquiry
86(1)
Experimental Research Settings
87(8)
Field Experimentation
87(2)
Laboratory Experimentation
89(1)
Internet Experiments
90(1)
Summary
91(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
92(1)
Related Internet Sites
92(1)
Practice Test
92(1)
Challenge Exercises
93(2)
Problem Identification and Hypothesis Formation
95(30)
Chapter Preview
97(1)
Introduction
97(1)
Sources of Research Ideas
98(5)
Everyday Life
98(1)
Practical Issues
99(1)
Past Research
100(1)
Theory
101(2)
Gender Bias in Research Ideas
103(1)
Ideas Not Capable of Scientific Investigation
103(1)
Review of the Literature
104(12)
Getting Started
105(1)
Defining Objectives
105(1)
Doing the Search
105(1)
Books
105(1)
Psychological Journals
106(1)
Computerized or Electronic Databases
106(4)
Internet Resources
110(5)
Obtaining Resources
115(1)
Additional Information Sources
115(1)
Feasibility of the Study
116(1)
Formulating the Research Problem
117(2)
Defining a Research Problem
117(1)
Specificity of the Question
118(1)
Formulating Hypotheses
119(6)
Summary
121(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
122(1)
Related Internet Sites
122(1)
Practice Test
122(1)
Challenge Exercises
123(2)
Ethics
125(56)
Chapter Preview
127(1)
Introduction
127(1)
Research Ethics: What Are They?
128(7)
Relationship between Society and Science
128(2)
Professional Issues
130(3)
Treatment of Research Participants
133(2)
Ethical Dilemmas
135(5)
Ethical Guidelines
140(5)
Respect for Persons and Their Autonomy
141(1)
Beneficence and Nonmaleficence
142(1)
Justice
143(1)
Trust
144(1)
Fidelity and Scientific Integrity
145(1)
APA Ethical Standards for Research
145(4)
Ethical Issues to Consider When Conducting Research
149(19)
Institutional Approval
149(1)
Informed Consent
150(1)
Dispensing with Informed Consent
150(2)
Informed Consent and Minors
152(1)
Passive versus Active Consent
153(2)
Deception
155(4)
Debriefing
159(2)
Coercion and Freedom to Decline Participation
161(1)
Confidentiality, Anonymity, and the Concept of Privacy
162(1)
Ethical Issues in Electronic Research
163(1)
Informed Consent and Internet Research
164(1)
Privacy and Internet Research
165(1)
Debriefing and Internet Research
165(1)
Ethical Issues in Preparing the Research Report
166(1)
Authorship
166(1)
Writing the Research Report
167(1)
Ethics of Animal Research
168(3)
Animal Rights
168(2)
Alternatives to the Use of Animals?
170(1)
Safeguards in the Use of Animals
171(1)
Animal Research Guidelines
171(10)
Summary
175(2)
Key Terms and Concepts
177(1)
Related Internet Sites
177(1)
Practice Test
177(1)
Challenge Exercises
178(3)
Variables Used in Experimentation
181(23)
Chapter Preview
182(1)
Introduction
183(1)
Types of Variables
184(1)
The Independent Variable
185(10)
Variation
185(1)
Presence versus Absence
185(1)
Amount of a Variable
186(1)
Type of a Variable
187(1)
Establishing Variation in the Independent Variable
188(1)
Experimental Manipulation
189(2)
Individual Difference Manipulation
191(1)
Constructing the Independent Variable
192(2)
Number of Independent Variables
194(1)
The Dependent Variable
195(9)
Response to be Used as the Dependent Variable
197(1)
Reducing Participant Error
198(1)
Number of Dependent Variables
199(1)
Summary
200(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
201(1)
Related Internet Sites
201(1)
Practice Test
201(1)
Challenge Exercises
202(2)
Reliability and Validity in Experimental Research
204(27)
Chapter Preview
206(1)
Introduction
206(1)
Relationship between Reliability and Validity
207(1)
Experimental Reliability
208(7)
Reliability and the Number and Identification of the Participants
208(1)
Reliability and the Ability and Characteristics of the Researcher
209(1)
Reliability and the Independent Variable
