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Extensively revised and updated in its fifth edition, Exploring Philosophy: An Introductory Anthology is a uniquely accessible and engaging introduction to philosophy. Steven M. Cahn brings together exceptionally clear recent essays by noted philosophers and supplements them with influential historical sources. Most importantly, the articles have been carefully edited to make them understandable to every reader. The readings are enhanced by concise introductions, study questions, explanatory notes, and suggestions for further reading. While most other widely used introductory philosophy anthologies contain fewer than five articles authored by women, Exploring Philosophy, Fifth Edition, includes more than thirty, thus reflecting the major role of women in contemporary philosophy.
Steven M. Cahn is Professor of Philosophy at The City University of New York Graduate Center. He is the author or editor of fifty books. Most recently, he wrote From Student to Scholar: A Candid Guide to Becoming a Professor (2008) and coauthored Polishing Your Prose: How to Turn First Drafts intoFinished Work (2013). Dr. Cahn is the editor of Political Philosophy, Third Edition (2014) and Exploring Ethics, Third Edition (2013), and coeditor of Ethics, Fifth Edition (2011), all published by Oxford University Press.
Table of Contents
*=New to this Edition 1. INTRODUCTION What Is Philosophy?, Monroe C. Beardsley and Elizabeth Lane Beardsley The Value of Philosophy, Bertrand Russell Historical Source Defence of Socrates, Plato 2. REASONING The Scope of Logic, Wesley C. Salmon Improving Your Thinking, Stephen F. Barker * Necessary and Sufficient Conditions, Steven M. Cahn * Thinking to Some Purpose, L. Susan Stebbing * Pushover Arguments, Scott F. Aikin and Robert B. Talisse Fixing Belief, Morris R. Cohen and Ernest Nagel Scientific Inquiry, Carl G. Hempel * Antiscientism, Gillian Barker and Philip Kitcher 3. KNOWLEDGE * Caring and Epistemic Demands, Linda Zagzebski What Is Knowledge?, A. J. Ayer Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?, Edmund L. Gettier Conditions for Knowledge, Robert Nozick Appearance and Reality, Bertrand Russell What Can I Know?, D. Z. Phillips The Problem of Induction, Bertrand Russell Induction Without a Problem, P. F. Strawson * Puzzling Out Knowledge, Susan Haack Historical Sources Meditations on First Philosophy, René Descartes An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, John Locke A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge, George Berkeley An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, David Hume Critique of Pure Reason, Immanuel Kant 4. MIND The Ghost in the Machine, Gilbert Ryle Body and Soul, Richard Taylor * The Mind-Body Problem, Paul M. Churchland What Is It Like to Be a Bat?, Thomas Nagel * The Qualia Problem, Frank Jackson Knowing What It's Like, David Lewis Computing Machinery and Intelligence, Alan Turing Do Computers Think?, John Searle * The Body Problem, Barbara Montero Historical Source Meditations on First Philosophy, René Descartes 5. FREE WILL Free Will, Thomas Nagel Free Will and Determinism, W. T. Stace Free Will or Determinism?, Steven M. Cahn The Principle of Alternative Possibilities, Harry G. Frankfurt The Capacities of Agents, Neil Levy Historical Sources An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, David Hume The Dilemma of Determinism, William James 6. GOD Does God Exist?, Ernest Nagel Why God Allows Evil, Richard Swinburne * The Desires of the Heart, Eleonore Stump Pascal's Wager, Simon Blackburn * Assessing Pascal's Wager, Linda Zagzebski * The Problem of Hell, Marilyn McCord Adams Faith and Reason, Michael Scriven The Hiddenness of God, Robert McKim * God and Forgiveness, Anne Minas * God and Morality, Steven M. Cahn Historical Sources The Ontological Argument, Anselm and Gaunilo Summa Theologiae, Thomas Aquinas Natural Theology, William Paley Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, David Hume The Wager, Blaise Pascal The Will to Believe, William James 7. IDENTITY AND IMMORTALITY A Case of Identity, Brian Smart The Problem of Personal Identity, John Perry * The Unimportance of Identity, Derek Parfit Life After Death, Terence Penelhum Do We Need Immortality?, Grace M. Jantzen Historical Sources An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, John Locke A Treatise of Human Nature, David Hume Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man, Thomas Reid 8. MORAL THEORY How Not to Answer Moral Questions, Tom Regan * Moral Isolationism, Mary Midgley * The Nature of Ethical Disagreement, Charles L. Stevenson * The Rationality of Moral Action, Philippa Foot Kant's Ethics, Onora O'Neill Assessing Utilitarianism, Louis P. Pojman A Supreme Moral Principle?, Steven M. Cahn Virtue Ethics, Bernard Mayo The Ethics of Care, Virginia Held Happiness and Morality, Christine Vitrano Existentialism, Jean-Paul Sartre Historical Sources Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, Immanuel Kant Utilitarianism, John Stuart Mill 9. MORAL PROBLEMS A Defense of Abortion, Judith Jarvis Thomson * On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion, Mary Anne Warren Why Abortion Is Immoral, Don Marquis * Virtue Theory and Abortion, Rosalind Hursthouse Active and Passive Euthanasia, James Rachels * The Intentional Termination of Life, Bonnie Steinbock Famine, Affluence, and Morality, Peter Singer World Hunger and Moral Obligation, John Arthur * The Case for Animal Rights, Tom Regan * Why Animals Have No Rights, Carl Cohen * Speaking of Animal Rights, Mary Anne Warren 10. SOCIETY * Two Concepts of Citizenship, Jean Hampton Democracy, John Dewey Letter from a Birmingham Jail, Martin Luther King, Jr. What Is a Liberal Education?, Sidney Hook * Cultivating Humanity, Martha Nussbaum * Proportional Representation, Celia Wolf-Devine * Facing Facts and Responsibilities, Karen Hanson * What Good Am I?, Laurence Thomas * Five Faces of Oppression, Iris Marion Young Historical Sources Crito, Plato On Liberty, John Stuart Mill Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844, Karl Marx 11. SOCIAL JUSTICE A Theory of Justice, John Rawls Distributive Justice, Robert Nozick The Idea of Justice, Amartya Sen Non-contractual Society: A Feminist View, Virginia Held Historical Sources The Republic, Plato Leviathan, Thomas Hobbes Second Treatise of Government, John Locke 12. ART The Role of Theory in Aesthetics, Morris Weitz Interpreting Poetry, Charles L. Stevenson Fearing Fictions, Kendall Walton * The Aesthetic Appreciation of Nature, Marcia M. Eaton Historical Sources The Republic, Plato Poetics, Aristotle 13. LIFE AND DEATH * The Trolley Problem, Judith Jarvis Thomson * Turning the Trolley, Judith Jarvis Thomson Death, Thomas Nagel * The Badness of Death, Shelly Kagan * The Afterlife, Samuel Scheffler * How the Afterlife Matters, Harry G. Frankfurt * The Significance of Doomsday, Susan Wolf Historical Sources Phaedo, Plato Writings, Epicurus The Handbook, Epictetus 14. THE MEANING OF LIFE The Meaning of Life, Richard Taylor Meaning in Life, Susan Wolf Meaningless Lives?, Christine Vitrano * Philosophy and the Meaning of Life, Robert Nozick