210(1)
Reliability and the Dependent Variable
210(1)
Measurement Error
211(2)
Methods of Assessing Reliability
213(1)
Successive Measurement
213(1)
Simultaneous Measurement
214(1)
Internal Consistency
214(1)
Experimental Validity
215(1)
Statistical Conclusion Validity
216(1)
Internal Validity
217(14)
Threats to Internal Validity
218(1)
History
219(1)
Maturation
220(1)
Instrumentation
221(1)
Testing
221(1)
Regression Artifact
222(1)
Attrition
223(1)
Selection
224(1)
Additive and Interactive Effects
224(1)
Summary
225(2)
Key Terms and Concepts
227(1)
Related Internet Sites
227(1)
Practice Test
228(1)
Challenge Exercise
229(2)
Construct and External Validity in Experimental Research
231(30)
Chapter Preview
232(1)
Introduction
233(1)
Construct Validity
233(21)
Assessing Construct Validity
234(1)
Content Validity
235(1)
Criterion-Related Validity
236(1)
Other Sources of Evidence of Construct Validity
236(1)
Threats to Construct Validity
237(1)
Reactivity to the Experimental Situation
238(3)
Experimenter Effects
241(6)
External Validity
247(1)
Population Validity
248(3)
Ecelogical Validity
251(1)
Temporal Validity
251(2)
Treatment Variation Validity
253(1)
Outcome Validity
253(1)
Cautions in Evaluating the External Validity of Experiments
254(1)
Relationship between Internal and External Validity
255(6)
Summary
256(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
257(1)
Related Internet Sites
258(1)
Practice Test
258(1)
Challenge Exercise
259(2)
Control Techniques
261(36)
Chapter Preview
263(1)
Introduction
263(1)
Randomization
264(6)
Matching
270(13)
Matching by Holding Variables Constant
270(2)
Matching by Building the Extraneous Variable into the Research Design
272(1)
Matching by Yoked Control
273(1)
Matching by Equating Participants
274(1)
Precision Control
274(2)
Frequency Distribution Control
276(1)
Counterbalancing
277(2)
Intrasubject Counterbalancing: The ABBA Technique
279(2)
Intragroup Counterbalancing
281(1)
Incomplete Counterbalancing
282(1)
Control of Participation Effects
283(4)
Double Blind Placebo Model
284(1)
Deception
285(1)
Procedural Control, or Control of Participant Interpretation
286(1)
Control of Experimenter Effects
287(5)
Control of Recording Errors
288(1)
Control of Experimenter Attribute Errors
288(2)
Control of Experimenter Expectancy Error
290(1)
The Blind Technique
290(1)
The Partial Blind Technique
290(1)
Automation
291(1)
Likelihood of Achieving Control
292(5)
Summary
292(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
293(1)
Related Internet Sites
294(1)
Practice Test
294(1)
Challenge Exercises
295(2)
Experimental Research Design
297(31)
Chapter Preview
299(1)
Introduction
299(2)
Research Designs with Threats to Internal Validity
301(4)
One-Group Posttest-Only Design
301(1)
One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design
302(1)
Nonequivalent Posttest-Only Design
303(2)
Requirements of Experimental Research Designs
305(2)
Pretesting Participants
307(1)
Experimental Research Designs
308(14)
Posttest-Only Design
308(1)
Between-Participants Posttest Only Design
309(9)
Within-Participants Posttest-Only Design
318(1)
Combining Between- and Within-Participants Designs
319(2)
Pretest--Posttest Design
321(1)
Choice of a Research Design
322(6)
Research Question
322(1)
Control
322(1)
Between- versus Within-Participants Design
323(1)
Summary
324(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
324(1)
Related Internet Sites
325(1)
Practice Test
325(1)
Challenge Exercises
326(2)
Quasi-Experimental Designs
328(25)
Chapter Preview
330(1)
Introduction
330(2)
Nonequivalent Comparison Group Design
332(10)
Outcomes with Rival Hypotheses
335(1)
Outcome I: First Increasing Treatment Effect
335(3)
Outcome II: Increasing Treatment and Control Groups
338(1)
Outcome III: Second Increasing Treatment Effect
339(1)
Outcome IV: Crossover Effect
340(1)
Casual Inference from the Nonequivalent Comparison Group Design
341(1)
Time-Series Design
342(4)
Interrupted Time-Series Design
342(4)
Regression Discontinuity Design
346(7)
Summary
349(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
350(1)
Related Internet Sites
350(1)
Practice Test
350(1)
Challenge Exercises
351(2)
Single-Case Research Designs
353(29)
Chapter Preview
355(1)
Introduction
355(3)
Single-Case Designs
358(14)
ABA Design
359(4)
Interaction Design
363(4)
Multiple-Baseline Design
367(3)
Changing-Criterion Design
370(2)
Methodological Considerations in Using Single-Case Designs
372(3)
Baseline
373(1)
Changing One Variable at a Time
374(1)
Length of Phases
374(1)
Criteria for Evaluating Change
375(2)
Experimental Criterion
375(1)
Therapeutic Criterion
375(2)
Rival Hypotheses
377(5)
Summary
378(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
379(1)
Related Internet Sites
379(1)
Practice Test
380(1)
Challenge Exercises
381(1)
Data Collection
382(23)
Chapter Preview
384(1)
Introduction
384(1)
Research Participants
384(4)
Obtaining Animals (Rats)
385(1)
Obtaining Human Participants
385(3)
Gender Bias
388(1)
Sample Size
388(2)
Power
389(1)
Apparatus and/or Instruments
390(2)
Instructions
392(1)
Scheduling of Research Participants
393(1)
Procedure
394(1)
Pilot Study
394(1)
Institutional Approval
395(2)
Data Collection
397(1)
Consent to Participate
397(1)
Debriefing, or Postexperimental Interview
398(7)
Debriefing Functions
399(1)
How to Debrief
399(2)
Summary
401(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
402(1)
Related Internet Site
402(1)
Practice Test
402(1)
Challenge Exercise
403(2)
Data Analysis
405(39)
Chapter Preview
407(1)
Introduction
408(1)
Testing the Hypothesis
409(1)
The Mean
410(1)
Standard Deviation
411(2)
Selection of a Statistical Test
413(2)
Independent Samples t-Test
415(1)
Significance Level
416(3)
Analysis of Variance
419(14)
One-Way Analysis of Variance
419(5)
Analysis of Variance Summary Table
424(1)
Interpreting the Results of the Analysis of Variance
425(1)
Two-Way Analysis of Variance
426(5)
Rejecting versus Failing to Reject the Null Hypothesis
431(2)
Potential Errors in the Statistical Decision-Making Process
433(2)
Correlation
435(9)
Computation of Correlation
435(2)
Interpretation of Correlation
437(1)
Summary
438(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
439(1)
Related Internet Sites
440(1)
Practice Test
440(1)
Challenge Exercises
441(3)
The Research Report
444(52)
Introduction
445(3)
The APA Format
448(31)
Preparation of the Research Report
479(9)
Writing Style
479(2)
Language
481(1)
Specificity
481(1)
Labels
481(1)
Participation
481(1)
Specific Issues
481(1)
Editorial Style
482(1)
Italics
483(1)
Abbreviation
483(1)
Headings
483(1)
Quotations
484(1)
Numbers
484(1)
Physical Measurements
484(1)
Presentation of Statistical Results
484(1)
Tables
485(1)
Figures
485(1)
Figure Captions
485(1)
Reference Citations
485(2)
Reference List
487(1)
Typing
488(1)
Ordering of Manuscript Pages
488(1)
Submission of the Research Report for Publication
488(2)
Acceptance of the Manuscript
490(1)
Presenting Research Results at Professional Conferences
490(6)
Oral Presentation
491(1)
Poster Presentation
492(2)
Summary
494(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
494(1)
Related Internet Sites
495(1)
Appendixes
496(7)
A. Answers to Practice Tests
497(1)
B. Critical Values of t
498(1)
C. The 5 Percent and 1 Percent Values for the F-Distribution
499(3)
D. Table of Random Numbers
502(1)
References 503(16)
Index 519


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